Canals are waterways channels, or artificial waterways, for water conveyance, or to service water transport vehicles. They may help with irrigation, it can be thought of as an artificial version of a river. In most cases, the engineered works will have a series of dams and locks that create reservoirs of low speed current flow; these reservoirs are referred to as slack water levels just called levels. A canal is known as a navigation when it parallels a river and shares part of its waters and drainage basin, leverages its resources by building dams and locks to increase and lengthen its stretches of slack water levels while staying in its valley. In contrast, a canal cuts across a drainage divide atop a ridge requiring an external water source above the highest elevation. Many canals have been built at elevations towering over valleys and other water ways crossing far below. Canals with sources of water at a higher level can deliver water to a destination such as a city where water is needed; the Roman Empire's aqueducts were such water supply canals.

A navigation is a series of channels that run parallel to the valley and stream bed of an unimproved river. A navigation always shares the drainage basin of the river. A vessel uses the calm parts of the river itself as well as improvements, traversing the same changes in height. A true canal is a channel that cuts across a drainage divide, making a navigable channel connecting two different drainage basins. Most commercially important canals of the first half of the 19th century were a little of each, using rivers in long stretches, divide crossing canals in others; this is true for many canals still in use. Canals are an efficient way of traveling as it was easier for people to get to areas faster horse wagons. Both navigations and canals use engineered structures to improve navigation: weirs and dams to raise river water levels to usable depths. Since they cut across drainage divides, canals are more difficult to construct and need additional improvements, like viaducts and aqueducts to bridge waters over streams and roads, ways to keep water in the channel.

There are two broad types of canal: Waterways: canals and navigations used for carrying vessels transporting goods and people. These can be subdivided into two kinds:Those connecting existing lakes, other canals or seas and oceans; those connected in a city network: such as the Canal Grande and others of Venice Italy. Aqueducts: water supply canals that are used for the conveyance and delivery of potable water for human consumption, municipal uses, hydro power canals and agriculture irrigation. Canals were of immense importance to commerce and the development and vitality of a civilization. In 1855 the Lehigh Canal carried over 1.2 million tons of anthracite coal. The few canals still in operation in our modern age are a fraction of the numbers that once fueled and enabled economic growth, indeed were a prerequisite to further urbanization and industrialization. For the movement of bulk raw materials such as coal and ores are difficult and marginally affordable without water transport; such raw materials fueled the industrial developments and new metallurgy resulting of the spiral of increasing mechanization during 17th–20th century, leading to new research disciplines, new industries and economies of scale, raising the standard of living for any industrialized society.

The surviving canals including most ship canals, today service bulk cargo and large ship transportation industries, whereas the once critical smaller inland waterways conceived and engineered as boat and barge canals have been supplanted and filled in, abandoned and left to deteriorate, or kept in service and staffed by state employees, where dams and locks are maintained for flood control or pleasure boating. Their replacement was gradual, beginning first in the United States in the mid-1850s where canal shipping was first augmented by began being replaced by using much faster, less geographically constrained & limited, cheaper to maintain railways. By the early 1880s, canals which had little ability to economically compete with rail transport, were off the map. In the next couple of decades, coal was diminished as the heating fuel of choice by oil, growth of coal shipments leveled off. After World War I when motor-trucks came into their own, the last small U. S. barge canals saw a steady decline in cargo ton-miles alongside many railways, the flexibility and steep slope climbing capability of lorries taking over cargo hauling as road networks were improved, which had the freedom to make deliveries well away from rail lined road beds or ditches in the dirt which couldn't operate in the winter.

Canals are built in one of three ways, or a combination of the three, depending on available water and available path: Human made streamsA canal can be created where no stream presently exists. Either the body of the canal is dug or the sides of the canal are created by making dykes or levees by piling dirt, concrete or other building materials; the finished shape of the canal as seen in cross section is known as the canal prism. The water for the canal must be provided like streams or reservoirs. Where the new waterway must change elevation engineering works like locks, lifts or elevators are constructed to raise and lower vessels. Examples include canals that connect valleys over a higher body of land, like Canal du M

