Western Canada

Western Canada referred to as the Western provinces and more known as the West, is a region of Canada that includes the four provinces of Alberta, British Columbia and Saskatchewan. British Columbia is culturally, economically and politically distinct from the other parts of Western Canada and is referred to as the "west coast" or "Pacific Canada", while Alberta and Manitoba are grouped together as the Prairie Provinces and most known as "The Prairies"; the capital cities of the four western provinces, from west to east, are Victoria, Edmonton and Winnipeg. With the exception of Winnipeg, the largest city in Manitoba, all other provincial capitals of the Western Provinces are located in the second-largest metropolitan areas of their respective province. Western Canada is the traditional territory of numerous First Nations predating the arrival of Europeans; as Britain colonized the west, it established treaties with various First Nations, took control of other areas without opposition and fought with other First Nations to take control of Western Canada.

Not all lands were ceded by the First Nations to British control and land claims are still ongoing. In 1858, the British government established the Colony of British Columbia, governing that part of Canada still known as British Columbia; the British government established the Hudson's Bay Company which controlled most of the current area of Western Canada, northern Ontario and northern Quebec, the area known as Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory. In 1870, the British government transferred the lands of the company to Canada; the area of Western Canada not within British Columbia was established as the Northwest Territories under Canadian control. The Western Canadian provinces other than British Columbia were established from areas of the Northwest Territories: Manitoba established as a province of Canada in 1870, following the enacting of the Manitoba Act. British Columbia: Under terms that Canada would absorb the colony's debt, would begin to subsidize public work, would begin to construct a railway allowing travel from British Columbia to Ontario, British Columbia agreed to join Canadian confederation in 1871.

Saskatchewan: Established as province in 1905, with the implementation of the Saskatchewan Act. Alberta: In 1905, the same year as Saskatchewan, Alberta was established as province. Just like Saskatchewan had the Saskatchewan Act, Alberta had the Alberta Act; as of the 2016 Census, the total population of Western Canada was nearly 11.1 million, including 4.65 million in British Columbia, 4.07 million in Alberta, 1.1 million in Saskatchewan, 1.28 million in Manitoba. This represents 31.5% of Canada's population. While Vancouver serves as the largest metropolitan area in Western Canada at nearly 2.5 million people, Calgary serves as the largest municipality at over 1.2 million people. As of the 2016 Census, Statistics Canada recognized ten census metropolitan areas within Western Canada, including four in British Columbia, three in Alberta, two in Saskatchewan, one in Manitoba; the following is a list of these areas and their populations as of 2016. From 2011 to 2016, the fastest growing CMAs in the country were the five located in Alberta and Saskatchewan: Calgary, Saskatoon and Lethbridge.

These were the only CMAs in the country to register growth over 10%. The three fastest growing CMAs - Calgary and Saskatoon - were unchanged from the previous intercensal period. Western Canada consists of the country's four westernmost provinces: British Columbia, Alberta and Manitoba, it covers 2.9 million square kilometres – 29% of Canada's land area. British Columbia adjoins the Pacific Ocean to the west, while Manitoba has a coastline on Hudson Bay in its northeast of the province. Both Alberta and Saskatchewan are landlocked between British Manitoba; the Canadian Prairies are part of a vast sedimentary plain covering much of Alberta, southern Saskatchewan, southwestern Manitoba. The prairies form a significant portion of the land area of Western Canada; the plains describes the expanses of flat, arable agricultural land which sustain extensive grain farming operations in the southern part of the provinces. Despite this, some areas such as the Cypress Hills and Alberta Badlands are quite hilly and the prairie provinces contain large areas of forest such as the Mid-Continental Canadian forests.

In Alberta and British Columbia, the Canadian Cordillera is bounded by the Rocky Mountains to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. The Canadian Rockies are part of a major continental divide that extends north and south through western North America and western South America; the continental divide defines much of the border between Alberta and British Columbia. The Columbia and the Fraser Rivers have their headwaters in the Canadian Rockies and are the second- and third-largest rivers to drain to the west coast of North America. To the west of their headwaters, across the Rocky Mountain Trench, is a second belt of mountains, the Columbia Mountains, comprising the Selkirk, Purcell and Cariboo Mountains sub-ranges; the coast of British Columbia enjoys a moderate oceanic climate because of the influence of the Pacific Ocean, with temperatures similar to those of the British Isles. Winters are wet and summers dry; these areas enjoy the mildest winter weather in all of Canada, as temperatures fall much below the freezing mark.

The mountainous Interior of

HIV/AIDS research

HIV/AIDS research includes all medical research that attempts to prevent, treat, or cure HIV/AIDS, as well as fundamental research about the nature of HIV as an infectious agent and AIDS as the disease caused by HIV. A body of scientific evidence has shown that men who are circumcised are less to contract HIV than men who are uncircumcised. Research published in 2014, concludes that the sex hormones estrogen and progesterone selectively impact HIV transmission. "Pre-exposure prophylaxis" refers to the practice of taking some drugs before being exposed to HIV infection, having a decreased chance of contracting HIV as a result of taking that drug. Post-exposure prophylaxis refers to taking some drugs after being exposed to HIV, while the virus is in a person's body but before the virus has established itself. In both cases, the drugs would be the same as those used to treat persons with HIV, the intent of taking the drugs would be to eradicate the virus before the person becomes irreversibly infected.

