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Cap badge

A cap badge known as head badge or hat badge, is a badge worn on uniform headgear and distinguishes the wearer's nationality and/or organisation. The wearing of cap badges is a convention found among military and police forces, as well as uniformed civilian groups such as the Boy Scouts, civil defence organisations, ambulance services, customs services, fire services etc. Cap badges are a modern form of heraldry and their design incorporates symbolic devices. In the British Army each regiment and corps has its own cap badge; the cap badge of the Queen's Royal Lancers is called a motto by those within the regiment, that of the Royal Horse Artillery is known as a cypher and that of the Coldstream Guards, Scots Guards and Irish Guards is known as a Capstar. That of the Grenadier Guards is known as The Grenade Fired Proper The concept of regimental badges appears to have originated with the British Army; the Encyclopædia Britannica's 1911 Edition notes that although branch badges for infantry, cavalry and so on were common to other armies of the time, only the British Army wore distinctive regimental devices.

Plastic cap badges were introduced during the Second World War, when metals became strategic materials. Nowadays many cap badges in the British Army are made of a material called "stay-brite", this is used because it is cheap and does not require as much maintenance as brass badges. Regimental cap badges are cast as one single piece but in a number of cases they may be cast in different pieces. For instance, the badge of the now amalgamated, The Highlanders was cast in two separate pieces: the Queen's Crown and the thistle forming one piece, the stag's head and scroll with regimental motto forming a second piece; the Royal Corps Of Signals have a two part badge. The top being a brass crown and the bottom consisting of a silver flying body of Mercury above a brass world and the motto Certa Cito. A regiment or battalion may maintain variations of the same cap badge for different ranks; these variations are in the badges' material and stylization. Variations in cap badges are made for: Officers: three-dimensional in design with more expensive materials such as silver and gilt.

Most officers' beret badges are embroidered rather than metal or "stay-brite". Senior Non-Commissioned Officers such as sergeants, Colour Sergeants and Warrant Officers: a more elaborate design compared with those worn by other ranks but not as elaborate as those worn by officers. There are exceptions such as the Welsh Guards. Officers wearing a more elaborate version to that of soldiers, made using gold thread and has a more three-dimensional design; the only exception to this is recruits in training who have to wear the brass leek referred to as the "NAAFI fork", only until they have passed out of training and reached their battalion will they receive their cloth leek. All ranks of the Special Air Service wear an embroidered capbadge and all ranks of The Rifles and Royal Regiment of Fusiliers wear the same metal badge; some regiments maintain a blackened or subdued version of their cap badges as shiny brass cap badges may attract the enemy's attention on the battlefield. However, since the practice of British soldiers operating in theatre with regimental headdress has all but died out, the wearing of these has become much less common in recent years.

The cap badge is positioned differently depending on the form of headdress: Service dress cap: above the centre point between the wearer's eyebrows Beret: above the left eye Side cap: Between the left eye and the left ear Scottish tam o'shanter: Between the left eye and the left ear Scottish glengarry: Between the left eye and the left ear Feather Bonnet: Slightly off the left ear towards the left eye Fusilier cap or Busby: Slightly off the left ear towards the left eye Jungle hat: Centre front or between left eye and left ear. Soldiers of the Gloucestershire Regiment and subsequently the Royal Gloucestershire and Wiltshire Regiment wore a cap badge on both the front and the rear of their headdress, a tradition maintained by soldiers in The Rifles when in service dress; the back badge is unique in the British Army and was awarded to the 28th Regiment of Foot for their actions at the Battle of Alexandria in 1801. Additional items that reflect a regiment's historical accomplishments, such as backing cloth and hackles, may be worn behind the cap badge.

In Scottish regiments, for instance, it is a tradition for soldiers to wear their cap badges on a small square piece of their regimental tartans. Officer Cadets may wear a small white backing behind their badges. Members of arms such as the Adjutant General's Corps and Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers serving on attachment to other units wear that regiment's beret or headdress but with their own Corps cap badge. For a period leading up to Remembrance Day artificial poppies are worn by many people in the United Kingdom and Canada to commemorate those killed in war; when worn in uniform the plastic stem of the poppy is discarded and the paper petals are fitted behind the beret badge where a metal cap badge is worn. On forage caps the paper petals are fitted under the left hand chin strap button. In the Royal Marines, the cap badges of commissioned officers are split into two, the crown and lion atop, but separated from, the globe and laurels. T

