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Canadian Prairies

The Canadian Prairies is a region in Western Canada. It includes the Canadian portion of the Great Plains and the Prairie Provinces, namely Alberta and Manitoba; these provinces are covered by grasslands and lowlands in the southern regions. The northernmost reaches of the Canadian Prairies are less well known, they are marked by more variable topology. If the region is defined to include areas only covered by prairie land, the corresponding region is known as the Interior Plains. Geographically, the Canadian prairies extend to northeastern British Columbia, but this province is not included in a political manner; the prairies in Canada are a temperate grassland and shrubland biome within the prairie ecoregion of Canada that consists of northern mixed grasslands in Alberta, southern Manitoba, as well as northern short grasslands in southeastern Alberta and southwestern Saskatchewan. The prairie ecozone of Canada includes the northern tall grasslands in southern Manitoba and Aspen parkland, which covers central Alberta, central Saskatchewan, southern Manitoba.

The Prairie starts from north of Edmonton and it covers the three provinces in a southward-slanting line east to the Manitoba-Minnesota border. The prairie is the most dominant land cover in Alberta and the least in Manitoba, since boreal forest covers a large area of Manitoba. Alberta has the most land classified as prairie, while Manitoba has the least, as the boreal forest begins more southerly in Manitoba than in Alberta; the core climate of the Canadian prairie region is defined as a semi-arid climate and is based upon the Köppen climate classification system. This type of classification encompasses five main climate types, with several categoric subtypes based on the precipitation pattern of the region; the majority of the prairie provinces experience snowy humid continental climates with cool summers known as class Dfc on the Köppen climate scale. The southern-most regions of the prairies tend to experience humid continental climates with warm summers, Dfb. A trifling section surrounding the Alberta-Saskatchewan border has been classified as Bsk, semi-cold and arid climate.

Precipitation events in the Canadian prairies are important to study as these locations make up 80% of the country's agricultural production. On average, 454 mm of precipitation falls on the prairies each year. Out of the three prairie provinces, Saskatchewan obtains the least amount of precipitation annually, with Manitoba receiving the most at 486 mm. Most rainfall happens in the summer months such as June and July. With the high humidity of the prairies, tornadoes are to occur—marking central Saskatchewan and southern Manitoba as high probability areas. 72% of tornadoes in Canada are seen across the prairies due to the capability of summer thunderstorm precipitation to mechanically mix with the air adjacent to the flat surface of the region. Although the Prairie Provinces region is named for the prairies located within Alberta and Manitoba, the physical geography of the three provinces is quite diverse, consisting of portions of the Canadian Shield, the Western Cordillera and the Canadian Interior Plains.

The plains comprise both prairies and forests while, with the exception of freshwater along the Hudson Bay, the shield is predominantly forested. Three main grassland types occur in the Canadian prairies: tallgrass prairie, mixed grass prairie, fescue prairie; each has a unique geographic characteristic mix of plant species. All but a fraction of one percent of the tallgrass prairie has been converted to cropland. What remains occurs on the 6,000 km2 plain centred in the Red River Valley in Manitoba. Mixed prairie is more common and is part of the dry interior plains that extend from Canada south to the U. S. state of Texas. More than half of the remaining native grassland in the Canadian prairies is mixed. Though widespread in southern Saskatchewan and southeastern Alberta, because of extensive cattle grazing, it is estimated that only 24% of the original mixed prairie grassland remains. Fescue prairie occurs in the moister regions, occupying the northern extent of the prairies in central and southwestern Alberta and west-central Saskatchewan.

The southwestern Canadian prairies, supporting brown and black soil types, are semi-arid and prone to frequent and severe droughts. The zones around the cities of Regina and east of Calgary are very dry. Most heavy precipitation dissipates by the time it passes Cheadle on its way heading east. In an average year, southern Saskatchewan receives between 30–51 cm of precipitation, with the majority falling between April and June. Frost from October to April limits the growing season for certain crops; the eastern section of the Canadian prairies in Manitoba is well watered with several large lakes such as Lake Winnipeg and several large rivers. The area gets reasonable amounts of precipitation; the middle sections of Alberta and Saskatchewan are wetter than the south and have better farmland, despite having a shorter frost-free season. The areas around Edmonton and Saskatoon are notable as good farmland. Both lie in the northern area of the Palliser's Triangle, are within aspen parkland a transitional prairie ecozone.

Further north, the area becomes too cold for most agriculture besides wild rice operations and sheep raising, it is dominated by boreal forest. The Peace Region in northwestern Alberta is an exception, however, it lies north of the 55th Par

Patricia Potter

Patricia Caroline Potter is an English actress. Best known for her role as Diane Lloyd in the popular BBC medical drama Holby City, Potter has acted on stage, in film, she married her partner, doctor Jim Down, in May 2007. Potter grew up on a farm in Kent with her father, her mother and her sister, Kate, she refers to her parents as "the most hard-working and genuine people I know." Discussing her decision to become an actress, she has stated that "It was the only thing I was any good at school and I was lucky enough to have a encouraging teacher." A graduate of the London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art, Potter married her partner, doctor Jim Down, on 19 May 2007. In 2006, Potter ran the Flora London Marathon for the Anthony Nolan Trust in 4:53:54, raising over £3,000 for the charity, she said of the experience: "That was my first and my last marathon, I admire anyone who does these runs on a regular basis. It's been difficult to train with the work schedule at Holby and so again, I do appreciate the hard work that goes in to the marathon."

