Canterbury-St Martin's hoard

The Canterbury-St Martin's hoard is a coin-hoard found in the 19th century at Canterbury, Kent dating from the 6th century. The group in the World Museum, Liverpool consists of eight items, including three gold coins mounted with suspension loops for use as pendants. One of these is the earliest surviving Anglo-Saxon coin. Another coin is in the Bibliotheque Nationale; the hoard was found some time before 25 April 1844, when some of the items from the find were first discussed at a meeting of the Royal Numismatic Society by Charles Roach Smith. All that Smith knew of the date when they were found was that it was "a few years since", as he wrote in 1844; the location of the hoard is given as the churchyard of St Martin's Church in Canterbury. However, the first publication about the find, by Smith, states that the find was on the "grounds of the monastery of St Augustine"; the objects were acquired by W. H. Rolfe, a resident of Sandwich, Kent in two stages, a first acquisition of three items acquired before April 1844, five more items procured soon after September 1844.

The first three items were first published in 1844 in Collectanea Antiqua, when the five further items were obtained, that publication was amended to reflect the new items. Smith published the entire contents of the hoard in the Numismatic Chronicle in 1845; the items in the hoard have been examined by fluorescent. The author of this study, S. C. Hawkes, argues. However, the historian Philip Grierson felt that the possibility of two graves from different time periods both containing coins of the same period was so small as to make the likelihood of the hoard coming from two graves slim; the hoard is the only late-6th- or early-7th-century find of gold jewellery in a grave in a churchyard. All of the coins in the hoard were part of a necklace, buried in a woman's grave. One of the items in the hoard, the Liudhard medalet, is the earliest surviving Anglo-Saxon coin; the known objects in the hoard are eight items: An Italian tremissis with an inscription dating it to the reign of Emperor Justin II, who reigned 565 to 578 The Liudhard medalet, an Anglo-Saxon gold coin or medallion, dating from the late 6th century A gold coin imitating a 4th-century bronze coin, featuring two soldiers on one side A solidus with a bust on one side A Frankish tremissis of Merovingian date minted at St Bertrand-de-Comminges A Frankish tremissis of Merovingian date minted at Agen An intaglio of Roman manufacture set in gold A circular broochThe first three items listed were the original items acquired by Rolfe, with the others being acquired later.

Besides these eight items, it appears that at least one other item was found with the above items: A coin with an inscription of Oloron set in a loop, now in the Bibliotheque NationaleThere may have been other items that were found with the hoard, but their identification is not possible. Besides the Oloron coin, at the Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris, the other eight items are at the World Museum Liverpool. From Rolfe, the eight items were acquired by Joseph Mayer, who gave them to the City Museums of Liverpool, which became the World Museum later

Political campaign

A political campaign is an organized effort which seeks to influence the decision making progress within a specific group. In democracies, political campaigns refer to electoral campaigns, by which representatives are chosen or referendums are decided. In modern politics, the most high-profile political campaigns are focused on general elections and candidates for head of state or head of government a president or prime minister; the message of the campaign contains the ideas. It is to get those; the message consists of several talking points about policy issues. The points summarize the main ideas of the campaign and are repeated in order to create a lasting impression with the voters. In many elections, the opposition party will try to get the candidate "off message" by bringing up policy or personal questions that are not related to the talking points. Most campaigns prefer to keep the message broad. A message, too narrow can alienate voters or slow the candidate down with explaining details.

For example, in the 2008 American presidential election John McCain used a message that focused on his patriotism and political experience: "Country First". Barack Obama ran on a simple message of "change" throughout his campaign; however if the message is crafted it does not assure the candidate a victory at the polls. For a winning candidate, the message is refined and becomes his or her in office. Fundraising techniques include having the candidate call or meet with large donors, sending direct mail pleas to small donors, courting interest groups who could end up spending millions on the race if it is significant to their interests. In a modern political campaign, the campaign organization will have a coherent structure of personnel in the same manner as any business of similar size. Successful campaigns require a campaign manager to coordinate the campaign's operations. Apart from a candidate, they are a campaign's most visible leader. Modern campaign managers may be concerned with executing strategy rather than setting it - if the senior strategists are outside political consultants such as pollsters and media consultants.

Political consultants advise campaigns on all of their activities, from research to field strategy. Consultants conduct candidate research, voter research, opposition research for their clients. Activists are the "foot soldiers" loyal to the cause, the true believers who will carry the run by volunteer activists; such volunteers and interns may take part in activities such as canvassing door-to-door and making phone calls on behalf of the campaigns. A campaign team must consider how to communicate the message of the campaign, recruit volunteers, raise money. Campaign advertising draws on techniques from commercial advertising and propaganda entertainment and public relations, a mixture dubbed politainment; the avenues available to political campaigns when distributing their messages is limited by the law, available resources, the imagination of the campaigns' participants. These techniques are combined into a formal strategy known as the campaign plan; the plan takes account of a campaign's goal, target audience, resources available.

