Arniston (East Indiaman)
Arniston was an East Indiaman that made eight voyages for the British East India Company. She was wrecked on 30 May 1815 during a storm at Waenhuiskrans, near Cape Agulhas, South Africa, with the loss of 372 lives – only six on board survived, she had been chartered as a troopship and was underway from Ceylon to England on a journey to repatriate wounded soldiers from the Kandyan Wars. Controversially, the ship did not have a marine chronometer on board, a comparatively new navigational instrument, an "easy and cheap addition to her equipment" that would have enabled her to determine her longitude accurately. Instead, she was forced to navigate through the heavy storm and strong currents using older, less reliable navigational aids and dead reckoning. Navigational difficulties and a lack of headway led to an incorrect assumption that Cape Agulhas was Cape Point. Arniston was wrecked when her captain headed north for St Helena, operating on the incorrect belief the ship had passed Cape Point.
East Indiamen operated under charter or licence to the Honourable East India Company, which held a monopoly granted by Queen Elizabeth I of England for all English trade between the Cape of Good Hope and Cape Horn. Arniston was built at the Barnard yard at Deptford on the Thames and launched in 1794. Arniston was armed, with her fifty-eight guns making her the equivalent of a Royal Navy fourth-rate ship of the line. A classification of "ship of the line" – a class of ship that evolved into the battleship – meant that a ship was powerful enough to stand in a line of battle and explained why these ships of commerce were sometimes mistaken for men-o-war; the armament was necessary for the ship to protect herself and her valuable cargo from pirates and commerce raiders of other nations during long voyages between Europe and the Far East. Arniston, like other East Indiamen, was slow and unmanoeuvrable, but able to carry a large quantity of cargo. Arniston sailed from Great Britain to the Far East eight times before her last voyage.
On one of her homeward journeys from China, she struck an uncharted rock at 5°46′8″S 105°16′43″E, near the island of Pulo Goondy, located just south of Sumatra. She did not suffer any ill effects as a result of this incident however, mentioned in journals of the time only for its noteworthiness as a navigation hazard to other shipping. Apart from this and another incident in 1800, Arniston's first eight voyages were uneventful. Captain Campbell Marjoribanks: 3 April 1795: Portsmouth 14 April: Tenerife 2 June: St Helena 9 August: Cape of Good Hope 27 September: Madras 14 November: Penang 3 December: Malacca 11 March 1796: Whampoa 23 April: Second Bar 29 June: Macau 20 November: St Helena 1 March 1797: DeptfordWhile Arniston was at St Helena on her outward journey, she undertook to transport troops from there to join Lord Elphinstone, undertaking an expedition to capture Cape Colony from the Dutch. On 10 July George Vancouver arrived in HMS Discovery. Vancouver was returning to England after his four-and-a-half-year long voyage of exploration.
He transferred to Arniston four field guns that he had been carrying, together with what ammunition he had left for them, for onward transmission to Elphinstone. Discovery's boats helped in the ferrying of troops from shore to Arniston. Arniston was to ferry nine field pieces, as well as a company of artillery and three of infantry, to Elphinstone. On this voyage Arniston sailed under a letter of marque in the name of Captain William Macnamara, dated 13 May 1797, her itinerary was: 5 June 1797: Portsmouth 29 August: Cape of Good Hope 9 December: Whampoa 14 February 1798: Second Bar 26 March: Macau 5 August: St Helena 23 October: Long Reach On this voyage Arniston sailed under a letter of marque in the name of Captain Campbell Marjoribanks, dated 29 November 1799. Her itinerary was: 7 January 1800: Portsmouth 4 April: St Helena 27 June: Benkulen 29 July: Penang 27 August: Malacca 21 September: Whampoa 29 November: Second Bar 18 January 1801: Macau 15 April: St Helena 17 June: Long ReachDuring this voyage Arniston had just anchored at Benkulen on 27 June 1800, when the 26-gun French privateer Confiance attacked her.
