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Canyon de Chelly National Monument

Canyon de Chelly National Monument was established on April 1, 1931, as a unit of the National Park Service. Located in northeastern Arizona, it is within the boundaries of the Navajo Nation and lies in the Four Corners region. Reflecting one of the longest continuously inhabited landscapes of North America, it preserves ruins of the indigenous tribes that lived in the area, from the Ancestral Puebloans to the Navajo; the monument covers 83,840 acres and encompasses the floors and rims of the three major canyons: de Chelly, del Muerto, Monument. These canyons were cut by streams with headwaters in the Chuska Mountains just to the east of the monument. None of the land is federally owned. Canyon de Chelly is one of the most visited national monuments in the United States; the name Chelly is a Spanish borrowing of the Navajo word Tséyiʼ, which means "canyon". The Navajo pronunciation is; the Spanish pronunciation of de Chelly was adapted into English through modelling after a French-like spelling pronunciation, now də-SHAY.

Canyon de Chelly long served as a home for Navajo people before it was invaded by forces led by future New Mexico governor Lt. Antonio Narbona in 1805. In 1863, Col. Kit Carson sent troops through the canyon, killing 23 Indians, seizing 200 sheep, destroying hogans, as well as peach orchards and other crops; the resulting demoralization led to the surrender of the Navajos and their removal to Bosque Redondo, New Mexico. Canyon de Chelly is owned by the Navajo Tribal Trust of the Navajo Nation, it is the only National Park Service unit, owned and cooperatively managed in this manner. About 40 Navajo families live in the park. Access to the canyon floor is restricted, visitors are allowed to travel in the canyons only when accompanied by a park ranger or an authorized Navajo guide; the only exception to this rule is the White House Ruin Trail. The park's distinctive geologic feature, Spider Rock, is a sandstone spire that rises 750 feet from the canyon floor at the junction of Canyon de Chelly and Monument Canyon.

Spider Rock can be seen from South Rim Drive. It has served as the scene of a number of television commercials. According to traditional Navajo beliefs, the taller of the two spires is the home of Spider Grandmother. Most park visitors arrive by automobile and view Canyon de Chelly from the rim, following both North Rim Drive and South Rim Drive. Ancient ruins and geologic structures are visible, but in the distance, from turnoffs on each of these routes. Deep within the park is Mummy Cave, it features structures. Private Navajo-owned companies offer tours of the canyon floor by horseback, hiking or four-wheel drive vehicle; the companies can be contacted directly for arrangements. No entrance fee is charged to enter the park, apart from any charges imposed by tour companies. Accommodations for visitors are located in the vicinity of the canyon, on the road leading to Chinle, the nearest town; the National Monument was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on August 25, 1970. The data below were compiled starting in 1908 via the WRCC.

Ancestral Puebloans Battle of Canyon de Chelly Mesa Verde National Park National Register of Historic Places listings in Apache County, Arizona Grant, Campbell. Canyon de Chelly: Its People and Rock Art. University of Arizona Press. ISBN 0-8165-0523-3. Official website "Canyon de Chelly National Monument". Geology Fieldnotes. National Park Service. Archived from the original on 2011-06-13. Retrieved 2011-06-29. Historic American Buildings Survey No. AZ-157, "Antelope House Ruin, Canyon del Muerto, Chinle vicinity, Apache County, AZ" HABS No. AZ-213, "Bad Trail Ruin, Chinle vicinity, Apache County, AZ" HABS No. AZ-211, "Ledge Ruin, Canyon del Muerto, Chinle vicinity, Apache County, AZ" HABS No. AZ-72, "Mummy Cave, Navajo Indian Reservation, Chinle vicinity, Apache County, AZ" HABS No. AZ-156, "White House Ruin, Navajo Indian Reservation, Chinle vicinity, Apache County, AZ" HABS No. AZ-212, "Yucca House Ruin, Canyon del Muerto, Chinle vicinity, Apache County, AZ" Canyon de Chelly Accessed 2013 January 15

The Best of N.W.A: The Strength of Street Knowledge

The Best of N. W. A: The Strength of Street Knowledge is a greatest hits compilation of N. W. A material, it contains some of their old remixes. There is a Deluxe 20th Anniversary Edition with a bonus DVD; the title is a reference to the quote from the intro to "Straight Outta Compton". Straight Outta Compton Ice Cube interview: hypocrisy of censorship Express Yourself Dr. Dre, DJ Yella & MC Ren interview: Compton and "Gangsta rap" 100 Miles and Runnin': new street version DJ Yella Interview - parental advisory stickering Appetite for Destruction: extended street version Dr. Dre, Eazy-E, DJ Yella & MC Ren interview: sex, change of life style Alwayz Into Somethin': street version Dr. Dre, Eazy-E, DJ Yella & MC Ren interview: Approach to Danger, arguing in the studio Ice Cube interview: role models, news as an influence, telling the truth and positivity

Ukrainian stickleback

The Ukrainian stickleback known as the Caspian ninespine stickleback, southern ninespine stickleback, Aral ninespine stickleback, is a species of fish in the family Gasterosteidae. It is found in Afghanistan, Iran, Moldova, Russia, Serbia and Ukraine. A combination of two characters: lack of caudal peduncle keel, presence of large lateral scutes, it is similar to P. hellenicus with the following differences. Body darker than P. hellenicus. All the bones well ossified, cranial bones and pelvic bones sculptured. Pelvic girdle present with one small soft ray on each side. Dorsal spines 8-11, inclined alternatively to right. Last spine longer than the others, which are uniform. Dorsal soft rays 6-10. Caudal fin truncated. Keivany, Y. 1996. Taxonomic revision of the genus Pungitius with emphasis on P. hellenicus. MSc thesis. Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta. Edmonton. 98 pp. Keivany, Y. and J. S. Nelson. 2000. Taxonomic review of the genus Pungitius, ninespine sticklebacks. Cybium, 24: 107-122.

Keivany, Y. and J. S. Nelson. 2004. Phylogenetic relationships of sticklebacks, with emphasis on ninespine sticklebacks. Behaviour, 141: 1485-1497. World Conservation Monitoring Centre 1996. Pungitius platygaster. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 5 August 2007