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Canterbury Cathedral

Canterbury Cathedral in Canterbury, Kent, is one of the oldest and most famous Christian structures in England. It forms part of a World Heritage Site, it is the cathedral of the Archbishop of Canterbury Justin Welby, leader of the Church of England and symbolic leader of the worldwide Anglican Communion. Its formal title is the Metropolitical Church of Christ at Canterbury. Founded in 597, the cathedral was rebuilt between 1070 and 1077; the east end was enlarged at the beginning of the 12th century, rebuilt in the Gothic style following a fire in 1174, with significant eastward extensions to accommodate the flow of pilgrims visiting the shrine of Thomas Becket, the archbishop, murdered in the cathedral in 1170. The Norman nave and transepts survived until the late 14th century, when they were demolished to make way for the present structures. Before the English Reformation the cathedral was part of a Benedictine monastic community known as Christ Church, Canterbury, as well as being the seat of the archbishop.

Christianity had started to become powerful in the Roman Empire around the 3rd century. Following the conversion of Augustine of Hippo in the 4th century, the influence of Christianity grew steadily; the cathedral's first bishop was Augustine of Canterbury abbot of St Andrew's Benedictine Abbey in Rome. He was sent by Pope Gregory I in 596 as a missionary to the Anglo-Saxons. Augustine dedicated it to Jesus Christ, the Holy Saviour. Augustine founded the Abbey of St Peter and Paul outside the city walls; this was rededicated to St Augustine himself and was for many centuries the burial place of the successive archbishops. The abbey is part of the World Heritage Site of Canterbury, along with the cathedral and the ancient Church of St Martin. Bede recorded; the oldest remains found during excavations beneath the present nave in 1993 were, parts of the foundations of an Anglo-Saxon building, constructed across a Roman road. They indicate that the original church consisted of a nave with a narthex, side-chapels to the north and south.

A smaller subsidiary building was found to the south-west of these foundations. During the 9th or 10th century this church was replaced by a larger structure with a squared west end, it appears to have had a square central tower. The 11th-century chronicler Eadmer, who had known the Saxon cathedral as a boy, wrote that, in its arrangement, it resembled St Peter's in Rome, indicating that it was of basilican form, with an eastern apse. During the reforms of Dunstan, archbishop from 960 until his death in 988, a Benedictine abbey named Christ Church Priory was added to the cathedral, but the formal establishment as a monastery seems to date only to c. 997 and the community only became monastic from Lanfranc's time onwards. Dunstan was buried on the south side of the high altar; the cathedral was badly damaged during Danish raids on Canterbury in 1011. The Archbishop, Ælfheah, was taken hostage by the raiders and killed at Greenwich on 19 April 1012, the first of Canterbury's five martyred archbishops.

After this a western apse was added as an oratory of Saint Mary during the archbishopric of Lyfing or Aethelnoth. The 1993 excavations revealed that the new western apse was polygonal, flanked by hexagonal towers, forming a westwork, it housed the archbishop's throne, with the altar of St Mary just to the east. At about the same time that the westwork was built, the arcade walls were strengthened and towers added to the eastern corners of the church; the cathedral was destroyed by fire in 1067, a year after the Norman Conquest. Rebuilding began in 1070 under Lanfranc, he cleared the ruins and reconstructed the cathedral to a design based on that of the Abbey of Saint-Étienne in Caen, where he had been abbot, using stone brought from France. The new church, its central axis about 5m south of that of its predecessor, was a cruciform building, with an aisled nave of nine bays, a pair of towers at the west end, aiseless transepts with apsidal chapels, a low crossing tower, a short quire ending in three apses.

It was dedicated in 1077. Under Lanfranc's successor Anselm, twice exiled from England, the responsibility for the rebuilding or improvement of the cathedral's fabric was left in the hands of the priors. Following the election of Prior Ernulf in 1096, Lanfranc's inadequate east end was demolished, replaced with an eastern arm 198 feet long, doubling the length of the cathedral, it was raised above a elaborately decorated crypt. Ernulf was succeeded in 1107 by Conrad, who completed the work by 1126; the new quire took the form of a complete church with its own transepts. A free standing campanile was built on a mound in the cathedral precinct in about 1160; as with many Gothic church buildings, the interior of the quire was richly embellished. William of Malmesbury wrote: "Nothing like it could be seen in England either for the light of its glass windows, the gleaming of its marble pavements, or the many-coloured paintings which led the eyes to the panelled ceiling above."Though named after the 6th-century founding archbishop, the Chair of St Augustine, the ceremonial enthronement chair of the Archbishop of Canterbury, may date from the Norman period.

