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Canada Day

Canada Day is the national day of Canada. A federal statutory holiday, it celebrates the anniversary of July 1, 1867, the effective date of the Constitution Act, 1867, which united the three separate colonies of the Province of Canada, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick into a single Dominion within the British Empire called Canada. Called Dominion Day, the holiday was renamed in 1982, the year the Canada Act was passed. Canada Day celebrations take place throughout the country, as well as in various locations around the world, attended by Canadians living abroad. Canada Day is informally referred to as "Canada's birthday" in the popular press. However, the term "birthday" can be seen as an oversimplification, as Canada Day is the anniversary of only one important national milestone on the way to the country's full independence, namely the joining on July 1, 1867, of the colonies of Canada, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick into a wider British federation of four provinces. Canada became a "kingdom in its own right" within the British Empire known as the Dominion of Canada.

Although still a British colony, Canada gained an increased level of political control and governance over its own affairs, the British parliament and Cabinet maintaining political control over certain areas, such as foreign affairs, national defence, constitutional changes. Canada gained increasing independence over the years, notably with the passage of the Statute of Westminster in 1931, until becoming independent with the passing of the Constitution Act, 1982 which served to patriate the Canadian constitution. Under the federal Holidays Act, Canada Day is observed on July 1, unless that date falls on a Sunday, in which case July 2 is the statutory holiday. Celebratory events will still take place on July 1 though it is not the legal holiday. If it falls on a weekend, businesses closed that day dedicate the following Monday as a day off; the enactment of the British North America Act, 1867, which confederated Canada, was celebrated on July 1, 1867, with the ringing of the bells at the Cathedral Church of St. James in Toronto and "bonfires and illuminations, military displays and musical and other entertainments", as described in contemporary accounts.

On June 20 of the following year, Governor General the Viscount Monck issued a royal proclamation asking for Canadians to celebrate the anniversary of Confederation, the holiday was not established statutorily until May 15, 1879, when it was designated as Dominion Day, alluding to the reference in the British North America Act to the country as a dominion. The holiday was not dominant in the national calendar. No larger celebrations were held until 1917 and none again for a further decade—the gold and diamond anniversaries of Confederation, respectively. In 1946, Philéas Côté, a Quebec member of the House of Commons, introduced a private member's bill to rename Dominion Day as Canada Day; the bill was passed by the lower chamber but was stalled by the Senate, which returned it to the Commons with the recommendation that the holiday be renamed The National Holiday of Canada, an amendment that killed the bill. Beginning in 1958, the Canadian government began to orchestrate Dominion Day celebrations.

That year Prime Minister John Diefenbaker requested that Secretary of State Ellen Fairclough put together appropriate events, with a budget of $14,000. Parliament was traditionally in session on July 1, but Fairclough persuaded Diefenbaker and the rest of the federal Cabinet to attend. Official celebrations thereafter consisted of Trooping the Colour ceremonies on Parliament Hill in the afternoon and evening, followed by a mass band concert and fireworks display. Fairclough, who became Minister of Citizenship and Immigration expanded the bills to include performing folk and ethnic groups; the day became more casual and family oriented. Canada's centennial in 1967 is seen as an important milestone in the history of Canadian nationalism and in Canada's maturing as a distinct, independent country, after which Dominion Day became more popular with average Canadians. Into the late 1960s, nationally televised, multi-cultural concerts held in Ottawa were added and the fête became known as Festival Canada.

After 1980, the Canadian government began to promote celebrating Dominion Day beyond the national capital, giving grants and aid to cities across the country to help fund local activities. Some Canadians were, by the early 1980s, informally referring to the holiday as Canada Day, a practice that caused some controversy: Proponents argued that the name Dominion Day was a holdover from the colonial era, an argument given some impetus by the patriation of the Canadian constitution in 1982, others asserted that an alternative was needed as the term does not translate well into French. Conversely, numerous politicians and authors, such as Robertson Davies, decried the change at the time and some continue to maintain that it was illegitimate and an unnecessary break with tradition. Others claimed Dominion was misunderstood and conservatively inclined commenters saw the change as part of a much larger attempt by Liberals to "re-brand" or re-define Canadian history. Columnist Andrew Cohen called Canada Day a term of "crushing banality" and criticized it as "a renunciation of the past a misreading of history

Gaspar de Vigodet

Gaspar de Vigodet was a Spanish military officer with French roots who served as last Royalist Governor of Montevideo. De Vigodet participated in the Great Siege of Gibraltar in 1783 and fought in the War of the Pyrenees in 1793, where he was promoted to Mariscal de campo, he was in command of a division in the lost battles of Ocana. By the end of 1811, he was made Governor of Montevideo, to stop the advance of the Independentist rebels forces of Río de la Plata. By October 1812 the entire region was under control of the rebels, except for the city of Montevideo itself, besieged. On December 31, Vigodet was defeated in the Battle of Cerrito. Supplied from over the sea, the city still held out until May 17, 1814, when the naval victories of Admiral William Brown, cut off the supply route and the city faced starvation. By the end of June, Vigodet was forced to surrender Montevideo to General Carlos María de Alvear; the following years he stayed in Río de Janeiro, where he tried to take revenge on Alvear, exiled to this city, due to political differences.

In 1820 he returned to Spain where he became capitán general of Castille, member of the Liberal Regency during the Trienio Liberal. When King Ferdinand VII of Spain was restored in 1823, de Vigodet went into exile in France, from where he could only return in 1834, after the death of the King. Second Siege of Montevideo Dissolution of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata

Limonada (album)

Limonada is the fourth studio album by singer-songwriter Kany García. The album was released on May 20, 2016, it debuted at number one on the United States Billboard Top Latin Albums chart, selling over 2,000 copies in its first week. The album subsequently became García's first number one album; the album remained at the top of the charts for 2 straight weeks. Garcia talks about the album, "Limonada is the most refreshing beverage and this is the most refreshing album that I have made; the album is about having a positive outlook in life, how you can fight your battles making the best lemonade with the lemons life gives you in this journey.” Info: "Perfecto Para Mi""Como Decirle""Aqui" feat. Abel Pintos. Garcia played a 5 date tour to support the album between January 2017 and July 2017, she played one date in each venue.