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Navajo Nation

The Navajo Nation is an American Indian territory covering about 17,544,500 acres, occupying portions of northeastern Arizona, southeastern Utah, northwestern New Mexico in the United States. This is the largest land area retained by an indigenous tribe in the United States, with a population of 350,000 as of 2016. By area, the Navajo Nation is larger than ten U. S. states – West Virginia, Hawaii, Vermont, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Connecticut and Rhode Island – and is less than one percent shy of being equal to the combined area of the last five. The original territory has expanded several times since the 19th century. In English, the official name for the area was "Navajo Indian Reservation", as outlined in Article II of the 1868 Treaty of Bosque Redondo. On April 15, 1969, the tribe changed its official name to the Navajo Nation, displayed on the seal; this was assertion of sovereignty. In 1994, the Tribal Council rejected a proposal to change the official designation from "Navajo" to "Diné."

It was remarked that the name Diné represented the time of suffering before the Long Walk, that Navajo is the appropriate designation for the future. In Navajo, the geographic entity with its defined borders is known as "Naabeehó Bináhásdzo"; this contrasts with "Diné Bikéyah" and "Naabeehó Bikéyah" for the general idea of "Navajoland". Neither of these terms should be confused with "Dinétah," the term used for the traditional homeland of the Navajo, situated in the area among the four sacred Navajo mountains of Dookʼoʼoosłííd, Dibé Ntsaa, Sisnaajiní, Tsoodził; the Navajo people's tradition of governance is rooted in oral history. The clan system of the Diné is integral to their society, as the rules of behavior found within the system extend to the manner of refined culture that the Navajo people call "to walk in Beauty"; the philosophy and clan system extend from before the Spanish colonial occupation of Dinetah, through to the July 25, 1868, Congressional ratification of the Navajo Treaty with President Andrew Johnson, signed by Barboncito and other chiefs and headmen present at Bosque Redondo.

The Navajo people have continued to transform their conceptual understandings of government since it joined the United States by the Treaty of 1868, They were the Natives and were accepted. Social and political academics continue to debate the nature of the modern Navajo governance and how it has evolved to include the systems and economies of the "western world". In the mid-19th century, most Navajo were forced from their lands by the US government, were marched on the Long Walk to imprisonment in Bosque Redondo; the Treaty of 1868 established the "Navajo Indian Reservation" and the Navajos left Bosque Redondo. The borders were defined as the 37th parallel in the north; as drafted in 1868, the boundaries were defined as: the following district of country, to wit: bounded on the north by the 37th degree of north latitude, south by an east and west line passing through the site of old Fort Defiance, in Canon Bonito, east by the parallel of longitude which, if prolonged south, would pass through old Fort Lyon, or the Ojo-de-oso, Bear Spring, west by a parallel of longitude about 109' 30" west of Greenwich, provided it embraces the outlet of the Canon-de-Chilly, which canyon is to be all included in this reservation, shall be, the same hereby, set apart for the use and occupation of the Navajo tribe of Indians, for such other friendly tribes or individual Indians as from time to time they may be willing, with the consent of the United States, to admit among them.

Though the treaty had provided for one hundred miles by one hundred miles in the New Mexico Territory, the size of the territory was 3,328,302 acres —slightly more than half. This initial piece of land is represented in the design of the Navajo Nation's flag by a dark-brown rectangle; as no physical boundaries or signposts were set in place, many Navajo ignored these formal boundaries and returned to where they had been living prior to captivity. A significant number of Navajo had never lived in the Hwéeldi, they remained or moved to near the Little Colorado and Colorado rivers, on Naatsisʼáán and some with Apache bands. The first expansion of the territory occurred on October 28, 1878, when President Rutherford Hayes signed an executive order pushing the reservation boundary 20 miles to the west. Further additions followed throughout the late early 20th century. Most of these additions were achieved through executive orders, some of which were confirmed by acts of Congress; the eastern border was shaped as a result of allotments of land to individual Navajo households under the Dawes Act of 1887.

This experiment was designed to assimilate Native Americans to the majority culture. The federal government pr

Warsi Brothers

Warsi Brothers are an Indian Qawwali musical group, consisting of brothers Nazeer Ahmed Khan Warsi and Naseer Ahmed Khan Warsi, along with eight accompanists. They are based in Hyderabad. Nazeer and Naseer are the sons of Zaheer Ahmed Khan Warsi, who along with his father, Aziz Ahmed Khan Warsi, constituted the previous incarnation of the Warsi Brothers. Muhammed Siddique Khan, an ancestor of the Warsi brothers, was a singer in the Mughal durbar. In 1857, when the Mughal empire dissolved, he became a court singer for the Nizam of Hyderabad. Muhammed Siddique Khan was the nephew of Tanras Khan. Warsi Brothers carry on their legacy by touring all over the world and are known for their intense performances, they perform Amir Khusro's qawwalis in their classical style. They are the music bearers of the gayeki of Delhi gharana and are noted for their melody and improvisation, they are renowned for their traditional Sufiana Qawwali, Ghazal's, Bhajan's and Classical Bandish. The brothers jointly received the Sangeet Natak Akademi Award for their contribution to Qawwali.

