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SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Cannabinoid

Cannabinoids are chemicals found in cannabis. The most notable cannabinoid is the phytocannabinoid tetrahydrocannabinol, the primary psychoactive compound in cannabis. Cannabidiol is another major constituent of the plant. There are at least 113 different cannabinoids exhibiting varied effects. Synthetic cannabinoids are manufactured artificially, they encompass a variety of distinct chemical classes: the classical cannabinoids structurally related to THC, the nonclassical cannabinoids including the aminoalkylindoles, 1,5-diarylpyrazoles and arylsulfonamides as well as eicosanoids related to endocannabinoids. Medical uses include the treatment of nausea due to chemotherapy and neuropathic pain. Common side effects include dizziness, confusion, dissociation and "feeling high". Before the 1980s, it was speculated that cannabinoids produced their physiological and behavioral effects via nonspecific interaction with cell membranes, instead of interacting with specific membrane-bound receptors; the discovery of the first cannabinoid receptors in the 1980s helped to resolve this debate.

These receptors are common in animals, have been found in mammals, birds and reptiles. At present, there are two known types of cannabinoid receptors, termed CB1 and CB2, with mounting evidence of more; the human brain has more cannabinoid receptors than any other G protein-coupled receptor type. CB1 receptors are found in the brain, more in the basal ganglia and in the limbic system, including the hippocampus and the striatum, they are found in the cerebellum and in both male and female reproductive systems. CB1 receptors are absent in the medulla oblongata, the part of the brain stem responsible for respiratory and cardiovascular functions. CB1 is found in the human anterior eye and retina. CB2 receptors are predominantly found in the immune system, or immune-derived cells with varying expression patterns. While found only in the peripheral nervous system, a report does indicate that CB2 is expressed by a subpopulation of microglia in the human cerebellum. CB2 receptors appear to be responsible for immunomodulatory and other therapeutic effects of cannabinoid as seen in vitro and in animal models.

The classical cannabinoids are concentrated in a viscous resin produced in structures known as glandular trichomes. At least 113 different cannabinoids have been isolated from the Cannabis plant To the right, the main classes of cannabinoids from Cannabis are shown; the best studied cannabinoids include tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabinol. All classes derive from cannabigerol-type compounds and differ in the way this precursor is cyclized; the classical cannabinoids are derived from their respective 2-carboxylic acids by decarboxylation. THC THCA CBD CBDA CBN CBG CBC CBL CBV THCV CBDV CBCV CBGV CBGM CBE CBT Tetrahydrocannabinol is the primary psychoactive component of the Cannabis plant. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol, through intracellular CB1 activation, induce anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol synthesis produced in the body and brain; these cannabinoids produce the effects associated with cannabis by binding to the CB1 cannabinoid receptors in the brain. Cannabidiol is non-psychotropic.

Recent evidence shows that the compound counteracts cognitive impairment associated with the use of cannabis. Cannabidiol has little affinity for CB1 and CB2 receptors but acts as an indirect antagonist of cannabinoid agonists, it was found to be an antagonist at the putative new cannabinoid receptor, GPR55, a GPCR expressed in the caudate nucleus and putamen. Cannabidiol has been shown to act as a 5-HT1A receptor agonist. CBD can interfere with the uptake of adenosine, which plays an important role in biochemical processes, such as energy transfer, it may play a role in suppressing arousal. CBD is the main cannabinoid in CBD-dominant Cannabis strains. CBD has been shown to play a role in preventing the short-term memory loss associated with THC. There is tentative evidence that CBD had an anti-psychotic effect, but research in this area is limited. Cannabinol is the primary product of THC degradation, there is little of it in a fresh plant. CBN content increases as THC degrades in storage, with exposure to light and air.