The campaign will seek to identify supporters at the same time as getting its message across. The modern, open campaign method was pioneered by Aaron Burr during the American presidential election of 1800. Election campaign communication refers to party-controlled communication, e.g. campaign advertising, party-uncontrolled communication, e.g. media coverage of elections. Campaign advertising is the use of paid media to influence the decisions made by groups; these ads are designed by the campaign's staff. The public media may run the story that someone is trying to get elected or to do something about certain aspects regarding their specific country; the internet is now a core element of modern political campaigns. Communication technologies such as e-mail and podcasts for various forms of activism enable faster communications by citizen movements and deliver a message to a large audience; these Internet technologies are used for cause-related fundraising, volunteering, community building, organizing.

Individual political candidates are using the internet to promote their election campaign. In a study of Norwegian election campaigns, politicians reported they used social media for marketing and for dialogue with voters. Facebook was the primary platform for marketing and Twitter was used for more continuous dialogue. Signifying the importance of internet political campaigning, Barack Obama's presidential campaign relied on social media, Search Engine Optimisation and new media channels to engage voters, recruit campaign volunteers, raise campaign funds; the campaign brought the spotlight on the importance of using internet in new-age political campaigning by utilizing various forms of social media and new media to reach new target populations. The campaign's my., utilized a low cost and efficient method of mobilizing voters and increasing participation among various voter populatio

Alex Pourteau

Alexander Pourteau, is an American professional wrestler best known for his stint with the World Wrestling Federation as Alex "The Pug" Pourteau between 1996 and 1997. Alex Pourteau was trained by Jim Star and Skandor Akbar, before he began to wrestle for World Class Championship Wrestling between 1988 and 1989. Although Pourteau won no championship gold he did get a break under the tutelage of Skandor Akbar. After wrestling for WCCW in Dallas, Texas. Pourteau again did not win championship gold and in 1991 began wrestling for World Wrestling Council in Puerto Rico and the Global Wrestling Federation. Pourteau, working for the GWF, won their Global Wrestling Federation Light Heavyweight Championship on four occasions, his first reign began on July 1992, when he defeated Terry Simms. He would lose the title to Mike Dahl on October 23, 1991. Pourteau went on tour with World Wrestling Council and whilst on the tour won the World Wrestling Council World Junior Heavyweight Championship by defeating Ricky Santana on September 4, 1991.

He lost the title on September 21 of the same year and returned to the GWF. He did not return to World Wrestling Council following the tour. After returning to the Global Wrestling Federation, he again won the GWF Light Heavyweight Championship on January 22, 1993, by defeating Mike Dahl. Pourteau lost the title to Calvin Knapp but won the championship a third time after defeating Steven Dane after Knapp had vacated the title. On February 20, 1994, he lost the title, once again to Knapp, whom he defeated for the championship in August 1994 in Guatemala. In the same month, Pourteau lost the championship to Osamu Nishimura, with the GWF closing in September 1994. Pourteau began teaming with Shawn Summers, in a tag team known as the Beach Bullies, although the team had no championship success. Pourteau had begun to wrestle for Network of Wrestling in Japan for two years, beginning in 1993 and ending in 1995. Pourteau, whilst wrestling for the company, had no championship success. Pourteau had worked for the World Wrestling Federation on odd occasions from 1994, but began to wrestle full-time for the company in 1996.

Pourteau received a push from the WWF, under the name Alex "The Pug" Pourteau, with the gimmick of an amateur wrestler, however his character did not last. Sometimes he teamed up with Bob Holly. After a year with the company, Pourteau left the WWF in 1997. Since leaving the WWF in 1997, Pourteau joined WCW for a brief stint performing on WCW Pro and WorldWide, he wrestled on the independent wrestling circuit. Pourteau has wrestled for independent companies including Full Impact Pro. In 2001 he returned to World Wrestling Council, winning their Television Championship on July 7, he lost the championship on July 2001, to Chris Grant. Pourteau, at unknown periods of his career, has won the CWA Tag Team Championship, BDPW Heavyweight Championship, TAP Heavyweight Championship and the SECW Tag Team Championship. At WrestleMania XXV, Pourteau participated as a member of John Cena's "army." Big D Wrestling Big D Heavyweight Championship Big D Light Heavyweight Championship Coastal Championship Wrestling CCW Heavyweight Championship Florida Wrestling Alliance FWA Heavyweight Championship Global Wrestling Federation GWF Light Heavyweight Championship South Eastern Championship Wrestling SECW Tag Team Championship – with Frankie Lancaster Texas All-Pro Wrestling TAP Heavyweight Championship World Wrestling Council WWC World Junior Heavyweight Championship WWC World Television Championship Other titles CWA Tag Team Championship Official website Alex Porteau on IMDb