Post-exposure prophylaxis is recommended in anticipated cases of HIV exposure, such as if a nurse somehow has blood-to-blood contact with a patient in the course of work, or if someone without HIV requests the drugs after having unprotected sex with a person who might have HIV. Pre-exposure prophylaxis is sometimes an option for HIV-negative persons who feel that they are at increased risk of HIV infection, such as an HIV-negative person in a serodiscordant relationship with an HIV-positive partner. Current research in these agents include drug development, efficacy testing, practice recommendations for using drugs for HIV prevention; the within-host dynamics of HIV infection include the spread of the virus in vivo, the establishment of latency, the effects of immune response on the virus, etc. Early studies used simple models and only considered the cell-free spreading of HIV, in which virus particles bud from an infected T cell, enter the blood/extracellular fluid, infect another T cell.

A 2015 study proposes a more realistic model of HIV dynamics that incorporates the viral cell-to-cell spreading mechanism, where the virus is directly transited from one cell to another, as well as the T cell activation, the cellular immune response, the immune exhaustion as the infection progresses. HIV binds to immune cell surface receptors, including CD 4 and CXCR4 or CD4 and CCR5; the binding causes conformation changes and results in the membrane fusion between HIV and cell membrane. Active infection occurs in most cells, while latent infection occurs in much fewer cells 1, 2 and at early stages of HIV infection. 9, 35 In active infection, HIV pro virus is active and HIV virus particles are replicated. Research to improve current treatments includes decreasing side effects of current drugs, further simplifying drug regimens to improve adherence, determining better sequences of regimens to manage drug resistance. There are variations in the health community in recommendations on what treatment doctors should recommend for people with HIV.

One question, for example, is determining when a doctor should recommend that a patient take antiretroviral drugs and what drugs a doctor may recommend. This field includes the development of antiretroviral drugs. Infection with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 is associated with clinical symptoms of accelerated aging, as evidenced by increased incidence and diversity of age-related illnesses at young ages. A significant age acceleration effect could be detected in brain and blood tissue due to HIV-1 infection with the help of a biomarker of aging, known as epigenetic clock. A long-term nonprogressor is a person, infected with HIV, but whose body, for whatever reason controls the virus so that the infection does not progress to the AIDS stage; such persons are of great interest to researchers, who feel that a study of their physiologies could provide a deeper understanding of the virus and disease. An HIV vaccine is a vaccine that would be given to a person who does not have HIV, in order to confer protection against subsequent exposures to HIV, thus reducing the likelihood that the person would become infected by HIV.

No effective HIV vaccine exists. Various HIV vaccines have been tested in clinical trials since the discovery of HIV. Only a vaccine is thought to be able to halt the pandemic; this is because a vaccine would cost less, thus being affordable for developing countries, would not require daily treatment. However, after over 20 years of research, HIV-1 remains a difficult target for a vaccine. In 2003 a clinical trial in Thailand tested an HIV vaccine called RV 144. In 2009, the researchers reported that this vaccine showed some efficacy in protecting recipients from HIV infection. Results of this trial give the first supporting evidence of any vaccine being effective in lowering the risk of contracting HIV. Other vaccine trials continue worldwide including a mosaic vaccine using an adenovirus 26 vector as well as a newer formulation of RV144 called HVTN 702. One recent trial was conducted by scientists at The Scripps Research Institute who found a way to attach HIV-fighting antibodies to immune cells, creating a HIV-resistant cell population.

A microbicide for sexually transmitted diseases is a gel which would be applied to the skin - a rectal microbicide for persons who engage in anal sex or a vaginal microbicide for persons who engage in vaginal sex - and if infected body fluid such as blood or semen were to touch the gel HIV in that fluid would be destroyed and the people having sex would be

Frolovsky District

Frolovsky District is an administrative district, one of the thirty-three in Volgograd Oblast, Russia. As a municipal division, it is incorporated as Frolovsky Municipal District, it is located in the center of the oblast. The area of the district is 3,210 square kilometers, its administrative center is the town of Frolovo. Population: 14,631 . Within the framework of administrative divisions, Frolovsky District is one of the thirty-three in the oblast; the town of Frolovo serves as its administrative center, despite being incorporated separately as a town of oblast significance—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, the district is incorporated as Frolovsky Municipal District, with the administrative center in the settlement of Prigorodny; the town of oblast significance of Frolovo is incorporated separately from the district as Frolovo Urban Okrug. Волгоградская областная Дума. Закон №139-ОД от 7 октября 1997 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Волгоградской области», в ред.

Закона №107-ОД от 10 июля 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в отдельные законодательные акты Волгоградской области в связи с приведением их в соответствие с Уставом Волгоградской области». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Волгоградская правда", №207, 1 ноября 1997 г.. Волгоградская областная Дума. Закон №1002-ОД от 14 февраля 2005 г. «Об установлении границ и наделении статусом Фроловского района и муниципальных образований в его составе», в ред. Закона №67-ОД от 4 июля 2013 г. «О внесении изменений в некоторые законодательные акты Волгоградской области по вопросам исключения из учётных данных отдельных населённых пунктов Волгоградской области». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Волгоградская правда", №34, 26 февраля 2005 г.. Волгоградская областная Дума. Закон №981-ОД от 24 декабря 2004 г. «Об установлении границ и наделении статусом города Фролово». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Волгоградская правда", №3, 12 января 2005 г