Glarus Nord is one of three municipalities of the canton of Glarus, Switzerland. Effective from 1 January 2011, Glarus Nord incorporates the former municipalities of Bilten, Mollis, Mühlehorn, Näfels, Bilten is first mentioned in 1050 as Billitun. The area around Bilten was probably inhabited in the Roman era, by the mid-11th century, Schänis Abbey owned a large part of the village, and in 1178 the Pope confirmed Schänis Abbeys ownership of the village. St. Catherines Chapel in the village was first mentioned in 1345, in either 1405/06 or 1415, the village joined the County of Glarus. The villages residents were no longer required to pay rents to Schänis Abbey after 1412, in 1528, the majority of the residents embraced the Protestant Reformation and converted to the new faith. Subsequently Bilten became part of the Reformed parish of Niederurnen, a village church was consecrated in 1607. From the 16th until the 18th century, the pastures around the village were used to raise large livestock for sale to other towns.
As a sign of the wealth in Bilten, in 1608 a local family built the Renaissance style Elsener House. In the 18th century the local farmers shifted from selling cattle to raising dairy cattle. In the late 18th century, the Linth river began to silt up, the marshy land caused disease which only ended with the Linth correction project of 1807-23. Between 1887 and 1939 the Biltener creek was gradually brought under control and channeled, the first school was built in Bilten in 1839. In 1853 a boys boarding school opened in the Elsener House, the village was connected to the Nordostbahn network in 1875. Until the mid-20th century Bilten remained an agricultural village, the Kunz slaughterhouse, which opened in 1958 and closed in 1995, and the insulation and packaging material company Wannerit AG, which opened in 1964, brought some industry to Bilten. When the A3 motorway was built through the valley in 1973, by 1990, over three-quarters of the working population were employed in industry. In 1976, a treatment plant serving the Glarus valley.
Filzbach is first mentioned in 1394 as Vilentzspach, the ruins of a Roman watchtower, Vor dem Wald, from the time of Emperor Augustus indicate that the area was inhabited by the Roman era. The tower was built in the second decade BC and abandoned in 16 AD, little is known about the village during the Middle Ages. It first became part of Glarus after the Battle of Sempach in 1386, the inhabitants of Filzbach were under the control of Schänis Abbey until the 14th century when they became part of the parish of Obstalden
Napoleon Bonaparte was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars. As Napoleon I, he was Emperor of the French from 1804 until 1814, Napoleon dominated European and global affairs for more than a decade while leading France against a series of coalitions in the Napoleonic Wars. He won most of these wars and the vast majority of his battles, one of the greatest commanders in history, his wars and campaigns are studied at military schools worldwide. Napoleons political and cultural legacy has ensured his status as one of the most celebrated and he was born Napoleone di Buonaparte in Corsica to a relatively modest family from the minor nobility. When the Revolution broke out in 1789, Napoleon was serving as an officer in the French army. Seizing the new opportunities presented by the Revolution, he rose through the ranks of the military. The Directory eventually gave him command of the Army of Italy after he suppressed a revolt against the government from royalist insurgents, in 1798, he led a military expedition to Egypt that served as a springboard to political power.
He engineered a coup in November 1799 and became First Consul of the Republic and his ambition and public approval inspired him to go further, and in 1804 he became the first Emperor of the French. Intractable differences with the British meant that the French were facing a Third Coalition by 1805, in 1806, the Fourth Coalition took up arms against him because Prussia became worried about growing French influence on the continent. Napoleon quickly defeated Prussia at the battles of Jena and Auerstedt, marched the Grand Army deep into Eastern Europe, France forced the defeated nations of the Fourth Coalition to sign the Treaties of Tilsit in July 1807, bringing an uneasy peace to the continent. Tilsit signified the high watermark of the French Empire, hoping to extend the Continental System and choke off British trade with the European mainland, Napoleon invaded Iberia and declared his brother Joseph the King of Spain in 1808. The Spanish and the Portuguese revolted with British support, the Peninsular War lasted six years, featured extensive guerrilla warfare, and ended in victory for the Allies.