She sang "Can't Help Loving That Man of Mine" and "The Way You Look Tonight" at co-star Tina Hobley's wedding in December 2006. In early October 2009, Potter gave birth to twins. On stage, Potter has appeared in theatrical versions of The Duchess of Malfi, Much Ado About Nothing, Happy End, her first television role came in 1997, when she played a florist in the third series of ITV drama Soldier Soldier. Potter has appeared in The Bill and the Scarlet Pimpernel, as well as the film Shakespeare in Love, she played herself in Ricky Gervais's comedy Extras as an ex-girlfriend of Gervais' character Andy Millman. She said of the role: "It was quite frightening leaving the security of the Holby environment which I know so well and going onto a new set but it was a fantastic experience which I enjoyed."After leaving Holby City, Potter appeared in BBC One sitcom Jam and Jerusalem, before returning to theatre with the play An Eligible Man. She said of the transition: "I'm in a strange state somewhere between excitement and terror!

It's been a long time since I was last on stage so I was worried that I would find it difficult and frightening but it's been great fun and I've enjoyed the rehearsal process. We had our first preview last night, quite an adrenaline rush!" Potter's most notable role to date was that of Diane Lloyd in BBC medical drama Holby City. While researching for the Casualty spin off, she witnessed open heart surgery to enhance her role as a medical employee, deeming the experience "fascinating", stating: "I think I'd have made a good surgeon in real life as I'm careful and fussy about making my stitches perfect!" On her favourite storyline in the show, she has explained: "Although it was sad, I enjoyed Steve's departure from the show – the added trauma of the abortion and Diane's relationship with Steve meant that Diane showed some vulnerability – she's very strong – and I enjoyed having a good cry. It was great to be involved in Alex's Parkinson storyline." Of her former cast members, Potter has said: "Everyone is fun to work with here – we're all lucky to be amongst such lovely people.

I work most with Hugh Quarshie, brilliant so I'm extra lucky." In October 2006, Potter announced her intention to leave the show after four years. "I have enjoyed and am still enjoying my time on Holby, I've had some fantastic storylines, but after 4 years on the show I felt it was time to move on to other projects. I wanted to move. You have to weigh up if it's worth leaving a job that you enjoy to face the unknown". Potter undertook the following roles from her screen and televisual debut in 1993, to the present day. Official Patricia Potter website Patricia Potter on IMDb

Christian Gerlach

Hans Christian Gerlach is professor of Modern History at the University of Bern. Gerlach is Associate Editor of the Journal of Genocide Research and author of multiple books dealing with the Hunger Plan and genocide, his books include "Krieg, Ernährung, Volkermord: Forschungen zur Deutschen Vernichtungspolitik im Zweiten Weltkrieg". Gerlach's article, "Extremely Violent Societies: An Alternative to the Concept of Genocide" has been the subject of great debate among scholars of genocide and violence. In the article, Gerlach challenges the model utilized in trying to understand genocide. Gerlach has stirred intense debate among Holocaust historians with his thesis surrounding December 12, 1941 as the date on which Adolf Hitler made the decision to annihilate the Jews of Europe. Gerlach is known by his critical attitude towards the national conservative resistance in Nazi Germany. According to Gerlach, the resistance offered by officers such as Claus von Stauffenberg and Henning von Tresckow, who were responsible for the assassination attempt on Hitler on 20 July 1944, was insincere and, in fact and many other resistance fighters were implicated in national socialist war crimes Gerlach's thesis was criticized by a number of scholars, among them Peter Hoffmann from McGill University and Klaus Jochen Arnold, from the Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung, a political party foundation associated with the Christian Democratic Union of Germany.

Other historians agree with Gerlach's findings. For example, the research by Johannes Hürter, a historian at the Institute for Contemporary History in Munich, confirms the culpability of the staff of Army Group Center in war crimes and Nazi atrocities. In his work, "Auf dem Weg zur Militaeropposition: Tresckow, der Vernichtungskrieg und der Judenmord", Huerter analyzes documents on the relationship of Army Group Centre with the Einsatzgruppe B in 1941, he concludes that Tresckow and his circle of conspirators within the Army Group Center were well informed about the mass murder of Jews following Operation Barbarossa and provided required cooperation. Their National-conservative ideology was aligned with the Nazi regime in its anti-Communism, accompanied by racial prejudice against Slavs and Jews. Only when it became apparent that the defeat was imminent, that Germany would be held responsible for its genocidal policies, did so-called ethical considerations came into play, he finds. Christian Gerlach in the German National Library catalogue Curriculum Vitae - Present Position, Books, Awards