Italian health insurance card

The Italian health insurance card is a personal card which has replaced the Italian fiscal code card for all citizens entitled to benefits of the Italian National Health Service and fitted with tax code. Its rear side acts as a European Health Insurance Card; the Italian Health Insurance Card was issued for Italian citizens by the Italian Ministry of Economy and Finance in cooperation with the Italian Agency of Revenue in accordance with Article 50 of dl 269/2003, with amendments, by law 326/2003. The objective of the Italian Health Insurance Card is to improve social security services through expenditure control and performance, to optimize the use of health services by citizens, it contains biographical data and welfare information It contains the tax code on magnetic band format as well as barcode It is valid throughout Italy It grants the holder the right to obtain health services throughout the European Union Replaces the paper version, E111 Replace the Italian fiscal code card In the more recent version, with integrated circuit included, offers added functionalities as a smart card, able to access online service provided by public administrations.

This version is called Tessera Sanitaria-Carta Nazionale dei Servizi, or Tessera Sanitaria-Carta Regionale dei Servizi, the latter in the Autonomous regions with special statute. It is valid for six yearsThe material consists of a plastic card with identical size and consistency to a typical ATM card; the cards are printed on the front with the tax code, expiration date, biographical data, the distinctive coat of arms of the Italian region of residence. The front of the card includes Braille characters for the blind and an integrated circuit. On the back of the card is the tax code barcodes, the magnetic strip, the words, Tessera europea di assicurazione malattia, meaning "European health insurance card". From 1 January 2008 legislation came into force imposing an obligation to issue the "scontrino fiscale parlante" for the certification of medicines to be used for deducting expenses; the receipt shows the type of drugs purchased, in addition to the tax code reviews. To purchase medicine, it is necessary to supply your health insurance card or your Italian fiscal code card.

For information on the Italian health card, or Tessera sanitaria in Italian, you can call the following number, from within Italy, free of charge: 800 030 070 Prior to the end of September 2013, the people of the region of Lombardy might have been in possession of a document, called the, which had, in addition to a magnetic stripe, a smart chip to facilitate making payments in the form of a cash card. The CRS-SISS did differ aesthetically from the national health insurance cards in regards to colors, to the use of different graphics, different arrangement of text, in regards to the absence of the three characters in Braille to 6 points for the blind. Through special card reader, people could use the CRS-SISS to access online services provided by government; the CRS-SISS has been replaced by the smart card version of the national health insurance card. Official site of the Agenzia delle Entrate Official site of the Ministry of Health Decision of the Board defining characteristics of the card General information about the CRS-SISS Lombardia Region Official site of the CRS in Lombardy

Baat Ban Jaye

Baat Ban Jaye is a 1986 Hindi-language Indian feature film directed by Bharat Rangachary, starring Sanjeev Kumar, Mithun Chakraborty, Utpal Dutt, Raj Babbar, Zeenat Aman, Amol Palekar, Aruna Irani and Shakti Kapoor. This film is Inspired from the 1964 Hollywood film "What a way to go". Baat Ban Jaye is a comedy, featuring Sanjeev Kumar, Utpal Dutt, Raj Babbar, Zeenat Aman, Amol Palekar, Aruna Irani and Shakti Kapoor. Zeenat Aman plays a wealthy businesswoman who wants to marry a poor and honest man, her uncle, played by Utpal Dutt, tries to find a suitable match for her, with hilarious results. Sanjeev Kumar as Suraj Singh / Ravi Khanna Mithun Chakraborty as Prakash Utpal Dutt as Mr. Singh Raj Babbar as Vijay'Viju' Guide / Vijay Taqdeerwala Zeenat Aman as Nisha Singh Amol Palekar as Yeshwant Rao Bhonsle Neesha Singh as Rosy Jalal Agha as Advocate Bharat Sinha Adi Irani as Ajay Srivastav Aruna Irani as Aruna Chaudhary Jagdeep as Naqad Narayan / Pt. Chakravyuh Bhavishya Narayan Agnihotri Shakti Kapoor as Ravi / Ashok Khanna Imtiaz Khan as Jayant Amar Nath Viju Khote as Dr. Dharmadhikari Prema Narayan as Ghanshyam Rohera as Ghaniya - man assigned to set up a village Shammi as Prakash's neighbour Chachi Sudhir as Nisha's molestor Baat Ban Jaye on IMDb