Arniston cut her anchor and gave chase, firing several broadsides into the other ship, but the faster French ship was able to make an escape. On 9 October 1800, the East Indiaman Kent would be less fortunate. Captain Campbell Marjoribanks: 31 December 1801: Downs 9 March 1802: St Helena 10 June: Benkulen 12 July: Penang 31 August: Whampoa 24 October: Second Bar 11 February 1803: St Helena 26 April: Long Reach On this voyage Arniston sailed under a letter of marque in the name of Captain James Jameson, dated 24 March 1804, her itinerary was:On 9 June 1804, Arniston left St. Helens, Isle of Wight, as part of a convoy of nine East Indiamen of the British East India Company, all bound for China; the Indiamen were Alnwick Castle, Cuffnells, Perseverance, Royal Charlotte, Taunton Castle, True Briton. HMS Athenienne provided the escort; the fleet arrived at Rio de Janeiro around 14–18 August. It passed the Cape of Good Hope. From here, rather than passing through the Indian Ocean and the Straits of Malacca, the fleet sailed south of Western Australia and through Bass Strait.
The objectives were two-fold: to avoid French ships reported to be in the Indian Ocean, to improve the charting of Bass Strait. The ships sailed to Norfolk Island, the next rendezvous point after Saint Paul Island, for members that had separated. Taunton Castle had separated in the South Atlantic and although she arrived at Norfolk Island three days after the fleet had sailed on, did not rejoin the rest of the fleet until she arrived at Haerlem
Relative humidity is the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapor to the equilibrium vapor pressure of water at a given temperature. Relative humidity depends on the pressure of the system of interest; the same amount of water vapor results in higher relative humidity in cool air than warm air. A related parameter is that of dewpoint; the relative humidity of an air–water mixture is defined as the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapor in the mixture to the equilibrium vapor pressure of water over a flat surface of pure water at a given temperature: ϕ = p H 2 O p H 2 O ∗. Relative humidity is expressed as a percentage. At 100 % relative humidity, the air is at its dewpoint. Climate control refers to the control of temperature and relative humidity in buildings and other enclosed spaces for the purpose of providing for human comfort and safety, of meeting environmental requirements of machines, sensitive materials and technical processes. Along with air temperature, mean radiant temperature, air speed, metabolic rate, clothing level, relative humidity plays a role in human thermal comfort.
According to ASHRAE Standard 55-2017: Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy, indoor thermal comfort can be achieved through the PMV method with relative humidities ranging from 0% to 100%, depending on the levels of the other factors contributing to thermal comfort. However, the recommended range of indoor relative humidity in air conditioned buildings is 30-60%. In general, higher temperatures will require lower relative humidities to achieve thermal comfort compared to lower temperatures, with all other factors held constant. For example, with clothing level = 1, Metabolic rate = 1.1, air speed 0.1 m/s, a change in air temperature and mean radiant temperature from 20 degrees C to 24 degrees C would lower the maximum acceptable relative humidity from 100% to 65% to maintain thermal comfort conditions. The CBE Thermal Comfort Tool can be used to demonstrate the effect of relative humidity for specific thermal comfort conditions and it can be used to demonstrate compliance with ASHRAE Standard 55-2017.
When using the adaptive model to predict thermal comfort indoors, relative humidity is not taken into account. Although relative humidity is an important factor for thermal comfort, humans are more sensitive to variations in temperature than they are to changes in relative humidity. Relative humidity has a small effect on thermal comfort outdoors when air temperatures are low, a more pronounced effect at moderate air temperatures, a much stronger influence at higher air temperatures. In cold climates, the outdoor temperature causes lower capacity for water vapor to flow about, thus although it may be snowing and the relative humidity outdoors is high, once that air comes into a building and heats up, its new relative humidity is low, making the air dry, which can cause discomfort. Dry cracked. Low humidity causes tissue lining nasal passages to dry and become more susceptible to penetration of Rhinovirus cold viruses. Low humidity is a common cause of nosebleeds; the use of a humidifier in homes bedrooms, can help with these symptoms.
Indoor relative humidities should be kept above 30% to reduce the likelihood of the occupant's nasal passages drying out. Humans can be comfortable within a wide range of humidities depending on the temperature—from 30% to 70%—but ideally between 50% and 60%. Low humidity can create discomfort, respiratory problems, aggravate allergies in some individuals. In the winter, it is advisable to maintain relative humidity above. Low relative humidities may cause eye irritation. For climate control in buildings using HVAC systems, the key is to maintain the relative humidity at a comfortable range—low enough to be comfortable but high enough to avoid problems associated with dry air; when the temperature is high and the relative humidity is low, evaporation of water is rapid. Wooden furniture can shrink; when the temperature is low and the relative humidity is high, evaporation of water is slow. When relative humidity approaches 100 percent, condensation can occur on surfaces, leading to problems with mold, corrosion and other moisture-related deterioration.