Spamigation

Spamigation is mass litigation conducted to intimidate large numbers of people. The term was coined by Brad Templeton of the Electronic Frontier Foundation to explain the tactics of the Recording Industry Association of America, which files large numbers of lawsuits against individuals for file sharing, DirecTV, which once filed large numbers of lawsuits against users of smart cards. Spamigation lawsuits are evidently rather inexpensive to conduct, which results in one source claiming that the RIAA makes more money from settlements in these cases than it costs to file the lawsuits; because of the costs of mounting a legal defense all defendants in these cases tend to settle. The RIAA uses the money from these settlements to "file more suits."In Brad Templeton's original message post about spamigation, he said: The RIAA strategy is an example of a new legal phenomenon that I have dubbed "spamigation" – bulk litigation that's only become practical due to the economies of scale of the computer era.

We see spamigation when a firm uses automation to send out thousands of cease and desist letters threatening legal action. We saw it when DirecTV took the customer database for a vendor of smartcard programmers and bulk-litigated everybody in it... The RIAA uses systems to gather lists of alleged infringers, bulk-sues them, it has set a price that seems to be profitable for it, while being low enough that it is not profitable for the accused to mount a defence, as they do not get the economies of scale involved. Spamigation is similar to a strategic lawsuit against public participation, filed by a large organization, or in some cases an individual plaintiff, to intimidate and silence a less powerful critic by so burdening them with the cost of a legal defense that they abandon their criticism. Spamigation differs in that it aims at stopping an economic activity, in the case of the RIAA's lawsuits the copying of copyrighted material. In the case of DirectTV's lawsuits, they were "sued for racketeering and the courts forced them to stop the spamigation campaign."

Viacom's recent lawsuits against YouTube and Google, in which over 100,000 DMCA takedown notices were sent, used a system of spamigation that sent notices to videos if they contained selected phrases of material under Viacom copyright. As a result of this technique, many non-infringing videos were removed. Scientology has been accused by critics of using spamigation under their Fair Game policy. L Ron Hubbard said that enemies of Scientology "May be deprived of property or injured by any means... May be tricked, sued or lied to or destroyed.". Hubbard is quoted as saying "The purpose of the suit is to harass and discourage rather than to win; the law can be used easily to harass, enough harassment on somebody, on the thin edge anyway, well knowing that he is not authorized, will be sufficient to cause his professional decease. If possible, of course, ruin him utterly. —L. Ron Hubbard, A Manual on the Dissemination of Material, 1955. See Scientology controversies Strategic lawsuit against public participation Chilling effect

Medial dorsal nucleus

The medial dorsal nucleus is a large nucleus in the thalamus. It is believed to play a role in memory, it relays inputs from the amygdala and olfactory cortex and projects to the prefrontal cortex and the limbic system and in turn relays them to the prefrontal association cortex. As a result, it plays a crucial role in attention, organization, abstract thinking, multi-tasking, active memory; the connections of the medial dorsal nucleus have been used to delineate the prefrontal cortex of the Göttingen minipig brain. By stereology the number of brain cells in the region has been estimated to around 6.43 million neurons in the adult human brain and 36.3 million glial cells, with the newborn having quite different numbers: around 11.2 million neurons and 10.6 million glial cells. While both the ventral and medial dorsal nuclei process pain, the medial dorsal nucleus bypasses primary cortices, sending their axons directly to secondary and association cortices; the cells send axons directly to many parts of the brain, including nuclei of the limbic system such as the lateral nucleus of the amygdala, the anterior cingulate, the hippocampus.

This part of the sensory system, known as the non-classical or extralemniscal system is less accurate, less detailed in regards to sensory signal analysis. This processing is known colloquially as "fast and dirty" rather than the "slow and accurate" system of classical or lemniscal system; this pathway activates parts of the brain. This nucleus is presumed to play a role in monitoring internal movements of the eye, its function is to relay the information about how the eyes will be moved from the superior colliculus to the frontal eye fields in order to aid the neurons in FEF to change their receptive fields to where the visual stimuli will appear after the saccade. Damage to the medial dorsal nucleus has been associated with Korsakoff's syndrome. Aage R. Moller "Pain: Its anatomy and treatment" 2012 Stained brain slice images which include the "Mediodorsal nucleus" at the BrainMaps project