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Canadian dollar

The Canadian dollar is the currency of Canada. It is abbreviated with the dollar sign $, or sometimes CA$, Can$ or C$ to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies, it is divided into 100 cents. Owing to the image of a loon on the one-dollar coin, the currency is sometimes referred to as the loonie by English-speaking Canadians and foreign exchange traders and analysts, or as the huard by French-speaking Canadians. Accounting for 2% of all global reserves, the Canadian dollar is the fifth most held reserve currency in the world, behind the U. S. dollar, the euro, the yen and the pound sterling. The Canadian dollar is popular with central banks because of Canada's relative economic soundness, the Canadian government's strong sovereign position, the stability of the country's legal and political systems; the 1850s in Canada were a decade of debate over whether to adopt a sterling monetary system or a decimal monetary system based on the US dollar. The British North American provinces, for reasons of practicality in relation to the increasing trade with the neighbouring United States, had a desire to assimilate their currencies with the American unit, but the imperial authorities in London still preferred sterling as the sole currency throughout the British Empire.

The British North American provinces nonetheless adopted currencies tied to the American dollar. In 1841, the Province of Canada adopted a new system based on the Halifax rating; the new Canadian pound was equal to four US dollars, making one pound sterling equal to 1 pound, 4 shillings, 4 pence Canadian. Thus, the new Canadian pound was worth 5.3 pence sterling. In 1851, the Parliament of the Province of Canada passed an act for the purposes of introducing a pound sterling unit in conjunction with decimal fractional coinage; the idea was that the decimal coins would correspond to exact amounts in relation to the U. S. dollar fractional coinage. In response to British concerns, in 1853, an act of the Parliament of the Province of Canada introduced the gold standard into the colony, based on both the British gold sovereign and the American gold eagle coins; this gold standard was introduced with the gold sovereign being legal tender at £1 = US$​4.86 2⁄3. No coinage was provided for under the 1853 act.

Sterling coinage was made legal tender and all other silver coins were demonetized. The British government in principle allowed for a decimal coinage but held out the hope that a sterling unit would be chosen under the name of "royal". However, in 1857, the decision was made to introduce a decimal coinage into the Province of Canada in conjunction with the U. S. dollar unit. Hence, when the new decimal coins were introduced in 1858, the colony's currency became aligned with the U. S. currency, although the British gold sovereign continued to remain legal tender at the rate of £1 = ​4.86 2⁄3 right up until the 1990s. In 1859, Canadian colonial postage stamps were issued with decimal denominations for the first time. In 1861, Canadian postage stamps were issued with the denominations shown in cents. In 1860, the colonies of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia followed the Province of Canada in adopting a decimal system based on the U. S. dollar unit. Newfoundland went decimal in 1865, but unlike the Province of Canada, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, it decided to adopt a unit based on the Spanish dollar rather than on the U.

S. dollar, there was a slight difference between these two units. The U. S. dollar was created in 1792 on the basis of the average weight of a selection of worn Spanish dollars. As such, the Spanish dollar was worth more than the U. S. dollar, the Newfoundland dollar, until 1895, was worth more than the Canadian dollar. The Colony of British Columbia adopted the British Columbia dollar as its currency in 1865, at par with the Canadian dollar; when British Columbia joined Confederation in 1871, the Canadian dollar replaced the British Columbia dollar. In 1871, Prince Edward Island went decimal within the U. S. dollar unit and introduced coins for 1¢. However, the currency of Prince Edward Island was absorbed into the Canadian system shortly afterwards, when Prince Edward Island joined the Dominion of Canada in 1873. In 1867, the provinces of Canada, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia united in a federation named Canada and the three currencies were merged into the Canadian dollar; the Canadian Parliament passed the Uniform Currency Act in April 1871, tying up loose ends as to the currencies of the various provinces and replacing them with a common Canadian dollar.

The gold standard was temporarily abandoned during the First World War and definitively abolished on April 10, 1933. At the outbreak of the Second World War, the exchange rate to the U. S. dollar was fixed at C$1.10 = US$1.00. This was changed to parity in 1946. In 1949, sterling was devalued and Canada followed, returning to a peg of C$1.10 = US$1.00. However, Canada allowed its dollar to float in 1950, whereupon the currency rose to a slight premium over the U. S. dollar for the next decade. But the Canadian dollar fell after 1960 before it was again pegged in 1962 at C$1.00 = US$0.925. This was sometimes pejoratively referred to as the "Diefenbuck" or the "Diefendollar", after the Prime Minister, John Diefenbaker; this peg lasted with the currency's value being floated since then. Canadian English, like American English, used the slang term "buck" for a former paper dollar; the Canadian origin of this term derives from a coin struck by the Hudson's Bay Company during the 17th century with a value equal to the pelt of a male beaver – a "buck".

Because of the appearance of the common loon on the back of the $1 coin tha

1913 Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association football season

The 1913 Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association football season was the college football games played by the member schools of the Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association as part of the 1913 college football season. The season began on September 27. Conference play began that day with Alabama hosting Howard. Teams other than Vanderbilt had a chance to win a title, newspapers covered football more than the World Series for the first time. Fuzzy Woodruff says; the Auburn Tigers won the conference. Auburn captain Kirk Newell was a hero of World War I; the 1913 Tigers were retroactively recognized as a national champion by the Billingsley Report's alternative calculation which considers teams' margin of victory. Auburn does not claim the title. Tennessee won its first SIAA game since 1910. Ole Miss was suspended from SIAA play. SIAA teams in bold. HB - Bob McWhorter, Georgia The composite All-Southern team formed by the selection of 18 sporting writers culled by the Atlanta Constitution included: Woodruff, Fuzzy.

A History of Southern Football 1890–1928. 1

Prostitution in the State of Palestine

Prostitution in the State of Palestine is illegal, under Palestinian law. Ramallah has prostitution, but long-term abstinence is common, as premarital sex is seen as taboo in the territories. A 2009 report by the UN Development Fund for Women and SAWA-All the Women Together Today and Tomorrow, a Palestinian NGO, suggested that an increasing number of women turned to prostitution in the face of poverty and violence. Under Ottoman rule, there were no laws on prostitution. After coming under British control during WW1, the attitude of the Authorities towards prostitution reflected those of Britain. Ordinances were issued in 1925 and 1927 (under Herbert Plumer introduced laws on prostitution similar to those in Britain. Soliciting, living off the earnings of prostitutes and the keeping of brothels were outlawed. There is evidence that in WW2, military authorities regulated brothels for soldiers, including medical examinations. According to a report released in 2009, increasing numbers of women in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank had been forced into prostitution by traffickers and family members.

The report "Trafficking and Forced Prostitution of Palestinian Women and Girls: Forms of Modern Day Slavery" was supported by the UN Development Fund for Women and researched by "SAWA-All the Women Together Today and Tomorrow", a Palestinian NGO, during the first half of 2008. Honor killing "Trafficking and Forced Prostitution of Palestinian Women and Girls: Forms of Modern Day Slavery" UNIFEM 2008