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Cantata

A cantata is a vocal composition with an instrumental accompaniment in several movements involving a choir. The meaning of the term changed over time, from the simple single voice madrigal of the early 17th century, to the multi-voice "cantata da camera" and the "cantata da chiesa" of the part of that century, from the more substantial dramatic forms of the 18th century to the sacred-texted 19th-century cantata, a type of short oratorio. Cantatas for use in the liturgy of church services are called sacred cantata. Several cantatas were, still are, written for special occasions, such as Christmas cantatas. Christoph Graupner, Georg Philipp Telemann and Johann Sebastian Bach composed cycles of church cantatas for the occasions of the liturgical year; the term originated in the early 17th century with opera and oratorio. Prior to that, all "cultured" music was vocal. With the rise of instrumental music the term appeared, while the instrumental art became sufficiently developed to be embodied in sonatas.

From the beginning of the 17th century until late in the 18th, the cantata for one or two solo voices with accompaniment of basso continuo was a principal form of Italian vocal chamber music. A cantata consisted first of a declamatory narrative or scene in recitative, held together by a primitive aria repeated at intervals. Fine examples may be found in the church music of Giacomo Carissimi. With the rise of the da capo aria, the cantata became a group of two or three arias joined by recitative. George Frideric Handel's numerous Italian duets and trios are examples on a rather large scale, his Latin motet Silete Venti, for soprano solo, shows the use of this form in church music. The Italian solo cantata tended, when on a large scale, to become indistinguishable from a scene in an opera, in the same way the church cantata, solo or choral, is indistinguishable from a small oratorio or portion of an oratorio; this is evident whether one examines the church cantatas of Bach, of which nearly 200 are extant, or the Chandos Anthems of Handel.

In Johann Sebastian Bach's case some of the larger cantatas are called oratorios. During the baroque era, the term "cantata" retained its original Italian usage to describe a secular vocal piece of extended length in different sections, Italianate in style. At the same time, vocal pieces of similar scope with several singers, various instruments, were in great demand for the services of the Lutheran church; such pieces were called geistliche Konzerte. Many of these pieces were called by their opening text; such pieces for the liturgy or other occasions were not only composed by Bach but by Dieterich Buxtehude, Christoph Graupner, Gottfried Heinrich Stölzel and Georg Philipp Telemann, to name a few. The editors of the Bach Gesellschaft adopted "sacred cantata" as a convenient catchall for most of Bach's liturgical pieces; the term was retroactively applied by Philipp Spitta to refer to comparable works by composers from Heinrich Schütz onwards. Many secular cantatas were composed for events in the nobility.

They were so similar in form to the sacred ones that many of them were parodied to sacred cantatas, for example in Bach's Christmas Oratorio. Johann Sebastian Bach, from whom over 200 of his cantatas survive, is a notable contributor to the genre, his cantatas are written for a baroque orchestra consisting of a string section, an oboe section, a continuo group and brass were sometimes added on festive occasions such as Christmas or Easter. The vocal forces soloists. Bach wrote some cantatas for only one solo singer. Christoph Graupner was Hofkapellmeister at the court of Hesse-Darmstadt and provided over 1400 cantatas during his nearly 50 years of employment there, making him the most significant contributor to the genre. While only a handful of Bach's cantatas contain accompanied chorales, nearly all of Graupner's chorales feature elaborate ritornello sections; this is due to the fact that Bach's Leipzig congregation was expected to sing along with them, but the Darmstadt court was not. Many of Graupner's cantatas exploit elaborate orchestral effects and use exotic instrumentation, such as chalumeau, flûte d'amour, oboe d'amore, viola d'amore, trumpets and timpani.

See: List of cantatas by Christoph Graupner. The term "cantata" came to be applied exclusively to choral works, as distinguished from solo vocal music. In early 19th-century cantatas the chorus is the vehicle for music more lyric and songlike than in oratorio, not excluding the possibility of a brilliant climax in a fugue as in Ludwig van Beethoven's Der glorreiche Augenblick, Carl Maria von Weber's Jubel-Kantate, Felix Mendelssohn's Die erste Walpurgisnacht. Anton Bruckner composed a Festive Cantata and two secular cantatas. Bruckners's Psalm 146 is in cantata form. Mendelssohn's Symphony Cantata, the Lobgesang, is a hybrid work in the oratorio style. It

Saidabad (disambiguation)