Condensation can pose a safety risk as it can promote the growth of mold and wood rot as well as freezing emergency exits shut. Certain production and technical processes and treatments in factories, laboratories and other facilities require specific relative humidity levels to be maintained using humidifiers and associated control systems; the basic principles for buildings, above apply to vehicles. In addition, there may be safety considerations. For instance, high humidity inside a vehicle can lead to problems of condensation, such
A continental shelf is a portion of a continent, submerged under an area of shallow water known as a shelf sea. Much of the shelves were exposed during interglacial periods; the shelf surrounding an island is known as an insular shelf. The continental margin, between the continental shelf and the abyssal plain, comprises a steep continental slope followed by the flatter continental rise. Sediment from the continent above cascades down the slope and accumulates as a pile of sediment at the base of the slope, called the continental rise. Extending as far as 500 km from the slope, it consists of thick sediments deposited by turbidity currents from the shelf and slope; the continental rise's gradient is intermediate between the shelf. Under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, the name continental shelf was given a legal definition as the stretch of the seabed adjacent to the shores of a particular country to which it belongs. Width of the continental shelf varies – it is not uncommon for an area to have no shelf at all where the forward edge of an advancing oceanic plate dives beneath continental crust in an offshore subduction zone such as off the coast of Chile or the west coast of Sumatra.
The largest shelf – the Siberian Shelf in the Arctic Ocean – stretches to 1,500 kilometers in width. The South China Sea lies over another extensive area of continental shelf, the Sunda Shelf, which joins Borneo and Java to the Asian mainland. Other familiar bodies of water that overlie continental shelves are the North Sea and the Persian Gulf; the average width of continental shelves is about 80 km. The depth of the shelf varies, but is limited to water shallower than 100 m; the slope of the shelf is quite low, on the order of 0.5°. Though the continental shelf is treated as a physiographic province of the ocean, it is not part of the deep ocean basin proper, but the flooded margins of the continent. Passive continental margins such as most of the Atlantic coasts have wide and shallow shelves, made of thick sedimentary wedges derived from long erosion of a neighboring continent. Active continental margins have narrow steep shelves, due to frequent earthquakes that move sediment to the deep sea.
The shelf ends at a point of increasing slope. The sea floor below the break is the continental slope. Below the slope is the continental rise, which merges into the deep ocean floor, the abyssal plain; the continental shelf and the slope are part of the continental margin. The shelf area is subdivided into the inner continental shelf, mid continental shelf, outer continental shelf, each with their specific geomorphology and marine biology; the character of the shelf changes at the shelf break, where the continental slope begins. With a few exceptions, the shelf break is located at a remarkably uniform depth of 140 m; the continental slope is much steeper than the shelf. The slope is cut with submarine canyons; the physical mechanisms involved in forming these canyons were not well understood until the 1960s. The continental shelves are covered by terrigenous sediments. However, little of the sediment is from current rivers. Sediments become fine with distance from the coast; these accumulate 15–40 cm every millennium, much faster than deep-sea pelagic sediments.
Continental shelves teem with life because of the sunlight available in shallow waters, in contrast to the biotic desert of the oceans' abyssal plain. The pelagic environment of the continental shelf constitutes the neritic zone, the benthic province of the shelf is the sublittoral zone. Though the shelves are fertile, if anoxic conditions prevail during sedimentation, the deposits may over geologic time become sources for fossil fuels; the accessible continental shelf is the best understood part of the ocean floor. Most commercial exploitation from the sea, such as metallic-ore, non-metallic ore, hydrocarbon extraction, takes place on the continental shelf. Sovereign rights over their continental shelves up to a depth of 100 m or to a distance where the depth of waters admitted of resource exploitation were claimed by the marine nations that signed the Convention on the Continental Shelf drawn up by the UN's International Law Commission in 1958; this was superseded by the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.