It is only mildly psychoactive. Its affinity to the CB2 receptor is higher than for the CB1 receptor. Cannabigerol still contributes to the overall effects of Cannabis. Tetrahydrocannabivarin is prevalent in certain central Asian and southern African strains of Cannabis, it is an antagonist of THC at CB1 receptors and lessens the psychoactive effects of THC. Although cannabidivarin is a minor constituent of the cannabinoid profile, enhanced levels of CBDV have been reported in feral cannabis plants from the northwest Himalayas, in hashish from Nepal. Cannabichromene is non-psychoactive and does not affect the psychoactivity of THC. CBC acts on the TRPV1 and TRPA1 receptors, interfering with their ability to break down endocannabinoids. CBC has shown antitumor effects in breast cancer xenoplants in mice. More common in tro

Leminda

Leminda is a genus of nudibranchs in the family Lemindidae. The one species in this genus of marine gastropod molluscs has so far only been found around the South African coast. Leminda has been considered as the only genus in the family Lemindidae Griffiths, 1985. Leminda is the type genus of the family Lemindidae; the body of these animals is robust and elevated, has a velum, or anterior veil. The margin of the mantle is held above the body; the foot is well-developed. The rhinophores are retract into smooth small sheaths; the radula arranged in multiple series with hook-shaped teeth. The digestive gland branches extensively into the mantle margin; the animal has no eyes. A bag used in copulation opens between the male and female reproductive openings The genus name comes from an adaptation of the describing author's daughter's name. There is only one species of Leminda described, the type species Leminda millecra Griffiths, 1985 from southern South Africa. Griffiths R. J. 1985. Description of a new South African Arminacean and the proposed re-instatement of the genus Atthila Bergh.

Annals of the South African Museum, 269-280

Cabinet Secretary of India

The Cabinet Secretary is the top-most executive official and senior-most civil servant of the Government of India. The Cabinet Secretary is the ex-officio head of the Civil Services Board, the Cabinet Secretariat, the Indian Administrative Service, all civil services under the rules of business of the government; the Cabinet Secretary is the senior-most cadre post of the Indian Administrative Service, ranking eleventh on the Indian order of precedence. The Cabinet Secretary is under the direct charge of the prime minister. Since 2010, the Cabinet Secretary's term length was extended to a maximum of four years; the precursor to the cabinet, the Executive Council of the Viceroy, used to have a Secretariat, headed by the Private Secretary of the Viceroy. At first, the role of this Secretariat was to take care of the paperwork related to the Executive Council but when the work of the individual departments under the Council increased, the work of the Secretariat too became more complex; the Private Secretary came to be known as the secretary of the secretariat.

And this post became more powerful over time as the Secretariat’s main role became coordinating the work of the departments. In 1946, the secretariat became the secretary became the Cabinet Secretary. After Independence in 1947, the functions of the Secretariat underwent major changes. A series of committees on economic and intelligence matters was constituted under the Cabinet Secretariat. Most of the departments created after Independence functioned under the Cabinet Secretariat and were seconded to the respective ministries; the position holder is accountable for ensuring that the civil service is equipped with the skills and capability to meet the everyday challenges it faces and that the civil servants work in a fair and decent environment. The following are the functions of the Cabinet Secretary: Heads the Cabinet Secretariat. Acts as the chief coordinator of the central government. Acts as the chairman of the Civil Services Board, which among other things, recommends empanelment of officers, for the ranks of secretary, additional secretary and joint secretary.

Act as the chairman of the Committee of Secretaries on Administration. Act as the chairman of the Conference of Chief Secretaries of States. Recommends postings of officers of the rank of secretary and additional Secretary to the Appointments Committee of the Cabinet. Acts as the chairman of Senior Selection Board, which recommends postings of officers of the rank of joint secretary in the Union Government to the Appointments Committee of the Cabinet. Acts as a senior adviser to the prime minister. Provide assistance to the Council of Ministers. Prepares the agenda of the cabinet and minutes its meetings. Provide an element of continuity and stability to administration during crises. In the Government of India Allocation of Business Rules, 1961, the Cabinet Secretariat finds a place in the First Schedule to the Rules; the subjects allotted to this Secretariat are, secretarial assistance to Cabinet and Cabinet Committees, secondly, the Administration of the Rules of Business. The Cabinet Secretariat is responsible for the administration of the Transaction of Business Rules, 1961 and the Allocation of Business Rules, 1961 of the Government of India, facilitating smooth transaction of business in ministries/departments of the Government by ensuring adherence to these rules.

