Canadian Army

The Canadian Army is the command responsible for the operational readiness of the conventional ground forces of the Canadian Armed Forces. As of 2018 the Army has 23,000 regular soldiers, about 19,000 reserve soldiers, including 5,000 rangers, for a total of 40,000 soldiers; the Army is supported by 3,000 civilian employees. It maintains regular forces units at bases across Canada, is responsible for the Army Reserve, the largest component of the Primary Reserve; the Commander of the Canadian Army and Chief of the Army Staff is Lieutenant-General Wayne Eyre. The name "Canadian Army" came into official use beginning only in 1940. On 1 April 1966, as a precursor to the unification of Canada's armed services, all land forces, plus RCAF tactical units, were placed under a new command called Force Mobile Command; the "Canadian Army" persisted as a legal entity for two more years, before it amalgamated with the Royal Canadian Navy, Royal Canadian Air Force to form a single service called the Canadian Armed Forces.

Force Mobile Command was renamed Mobile Command in 1991-2, Land Force Command in 1993. In August 2011, Land Force Command reverted to the pre-1968 title of the Canadian Army. Prior to Confederation in 1867, the British Army, which included both "Fencible" Regiments of the British Army—recruited within British North America for service in North America—and Canadian militia units, was responsible for the defence of Canada; some current regiments of the Canadian Army trace their origins to these pre-Confederation militia and Fencible units. Following the passage of the Militia Act of 1855, the Permanent Active Militia was formed, in decades several regular bodies of troops were created, their descendants becoming the Royal Canadian Horse Artillery, the Royal Canadian Dragoons, the Royal Canadian Regiment. Regular Canadian troops participated in the North West Rebellion in 1885, Second Boer War, and, in much larger numbers, constituted the Canadian Expeditionary Force in First World War. In 1940, during Second World War, the Permanent Active Militia was renamed the Canadian Army, supplemented by the Non-Permanent Active Militia, named the Canadian Army.

The Army participated in the Korean War and formed part of the NATO presence in West Germany during the Cold War. In the years following its unification with the navy and air force in 1968, the size of Canada's land forces was reduced, but Canadian troops participated in a number of military actions with Canada's allies, including the Gulf War in 1991 and the invasion of Afghanistan in 2001, as well as peacekeeping operations under United Nations auspices in various parts of the world. Despite Canada's usual support of British and American initiatives, Canada's land forces did not directly participate in the Vietnam War or the Iraq War. Command of the Army is exercised by the Commander of the Canadian Army within National Defence Headquarters located in Ottawa; the Army is divided into four force generating divisions based on geography. The single force employing division, 1st Canadian Division, is part of the Canadian Joint Operations Command and is not under the command of the Canadian Army.

It serves as a deployable headquarters to command a divisional-level deployment of Canadian or allied forces on operations, succeeding the previous Canadian Joint Forces HQ. In addition to the four regional command areas, the Canadian Army Doctrine and Training Centre called Land Force Doctrine and Training System, commanded by a major-general and headquartered at McNaughton Barracks, CFB Kingston, Ontario, is responsible for the supervision and delivery of Army training and doctrine development, including simulation and digitization, it includes a number of schools and training organizations, such as the Combat Training Centre at CFB Gagetown, New Brunswick, the Canadian Manoeuvre Training Centre at CFB Wainwright, Alberta. Canadian infantry and armoured regimental traditions are rooted in the traditions and history of the British Army. Many regiments were patterned after regiments of the British Army, a system of official "alliances", or affiliations, was created to perpetuate a sense of shared history.

Other regiments developed independently, resulting in a mixture of both colourful and familiar names. Other traditions such as battle honours and colours have been maintained by Canadian regiments as well; the senior appointment within the Canadian Army was Chief of the General Staff until 1964 when the appointment became Commander, Mobile Command in advance of the unification of Canada's military forces. The position was renamed Chief of the Land Staff in 1993. Following the reversion of Land Forces to the Canadian Army in 2011, the position became Commander of the Canadian Army. Officers are selected in several ways: The Regular Officer Training Plan, where candidates are educated at the Royal Military College of Canada or at civilian Canadian universities. Direct Entry Officer Plan, for those who hold a university degree or technology diploma. Continuing Education Officer Training Plan, addresses shortages in certain officer occupations, is intended to attract candidates who are otherwise qualified for service as officers, but who lack a degree.

Candidates complete their degrees while serving in the Army. University Training Plan, designed to develop selected serving non-commissioned members for service as career officers in the Regular Force. Normal

Wally Wales

Wally Wales was an American film actor who appeared in many films under the name Hal Taliaferro. He appeared in more than 220 films between 1921 and 1964. Wally Wales was born in Wyoming, he was raised near Birney in Rosebud County, Montana. Young Floyd's first "outside" job was on a cattle drive for John B. Kendrick, he drove a tourist stage for the Buffalo Bill Stage line before drifting west in 1915 ending up in Los Angeles where he went to work as a wrangler on Universal's Ranch. In 1917 he served in the American Expeditionary Forces in France. From 1921 through 1928 he appeared in twenty-two silent films, starring in many under the name Wally Wales, in 1929 made the successful transition to sound. Subsequently, his star faded and he began appearing in much smaller roles as Hal Taliaferro, he retired from films in the early 1950s and returned to the family ranch, now known as the Bones Brothers Ranch. He lived out his remaining active years painting landscapes, he died in a Sheridan, Wyoming nursing home from complications of a stroke and pneumonia in 1980, at age 84.

Wally Wales on IMDb

Cyclopentyl methyl ether

Cyclopentyl methyl ether known as methoxycyclopentane, is hydrophobic ether solvent. A high boiling point of 106 °C and preferable characteristics such as low formation of peroxides, relative stability under acidic and basic conditions, formation of azeotropes with water coupled with a narrow explosion range render CPME an alternative to other ethereal solvents such as tetrahydrofuran, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, 1,2-dimethoxyethane; the synthesis of this compound can be done in two different ways: by methylation of the cyclopentanol. By the addition of methanol to the cyclopentene; this second method is better from the point of view of sustainable chemistry since it does not produce by-products. Cyclopentyl methyl ether is used in organic synthesis as a solvent; however it is useful in extraction, polymerization and surface coating. Some examples of reactions where it acts as a solvent are: Reactions involving alkali agents: nucleophilic substitutions of heteroatoms Lewis acids-mediated reactions: Beckmann Reaction, Friedel-Crafts Reaction etc.

Reactions using Organometallic reagents or basic agents: Claisen condensation, formation of enolates or Grignard reaction. Reduction and oxidation. Reactions with transition metal catalysts. Reactions with azeotropical removal of water: acetalization, etc