Saidabad is a city in Hyderabad, India. Saidabad or Saiyidabad may refer to: Saydabad District, a district in Maidan Wardak Province, Afghanistan Saydabad, the capital of Saydabad District, Maidan Wardak, Afghanistan Saidabad Rural District, administrative subdivisions of Iran Saidabad, Alborz, a village in Alborz Province, Iran Saidabad, Ardabil, a village in Namin County Saidabad, Nir, a village in Nir County Saidabad, Bushehr, a village in Bushehr Province, Iran Saidabad, Bostanabad, a village in Bostanabad County Saidabad, Maragheh, a village in Maragheh County Saidabad, Arsanjan, a village in Arsanjan County Saidabad, Golestan, a village in Torkaman County Saiyidabad, alternate name of Seydabad, Hamadan, a village in Famenin County Saidabad, Hormozgan, a village in Bandar Abbas County Saidabad, Golpayegan, a village in Golpayegan County Saidabad, Lenjan, a village in Lenjan County Saiyidabad, Nain, a village in Nain County Saidabad, Natanz, a village in Natanz County Saidabad, Shahin Shahr and Meymeh, a village in Shahin Shahr and Meymeh County Saidabad, former name of Sirjan, a city in Kerman Province, Iran Saidabad, Anbarabad, a village in Anbarabad County Saidabad-e Olya, Kerman, a village in Anbarabad County Saidabad-e Sofla, Kerman, a village in Anbarabad County Saidabad, Bam, a village in Bam County Saidabad-e Kuh Zarduiyeh, a village in Bardsir County Saidabad, Kahnuj, a village in Kahnuj County Saidabad, Kerman, a village in Kerman County Saidabad, Chatrud, a village in Kerman County Saidabad, Derakhtengan, a village in Kerman County Saidabad, Golbaf, a village in Kerman County Saidabad, Khenaman, a village in Rafsanjan County Saidabad, Razmavaran, a village in Rafsanjan County Saidabad-e Shafipur, a village in Rafsanjan County Saidabad, Ravar, a village in Ravar County Saidabad, Rigan, a village in Rigan County Saidabad, Rudbar-e Jonubi, a village in Rudbar-e Jonubi County Saidabad, Zarand, a village in Zarand County Saidabad, Kurdistan, a village in Dehgolan County Saidabad, Markazi, a village in Markazi Province, Iran Sayidabad, Markazi, a village in Markazi Province, Iran Saidabad, Sari, a village in Sari County Saidabad, Chahardangeh, a village in Sari County Saidabad, alternate name of Aqeh Kheyl, a village in Sari County Saidabad, Avaj, a village in Qazvin Province, Iran Saidabad, Dashtabi, a village in Qazvin Province, Iran Saidabad, Takestan, a village in Qazvin Province, Iran Saidabad, alternate name of Sadabad, Qom Province, Iran Saidabad, Razavi Khorasan, a village in Mashhad County, Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran Saiyidabad, alternate name of Seyyedabad, Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran Saidabad, alternate name of Seyyedabad, Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran Saidabad, alternate name of Sadabad, Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran Saiyidabad, alternate name of Sadabad, Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran Saidabad, alternate name of Sadabad, Semnan Province, Iran Saidabad, Bampur, a village in Bampur County Saidabad, Hirmand, a village in Hirmand County Saidabad, South Khorasan, a village in Tabas County Saiyidabad, alternate name of Seyyedabad, South Khorasan Province, Iran Saiyidabad, alternate name of Seyyedabad, South Khorasan Province, Iran Saidabad, alternate name of Kalateh-ye Seyyed Ali, South Khorasan, Iran Saidabad, Shahriar, a village in Shahriar County Saidabad-e Jajrud, a village in Pardis County Saidabad Rural District Saidabad Rural District Saidabad, Pishva, a village in Tehran Province, Iran Saidabad, alternate name of Seyyedabad, Damavand, a village in Tehran Province, Iran Saidabad, alternate name of Nematabad-e Ghar, Tehran Province, Iran Saidabad, Chaldoran, a village in Chaldoran County Saidabad, Khoy, a village in Khoy County Saidabad, Maku, a village in Maku County Saidabad, Shahin Dezh, a village in Shahin Dezh County Saidabad, Yazd, a village in Taft County Saidabad-e Olya, Zanjan, in Ijrud County Saidabad-e Sofla, Zanjan, in Ijrud County Saidabad Rural District, in Ijrud County Saidabad, Zanjan, in Khodabandeh County Seyyedabad

Lee Purdy

Lee Purdy is a British former professional boxer who competed from 2006 to 2013. He held the British welterweight title in 2011, challenged once for the vacant Commonwealth welterweight title in 2010 and once for the EBU European welterweight title in 2013. Purdy claimed the British title with a win over Craig Watson via 5th round stoppage to become Colchesters first British boxing champion at the MEN Arena in Manchester on 16 April 2011; this victory was followed up in his first defence on 16 July 2011 with another victory over Watson, this time in Oldham and with another stoppage in the 5th round. Despite starting brightly, Watson began to be worn down in the third round as two heavy shots from Purdy landed. After Watson was knocked down twice in the 5th, the referee called a halt to the contest. Purdy lost the title in his second defence against former British light welterweight champion Colin Lynes. Purdy lost a majority points decision to Lynes after getting up off the canvas in the 10th to produce a strong finish.

On 18 May 2013, Lee Purdy fought Devon Alexander at Boardwalk Hall, Atlantic City, NJ. The bout was scheduled for the IBF welterweight title but Purdy failed to make the weight. Purdy took; the fight was controversially stopped by Purdys trainer in the 7th round, although Purdy was not hurt at any stage throughout the fight and was looking to come on strong in the rounds. In August 2013 Purdy was not charged with money laundering along with five other people in what was believed to be a £1 million scam against elderly people, he was due to appear at Colchester Magistrates Court in September 2013. Purdy, as well as the other accused, denied the charges. Lee Purdy was found not guilty by unanimous verdict of money laundering, he thanked everyone. After several operations on a detached retina suffered during the Leonard Bundu fight in December 2013, Purdy is expected to return to the ring in 2015 and would meet the winner of the Frankie Gavin and Bradley Skeete bout for the British title. After sustaining a severed and detached retina in a fight with European welterweight champion Leonard Bundu in late 2013, Purdy was forced to retire from the sport of boxing.

His promoter Eddie Hearn confirmed the retirement in an interview with iFLTV on 16 February 2015