The Secretariat assists in decision-making in Government by ensuring Inter-Ministerial coordination, ironing out differences amongst ministries/departments and evolving consensus through the instrumentality of the standing/ad hoc Committees of Secretaries. Through this mechanism, new policy initiatives are promoted; the Cabinet Secretariat ensures that the President of India, the Vice-President and Ministers are kept informed of the major activities of all departments by means of a monthly summary of their activities. Management of major crisis situations in the country and coordinating activities of the various ministries in such a situation is one of the functions of the Cabinet Secretariat; the Cabinet Secretariat comprises three wings: Civil and Intelligence. The Civil wing is considered to be the main wing and provides aid and assistance to the Union Cabinet; the purpose of having the Military wing is to have better coordination in Intelligence and to provide secretarial assistance to the Defence Committee of the Cabinet and the National Defence Council.

The Military wing is represented by an officer of the rank of major general, or its equivalents in the Indian Armed Forces, designated as a joint secretary in the Cabinet Secretariat. The Intelligence wing deals with matters pertaining to the Joint Intelligence Committee of the union cabinet; the chief of the Research and Analysis Wing officially first reports to the Cabinet Secretary, is designated Secretary in the Cabinet Secretariat. The First Administrative Reforms Commission found that the average tenure of the Cabinet Secretary was two years and eight months, considered to be inadequate, it recommended a tenure of three to four years. It wanted that Cabinet Secretary to act as the principal staff officer to the prime minister, the cabinet and the cabinet committees for important matters; as head of the Civil Services, the incumbent position holder is accountable for ensuring that the civil services are equipped with the skills and capability to meet the everyday challenges it faces and that civil servants work in a fair and decent environment.

The Cabinet Secretary is arguably India's most powerful bureaucrat and the right hand of the

Diego GutiƩrrez de la Caballeria

Diego de la Caballería, full name Don Diego Gutierrez de la Caballería spelled Don Diego Gutierrez de la Cavallería, was a Spanish pioneer and noble who took part in the colonization of New Spain in the 16th century. He traveled to the New World under the protection of his sister, Marina de la Caballería, became an influential part of New Spain's society, he was born to an influential family of New Christians. Marina's family were known as a converso family in the city, his mother was a member of the local nobility. His father, Juan Gutierrez de la Caballeria, was a supplier of the Order of Calatrava. Diego had five siblings. Despite his converso ancestry, Diego's family was granted purity of blood by the king of Aragon, in recognition of their loyal services as royal counselors. Thanks to this certificate, to his sister's marriage to New Spain's treasurer Alonso de Estrada, Diego was allowed to travel to the New World. There he was part of his sister's household for a brief time, before establishing himself on his own.

He received the rank of "poblador", which means "settler", granted him rights of citizenship in New Spain. His hard work to help develop the city, stabilize daily life and integrate with the local population gave him a prominent place in early New Spanish society, his daughter married the son of conqueror Alonso Pérez, which proves the importance, or at least the respect, he had acquired in local society if he had no known encomienda of his own. In 1537 he earned the title of "vecino" of the city, which granted him full citizenship rights and representation on the city council; the 1540 roster of the Coronado Expedition mentions him as the captain of cavalry, one of the six captains assisting Coronado. He became captain during the preparations of the expedition. Circumstances around him and his role in the expedition are a mystery: though he appears listed in the roster along with his six horses, he is not mentioned again in further documents by Coronado. A hypothesis for this is that Diego was one of the sponsors of the expedition, but was killed by natives in an ambush and never made it past Culicán