The Continental System caused recurring diplomatic conflicts between France and its client states, especially Russia, unwilling to bear the economic consequences of reduced trade, the Russians routinely violated the Continental System and enticed Napoleon into another war. The French launched an invasion of Russia in the summer of 1812. The resulting campaign witnessed the collapse of the Grand Army, the destruction of Russian cities, in 1813, Prussia and Austria joined Russian forces in a Sixth Coalition against France. A lengthy military campaign culminated in a large Allied army defeating Napoleon at the Battle of Leipzig in October 1813, the Allies invaded France and captured Paris in the spring of 1814, forcing Napoleon to abdicate in April. He was exiled to the island of Elba near Rome and the Bourbons were restored to power, Napoleon escaped from Elba in February 1815 and took control of France once again. The Allies responded by forming a Seventh Coalition, which defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in June, the British exiled him to the remote island of Saint Helena in the South Atlantic, where he died six years at the age of 51
Canton of Linth
The canton contained approximately 78,500 inhabitants. Like all the cantons of the Helvetic Republic, Linth was established and administered on a French Revolutionary model and was divided administratively into seven districts Werdenberg, capital Werdenberg,30 electors, approx. 10,500 inhabitants Neu St. Johann, capital Neu St. Johann,30 electors,11,600 inhabitants Mels, capital Mels,25 electors, approx. 9,800 inhabitants Schwanden, capital Schwanden,29 electors, the canton sided only very reluctantly with the French Revolutionary Army. Initial fervour for public education waned as the pressure from the government was relaxed. Upper Toggenburg was transferred to the canton of Säntis in 1801, canton of Linth in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland
Religion in Switzerland
Christianity is the predominant religion of Switzerland, its presence going back to the Roman era. Since the 16th century, Switzerland has been divided into Roman Catholic. However, adherence to churches has declined since the late 20th century, furthermore notable is the significant difference in church adherence between Swiss citizens and foreign nationals in 2015. Switzerland as a state has no state religion, though most of the cantons recognize official churches, in all cases including the Catholic Church. These churches, and in some the Old Catholic Church. The country was historically about evenly balanced between Catholic and Protestant, with a patchwork of majorities over most of the country. One canton, was divided into Catholic and Protestant sections in 1597. The larger cities and their cantons used to be predominantly Protestant, central Switzerland, the Valais, the Ticino, Appenzell Innerrhodes, the Jura, and Fribourg are traditionally Catholic. A1980 initiative calling for the separation of church and state was rejected by 78. 9% of the voters.
31% of all Catholics are foreign nationals vice versa 5% with Protestants, the unaffiliated form 21. 6% of Switzerlands population as of 2012, and are especially strong in canton of Basel-City, canton of Neuchâtel, canton of Geneva, canton of Vaud, and Zürich. Rather recent immigration during the last 25 years has brought Islam, other Christian minority communities include Neo-Pietism, Methodism, the New Apostolic Church, Jehovahs Witnesses, and the Christian Catholic Church of Switzerland as of 2000. Minor non-Christian minority groups are Hinduism, Buddhism and other religions,3. 6% did not make a statement on the 2000 census. However, the Catholic Jesuits were banned from all activities in either clerical or pedagogical functions by Article 51 of the Swiss constitution in 1848, the reason was the perceived threat resulting from Jesuit advocacy of traditionalist Catholicism to the stability of the state. The settlement restrictions placed on Swiss Jews in various instances between the 14th and 18th centuries were lifted with the revised Swiss Constitution of 1874, in November 2009,57.