Nazeer Ahmed Khan Warsi and Naseer Ahmed Khan Warsi and Brothers have performed concerts in a number of cities in India as well as in many other countries. They perform at the dargah of Syed Shah Yousufuddin in Nampally every Thursday night from midnight. Official website of Warsi brothers

Titania (moon)

Titania is the largest of the moons of Uranus and the eighth largest moon in the Solar System at a diameter of 1,578 kilometres. Discovered by William Herschel in 1787, Titania is named after the queen of the fairies in Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream, its orbit lies inside Uranus's magnetosphere. Titania consists of equal amounts of ice and rock, is differentiated into a rocky core and an icy mantle. A layer of liquid water may be present at the core–mantle boundary; the surface of Titania, dark and red in color, appears to have been shaped by both impacts and endogenic processes. It is covered with numerous impact craters reaching up to 326 kilometres in diameter, but is less cratered than Oberon, outermost of the five large moons of Uranus. Titania underwent an early endogenic resurfacing event which obliterated its older cratered surface. Titania's surface is cut by a system of enormous canyons and scarps, the result of the expansion of its interior during the stages of its evolution.

Like all major moons of Uranus, Titania formed from an accretion disk which surrounded the planet just after its formation. Infrared spectroscopy conducted from 2001 to 2005 revealed the presence of water ice as well as frozen carbon dioxide on the surface of Titania, which in turn suggested that the moon may have a tenuous carbon dioxide atmosphere with a surface pressure of about 10 nanopascals. Measurements during Titania's occultation of a star put an upper limit on the surface pressure of any possible atmosphere at 1–2 mPa; the Uranian system has been studied up close only once, by the spacecraft Voyager 2 in January 1986. It took several images of Titania. Titania was discovered by William Herschel on January 11, 1787, the same day he discovered Uranus's second largest moon, Oberon, he reported the discoveries of four more satellites, although they were subsequently revealed as spurious. For nearly fifty years following their discovery and Oberon would not be observed by any instrument other than William Herschel's, although the moon can be seen from Earth with a present-day high-end amateur telescope.

All of Uranus's moons are named after characters created by Alexander Pope. The name Titania was taken from the Queen of the Fairies in A Midsummer Night's Dream; the names of all four satellites of Uranus known were suggested by Herschel's son John in 1852, at the request of William Lassell, who had discovered the other two moons and Umbriel, the year before. Titania was referred to as "the first satellite of Uranus", in 1848 was given the designation Uranus I by William Lassell, although he sometimes used William Herschel's numbering. In 1851 Lassell numbered all four known satellites in order of their distance from the planet by Roman numerals, since Titania has been designated Uranus III. Shakespeare's character's name is pronounced, but the moon is pronounced, by analogy with the familiar chemical element titanium; the adjectival form, Titanian, is homonymous with that of Saturn's moon Titan. The name Titania is ancient Greek in origin, meaning "Daughter of the Titans". Titania orbits Uranus at the distance of about 436,000 kilometres, being the second farthest from the planet among its five major moons.

Titania's orbit has a small eccentricity and is inclined little relative to the equator of Uranus. Its orbital period is around 8.7 days, coincident with its rotational period. In other words, Titania is a synchronous or tidally locked satellite, with one face always pointing toward the planet. Titania's orbit lies inside the Uranian magnetosphere; this is important, because the trailing hemispheres of satellites orbiting inside a magnetosphere are struck by magnetospheric plasma, which co-rotates with the planet. This bombardment may lead to the darkening of the trailing hemispheres, observed for all Uranian moons except Oberon; because Uranus orbits the Sun on its side, its moons orbit in the planet's equatorial plane, they are subject to an extreme seasonal cycle. Both northern and southern poles spend 42 years in a complete darkness, another 42 years in continuous sunlight, with the sun rising close to the zenith over one of the poles at each solstice; the Voyager 2 flyby coincided with the southern hemisphere's 1986 summer solstice, when nearly the entire southern hemisphere was illuminated.

Once every 42 years, when Uranus has an equinox and its equatorial plane intersects the Earth, mutual occultations of Uranus's moons become possible. In 2007–2008 a number of such events were observed including two occultations of Titania by Umbriel on August 15 and December 8, 2007. Titania is the largest and most massive Uranian moon, the eighth most massive moon in the Solar System, its density of 1.71 g/cm³, much higher than the typical density of Saturn's satellites, indicates that it consists of equal proportions of water ice and dense non-ice components. The presence of water ice is supported by infrared spectroscopic observations made in 2001–2005, which have revealed crystalline water ice on the surface of the moon. Water ice absorption bands are stronger on Titania's leading hemisphere than on the trailing hemisphere; this is the opposite of what is observed on Oberon, where the trailing hemisphere exhibits stronger water ice signatures. The cause of this asymmetry is not known, but it may be related to the bombardment by charged particles from the magnetos