Mark E. Smith discography

The Post Nearly Man, Artful Pander Panda Panzer, Action Records Albums Tromatic Reflexxions, DominoSingles "Fledermaus Can't Get It", Domino "The Rhinohead/Slow Down Ronnie", Domino Albums Smith and Blaney, Voiceprint The Train Part Three, VoiceprintSingles "Real Good Time Together", Voiceprint "Transfusion", Voiceprint The Clint Boon Experience "You Can't Keep a Good Man Down" single Coldcut What's That Noise album – "I'm in Deep"Edwyn Collins I'm Not Following You, Setanta – "Seventies Night"D. O. S. E. Featuring Mark E. Smith "Plug Myself In", Coliseum – 2 CDs, 12" vinylGhostigital Iceland Airwaves'05 V/A album, Iceland Airwaves – "Not Clean" Gorillaz The Glitter Freeze "Plastic Beach", co-writer with Gorillaz. INCH featuring Mark E. Smith INCH EP, RegalJon the Postman Puerile album – Intro to "Louie Louie"Long Fin Killie "Heads of Dead Surfers" single – "Heads of Dead Surfers"Mouse on Mars Wipe That Sound EP, Sonig – "Cut the Gain", "Sound City" 21 Again album – 21 AgainShuttleworth "England's Heartbeat" – Shuttleworth feat.

Mark E. SmithTackhead "Dangerous Sex" single – "Repetition" Discography at the Fall online formerly: The Official Fall Website.

Boston & Roxbury Mill Dam

The Boston & Roxbury Mill Dam was an engineering project in Boston's Back Bay. Commissioned in 1814, the project intended to enclose the Back Bay basin and utilize the flowing tidal waters for industrial production. Constructing the dam would allow water to reliably flow from the Charles River to the basin, creating an ideal environment for the era's industrial mills; the project additionally added a second route to the mainland that redirected traffic away from Boston's choked Orange Street causeway. Between 1818 and 1821, the dam was constructed by extending Beacon Street westward; the Boston Milldam occupied. Prior to the construction of the Milldam, Beacon street ended at the foot of Charles Street – Back Bay's tidal basin prevented any further construction; the dam had two arms, one stretching from Beacon Hill to Sewall's point and one stretching from Roxbury's Gravelly point. These sections of the dam enclosed the back bay in a 600-acre tidal basin; the tidal basin was filled in and is now occupied by the Back Bay Neighborhood.

The idea for the Milldam was conceived by Uriah Cotting, a real estate merchant who had established a reputation for developing the Boston waterfront. Boston historian Justin Winsor described Cotting as "the projector and guiding spirit in nearly every enterprise involving the development of the town for business during the first twenty years" of the 19th century; the idea was developed in response to a shortage of industrial goods during the War of 1812, for Cotting believed Boston's tides could be utilized to power factories. On June 14, 1814, the Massachusetts Legislature approved the construction of the dam. However, a slow industrial economy following the War of 1812 delayed the dam's immediate construction. Despite the economic troubles, merchants were eager to invest in the dam. Cotting predicted that the dam would yield 81 mills and cost $250,000, but bring in $520,000 a year in revenue, it would provide a second route to the towns of Brookline and Watertown. Construction began in 1818, would continue until 1821.

Cotting died two years prior to the dam's completion in 1819. Constructed from stone, one arm of the dam was built from the foot of Beacon Hill to Sewell's Point in Brookline. A second cross-dam was constructed from Gravelly Point in Roxbury, dividing Back Bay into two basins of 600 combined acres. At high tide the waters of the Charles River would enter the westerly basin, pass through channels to generate turbine power, empty back into the Charles at low tide; the milldam project is regarded as a failure. Construction ran over budget, costing nearly $700,000 instead of the proposed $250,000. Only three factories would become established along Boston's waters instead of the predicted 81. Pollution became a problem after the construction of the Milldam. Enclosing the dam led to stagnant and foul water, precipitating several complaints by the residents of Boston. Cotton's reputation was saved by his early death, but the Boston & Roxbury Mill Corporation was negatively impacted by the dam's failure.

The Milldam would persist for several more decades. Wanting to use the dirty, derelict bay for practical purpose, the Back Bay land reclamation project was commissioned in 1857 to construct new residential neighborhoods over the tidal basin. Boston and Roxbury Mill Corporation thus signed over the rights to the land in 1859; the seawall was extended to fill in the Back Bay mudflats in order to accommodate the new construction. The failure of the Milldam prevented back bay from becoming an industrial district, leading to its current incarnation as a rich collection of 19th-century residences