5% of Swiss voters approved of a popular initiative to ban the construction of minarets in Switzerland. The four existing Swiss minarets, at mosques in Zurich, Winterthur, full freedom of religion has been guaranteed since the revised Swiss Constitution of 1874. During the Old Swiss Confederacy, there had been no de facto freedom of religion, Swiss Jews had been given full political rights in 1866, although their right to settle freely was implemented as late as 1879 in the canton of Aargau. The basic right protected by the constitution is that of public confession of adherence to a religious community, Article 36 of the constitution introduces a limitation of these rights if they conflict with public interest or if they encroach upon the basic rights of others. Thus, ritual slaughter is prohibited as conflicting with Swiss animal laws, performance of cultic or missionary activities or religious processions on public ground may be limited
Emigration is the act of leaving ones resident country with the intent to settle elsewhere. Conversely, immigration describes the movement of persons into one country from another, both are acts of migration across national boundaries. Demographers examine push and pull factors for people to be pushed out of one place, there can be a desire to escape negative circumstances such as shortages of land or jobs, or unfair treatment. People can be pulled to the opportunities available elsewhere, fleeing from oppressive conditions, being a refugee and seeking asylum to get refugee status in a foreign country, may lead to permanent emigration. Involuntary migration refers to groups that are forced to abandon their native country, patterns of emigration have been shaped by numerous economic and political changes throughout the world in the last few hundred years. For instance, millions of individuals fled poverty and political turmoil in Europe to settle in the Americas and Oceania during the 18th, 19th, demographers distinguish factors at the origin that push people out, versus those at the destination that pull them in.
Motives to migrate can be either incentives attracting people away, known as pull factors, after 1668, the Qing Emperor banned Han Chinese migration to Manchuria. In 1681, the emperor ordered construction of the Willow Palisade, the Soviet Socialist Republics of the Soviet Union began such restrictions in 1918, with laws and borders tightening until even illegal emigration was nearly impossible by 1928. Before 1950, over 15 million people emigrated from the Soviet-occupied eastern European countries, by the early 1950s, the Soviet approach to controlling national movement was emulated by most of the rest of the Eastern Bloc. Restrictions implemented in the Eastern Bloc stopped most East-West migration, with only 13.3 million migrations westward between 1950 and 1990, in 1961, East Germany erected a barbed-wire barrier that would eventually be expanded through construction into the Berlin Wall, effectively closing the loophole. In 1989, the Berlin Wall fell, followed by German reunification, by the early 1950s, the Soviet approach to controlling international movement was emulated by China and North Korea.
North Korea still tightly restricts emigration, and maintains one of the strictest emigration bans in the world, events that changed Germany, Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 0-313-32814-5 Tsourapas, Why Do States Develop Multi-tier Emigrant Policies
Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,021 square kilometres, with about 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular destination in the world. Germanys capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while its largest conurbation is the Ruhr, other major cities include Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf and Leipzig. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity, a region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward, beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation, in 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire.
After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic, the establishment of the national socialist dictatorship in 1933 led to World War II and the Holocaust. After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded, the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic, in 1990, the country was reunified. In the 21st century, Germany is a power and has the worlds fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP. As a global leader in industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds third-largest exporter and importer of goods. Germany is a country with a very high standard of living sustained by a skilled. It upholds a social security and universal health system, environmental protection. Germany was a member of the European Economic Community in 1957. It is part of the Schengen Area, and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999, Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G8, the G20, and the OECD.
The national military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world, the English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz popular, derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- people, the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a mine in Schöningen where three 380, 000-year-old wooden javelins were unearthed
History of Switzerland
The early history of the region is tied to that of Alpine culture. Switzerland was inhabited by Gauls and Raetians, and it came under Roman rule in the 1st century BC, gallo-Roman culture was amalgamated with Germanic influence during Late Antiquity, with the eastern part of Switzerland becoming Alemannic territory. The area of Switzerland was incorporated into the Frankish Empire in the 6th century, in the high medieval period, the eastern part became part of the Duchy of Swabia within the Holy Roman Empire while the western part was part of Burgundy. The Swiss Reformation divided the Confederacy and resulted in a history of internal strife between the Thirteen Cantons in the Early Modern period. In the wake of the French Revolution, Switzerland fell to a French invasion in 1798 and was reformed into the Helvetic Republic, the history of Switzerland since 1848 has been largely one of success and prosperity. Archeological evidence suggests that hunter-gatherers were already settled in the north of the Alps in the Middle Paleolithic period 150,000 years ago.