Its first recorded use is in 1205. A pivotal moment in the history of the cathedral was the murder of the ar

Field marshal (Thailand)

Chom Phon or Field Marshal is the most senior rank of the Royal Thai Army, considered the equivalent to a Field Marshal or General of the Army. Today it is ceremonially held by members of the Thai Royal family and exists only on paper in the actual Thai military; the Royal Thai Navy equivalent is known as Chom Phon Ruea and Chom Phon Akat for the Royal Thai Air Force. The King of Thailand as Head of the Armed Forces is automatically made a Chom Phon upon accession; the rank was formally created in 1888, together with all other ranks of the military by King Chulalongkorn, who wanted to modernize his Armed Forces through western lines. Apart from the monarchs, there have been 13 appointments to this rank. Military ranks of the Thai armed forces Admiral of the fleet: equivalent rank in the Royal Thai Navy Marshal of the Royal Thai Air Force: equivalent rank in the Royal Thai Air Force Field Marshal List of field marshals Head of the Royal Thai Armed Forces

PTV Sports

PTV Sports is a Pakistani pay television sports channel owned by the Pakistan Television Corporation, Pakistan's state broadcaster. PTV Sports was launched on 14 January 2012, it retains exclusive broadcasting rights for many sporting events, including cricket, tennis and football. Olympic Games Asian Games World Universiade Games National Games of Pakistan All cricket series and tournaments involving Pakistan ICC Cricket World Cup ICC T20 World Cup ICC Champions Trophy ICC Women's Cricket World Cup ICC Under-19 Cricket World Cup Hong Kong International Cricket Sixes ICC World Cup Qualifier ICC World Twenty20 Qualifier ACC Asia Cup Champions League T20 Cup Ashes Cricket Series All international cricket tours of England All international cricket tours of Australia All international cricket tours of Pakistan Friends Life T20 Cup Big Bash League Faysal Bank T20 Cup Pakistan Super League Other matches in Pakistan FIFA World Cup, Premier League, BundesligaFifa World Cup qualifiers Champions league Copa América Laliga Euro cup Hockey World Cup Sultan Azlan Shah Cup Hockey Champions Trophy FIH Hockey World League International Super Series Hockey 9's Australian Open, The Grand Slam of Asia/Pacific The Championships, Wimbledon United States Open Tennis Championships Squash Climbing Polo Badminton Taekwondo Baseball Golf Heliskiing1 Only the matches of Amir Iqbal Khan Game On Hai! is an analysis program of PTV Sports.

The Show is hosted by Dr. Nauman Niaz and is accompanied by Saqlain Mushtaq, Waqar Younis, Wasim Akram, Rashid Latif, Shoaib Akhtar, Mohammad Wasim and other guest retired cricketers from different countries. During the 2015 ICC Cricket World Cup, Game On Hai! Hosted Herschelle Gibbs and Jonty Rhodes. Throughout the ensuing Zimbabwe tour of Pakistan in 2015, the show hosted Alastair Campbell. During the Pakistan tour of Sri Lanka in 2015, the show hosted Sanath Jayasuriya followed by Dean Jones, Mark Butcher and Herschelle Gibbs for the England tour of UAE against Pakistan in December of the same year. Most during the entire duration of the 2017 ICC Champions Trophy, the show featured Ian Chappell of Australia, as well as Viv Richards and Brian Lara of the West Indies. Sports Circle is the flagship program of PTV Sports; the show is hosted by Muhammad Ali Sanwal and he is accompanied by retired cricketer Aamir Sohail. The show was hosted by Nauman Niaz. There are several other programs catering to other sports events such as field hockey.

This is a new program started on PTV Sports. Presented by Mirza Iqbal Baig, it features analysis over different sport events. Pakistan Television Corporation List of sports television channels Sport in Pakistan Grand Slam National Games of Pakistan List of cricket commentators Official website Ptv Sports News PTV Sports on Twitter