By the Neolithic period, the area was densely populated. Remains of Bronze Age pile dwellings from as early as 3800 BC have been found in the areas of many lakes. Around 1500 BC, Celtic tribes settled in the area, the Raetians lived in the eastern regions, while the west was occupied by the Helvetii. In 58 BC, the Helvetii tried to evade migratory pressure from Germanic tribes by moving into Gaul, the alpine region became integrated into the Roman Empire and was extensively romanized in the course of the following centuries. The center of Roman administration was at Aventicum, in 259, Alamanni tribes overran the Limes, putting the settlements on Swiss territory on the frontier of the Roman Empire. The first Christian bishoprics were founded in the fourth century, with the fall of the Western Roman Empire, Germanic tribes entered the area. Burgundians settled in the west, while in the north, Alamanni settlers slowly forced the earlier Celto-Roman population to retreat into the mountains, Burgundy became a part of the kingdom of the Franks in 534, two years later, the dukedom of the Alamans followed suit.
In the Alaman-controlled region, only isolated Christian communities continued to exist, under the Carolingian kings, the feudal system proliferated, and monasteries and bishoprics were important bases for maintaining the rule. The Treaty of Verdun of 843 assigned Upper Burgundy to Lotharingia, in the 10th century, as the rule of the Carolingians waned, Magyars destroyed Basel in 917 and St. Gallen in 926. Only after the victory of King Otto I over the Magyars in 955 in the Battle of Lechfeld, were the Swiss territories reintegrated into the empire. In the 12th century, the dukes of Zähringen were given authority over part of the Burgundy territories which covered the part of modern Switzerland. They founded many cities, including Fribourg in 1157, and Bern in 1191, under the Hohenstaufen rule, the alpine passes in Raetia and the St Gotthard Pass gained importance
Alemannic is a group of dialects of the Upper German branch of the Germanic language family. The name derives from the ancient Germanic alliance of tribes known as the Alemanni. S, ISO 639-3 distinguishes four languages, swg and gct. At this level, the distinction between a language and a dialect frequently is considered a cultural and political question, in part because linguists have failed to agree on a clear standard, the following variants comprise Alemannic, Swabian. Unlike most other Alemannic dialects, it does not retain the Middle High German monophthongs û, î, for this reason, Swabian is sometimes used in opposition to Alemannic. Retain German initial /k/ as rather than fricativising to as in High Alemannic, Lake Constance Alemannic Upper-Rhine Alemannic in Southwestern Baden and its variant Alsatian Alemán Coloniero Basel German High Alemannic. Complete the High German consonant shift by fricativising initial /k/ to, Bernese German Zürich German Vorarlbergisch Liechtensteinisch Highest Alemannic does not have the hiatus diphthongisation of other dialects of German.
For example, instead of, instead of, Walliser German Walser German Note that the Alemannic dialects of Switzerland are often called Swiss German or Schwiizertüütsch. The oldest known texts in Alemannic are brief Elder Futhark inscriptions dating to the sixth century, in the Old High German period, the first coherent texts are recorded in the St. Gall and Reichenau Island, a considerable part of the Old High German corpus has Alemannic traits. Alemannic Middle High German is less prominent, in spite of the Codex Manesse compiled by Johannes Hadlaub of Zürich, the rise of the Old Swiss Confederacy from the fourteenth century leads to the creation of Alemannic Swiss chronicles. Huldrych Zwinglis bible translation of the 1520s was in an Alemannic variant of Early Modern High German, the 1665 revision of the Froschauer Bible removed the Alemannic elements, approaching the language used by Luther. Johann Peter Hebel published his Allemannische Gedichte in 1803, Swiss authors often consciously employ Helvetisms within Standard German, notably Jeremias Gotthelf in his novels set in the Emmental, and more recently Tim Krohn in his Quatemberkinder.
The diminutive is used frequently in all Alemannic dialects and eastern dialects use the suffix -le, southern dialects use the suffix -li. Depending on dialect, little house could be Heisle, Hüüsle, a significant difference between the high and low variants is the pronunciation of ch after the front vowels and consonants. In Standard German and the variants, this is a palatal, whereas in the higher variants
Flags and arms of cantons of Switzerland
Each of the 26 modern cantons of Switzerland has an official flag and a coat of arms. The history of development of these designs spans the 13th to the 20th centuries and Obwalden form traditional subdivisions of Unterwalden. Basel-Stadt and Basel-Landschaft, as well as Appenzell Inner- and Ausserrhoden, are half cantons, resulting from the division of Basel and Appenzell, with the exception of Lucerne and Ticino, the cantonal flags are simply transposed versions of the cantonal coats of arms. In case of Lucerne and Ticino, whose flags consist of fields of different colours divided per fess, the coat of arms of Schwyz has the cross moved from the canton to the sinister canton with respect to the flag. Of the 22 cantonal coats of arms as they stood with the creation of Switzerland as a state in 1848. Vaud has a bicolor, but an added inscription, gallen stars for Valais and Aargau, the latter with additional wavy lines representing rivers Distinctively, Swiss cantons use square flags. See the List below for the histories of the individual designs, the coats of arms of the Thirteen Cantons are based on medieval signs, originating as war flags and as emblems used on seals.
For war flags, a distinction was made between Banner and Fähnlein, the former was the war flag used only in the case of a full levy of cantonal troops for a major operation. The latter was a flag used for minor military expeditions. The Banner was considered a sacred possession, usually kept in a church, losing the banner to an enemy force was a great shame and invited mockery from other cantons. Papal legate Matthias Schiner in addition gave to the Swiss cantons and their associates a total of 42 costly silk banners with augmentations, some of these banners survive, of the cantonal ones notably those of Zürich and Solothurn. The fashion of arranging cantonal insignia in shields as coats of arms arises in the late 15th century, the Tagsatzung in Baden was presented with stained glass representations of all cantons in ca. In these designs, two cantonal escutcheons were shown side by side, below a shield bearing the Imperial Eagle, based on these, there arose a tradition of representing cantonal arms in stained glass, alive throughout the early modern period and continued in the modern state.
Flag of Switzerland Cantons of Switzerland Walter Angst, A Panoply of Colours, The Cantonal Banners of Switzerland and the Swiss National Flag,1992
Cantons of Switzerland
The 26 cantons of Switzerland are the member states of the Swiss Confederation. The nucleus of the Swiss Confederacy in the form of the first three confederate allies used to be referred to as the Waldstätte, with the Napoleonic period of the Helvetic Republic the term canton/cantone/Kanton was fully established. From 1833, there were 25 cantons, which became 26 after the secession of the canton of Jura from Bern in 1979. The term canton, now used as English term for administrative subdivisions of other countries, originates in French usage in the late 15th century, from a word for edge. After 1490, canton was increasingly used in French and Italian documents to refer to the members of the Swiss Confederacy, English use of canton in reference to the Swiss Confederacy dates to the early 17th century. It was increasingly replaced by Stand after 1550, the French term canton was not adopted into German usage prior to 1648, and after that only in occasional use. The prominent usage of Ort and Stand only gradually disappeared in German-speaking Switzerland with the Helvetic Republic, only with the Act of Mediation of 1803 did German Kanton become an official designation, retained in the Swiss Constitution of 1848.
The term Stand remains in usage and is reflected in the name of the upper chamber of the Swiss Parliament. Republic Some cantonal constitutions provide for a formal name of the state. Most of Romandys cantons and Ticino call themselves république/Repubblica officially, at least within their constitutions, for example, the canton of Geneva refers to itself formally as the République et canton de Genève. Though they were part of the Holy Roman Empire, they had become de facto independent when the Swiss defeated Emperor Maximillian in 1499 in Dornach. The old system was abandoned with the formation of the Helvetic Republic following the French invasion of Switzerland in 1798, the cantons of the Helvetic Republic had merely the status of an administrative subdivision with no sovereignty. The Helvetic Republic collapsed within five years, and cantonal sovereignty was restored with the Act of Mediation of 1803, the status of Switzerland as a federation of states was restored, at the time including 19 cantons.
Three additional western cantons, Neuchâtel and Geneva, acceded in 1815, the process of Restoration, completed by 1830, returned most of the former feudal rights to the cantonal patriciates, leading to rebellions among the rural population. The Liberal Radical Party embodied these democratic forces calling for a new federal constitution and this tension, paired with religious issues escalated into armed conflict in the 1840s, with the brief Sonderbund War. The victory of the party resulted in the formation of Switzerland as a federal state in 1848. The cantons retained far-reaching sovereignty, but were no longer allowed to maintain standing armies or international relations. Each canton has its own constitution, legislature and courts, most of the cantons legislatures are unicameral parliaments, their size varying between 58 and 200 seats