Which created the 200 nautical miles exclusive economic zone, plus continental shelf rights for states with physical continental shelves that extend beyond that distance. The legal definition of a continental shelf differs from the geological definition. UNCLOS states that the shelf extends to the limit of the continental margin, but no less than 200 nmi and no more than 350 nmi from the baseline, thus inhabited volcanic islands such as the Canaries, which have no actual continental shelf, nonetheless have a legal continental shelf, whereas uninhabitable islands have no shelf. Baseline Continental Island Continental shelf pump Continental shelf of Russia Exclusive ec
A headland is a coastal landform, a point of land high and with a sheer drop, that extends into a body of water. It is a type of promontory. A headland of considerable size is called a cape. Headlands are characterised by high, breaking waves, rocky shores, intense erosion, steep sea cliffs. Headlands and bays are found on the same coastline. A bay is flanked by land on three sides. Headlands and bays form on discordant coastlines, where bands of rock of alternating resistance run perpendicular to the coast. Bays form when weak rocks are eroded, leaving bands of stronger rocks forming a headland, or peninsula. Through the deposition of sediment within the bay and the erosion of the headlands, coastlines straighten out start the same process all over again. Cap-Vert, Senegal Cape Agulhas, South Africa, Africa's southernmost point Cape Blanc, Mauritania Cape Bojador, Western Sahara Cape Correntes, Mozambique Cape Delgado, Mozambique Cape Juby, Morocco Cape Malabata, Morocco Cape of Good Hope, South Africa Ras ben Sakka, Africa's northernmost point Cabo de Rama, India Cape Dezhnev, Russia Cape Engano, Philippines Indira Point and Nicobar Islands, India Kanyakumari or Cape Comorin, Tamil Nadu, India Beachy Head, England Cabo da Roca, the western tip of mainland Europe Cabo de São Vicente/Sagres, the southwestern tip of mainland Europe Cap Gris Nez, France Cape Arkona, Germany Cape Emine, Bulgaria Cape Enniberg, Faroe Islands Cape Finisterre, Spain Cape Greco, Cyprus Cape Kaliakra, Bulgaria Cape Tainaron, the southern tip of mainland Europe Cape Wrath, Scotland Gibraltar Great Orme, Wales Land's End, England Mull of Kintyre, Scotland North Cape, the northern tip of mainland Europe Pointe du Raz, France St Bees Head, UK, the most westerly point of northern England Cape Chidley and Labrador/Nunavut Cape Columbia, Canada's northernmost point Cape Freels and Labrador Cape Norman and Labrador Cape Spear and Labrador, Canada's easternmost point Cape Tormentine, New Brunswick Cape Farewell, Greenland's southernmost point Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur, Mexico Cape Ann, Massachusetts Cape Canaveral, Florida Cape Charles, Virginia Cape Cod, Massachusetts Cape Fear, North Carolina Cape Flattery, Washington Cape Hatteras, North Carolina Cape Henlopen, Delaware Cape Henry, Virginia Cape May, New Jersey Cape Mendocino, California Cape Prince of Wales, Alaska Cascade Head, Oregon Diamond Head, Hawaii Heceta Head, Oregon Hilton Head, South Carolina Koko Head, Hawaii Marin Headlands, California Mount Mitchill, New Jersey North Shore, Lake Superior, Minnesota Point Reyes, California Cape Leeuwin, Western Australia Cape York, Queensland South East Cape, Tasmania South West Cape, Tasmania Sydney Heads, New South Wales Cape Egmont Cape Foulwind Cape Reinga East Cape North Cape Young Nick's Head Cape Froward, Chile Cape Horn, South America's southernmost point Cape Virgenes, Argentina Cape Headlands and bays
Thermohaline circulation is a part of the large-scale ocean circulation, driven by global density gradients created by surface heat and freshwater fluxes. The adjective thermohaline derives from thermo- referring to temperature and -haline referring to salt content, factors which together determine the density of sea water. Wind-driven surface currents travel polewards from the equatorial Atlantic Ocean, cooling en route, sinking at high latitudes; this dense water flows into the ocean basins. While the bulk of it upwells in the Southern Ocean, the oldest waters upwell in the North Pacific. Extensive mixing therefore takes place between the ocean basins, reducing differences between them and making the Earth's oceans a global system. On their journey, the water masses transport both mass of substances around the globe; as such, the state of the circulation has a large impact on the climate of the Earth. The thermohaline circulation is sometimes called the ocean conveyor belt, the great ocean conveyor, or the global conveyor belt.
On occasion, it is used to refer to the meridional overturning circulation. The term MOC is more accurate and well defined, as it is difficult to separate the part of the circulation, driven by temperature and salinity alone as opposed to other factors such as the wind and tidal forces. Moreover and salinity gradients can lead to circulation effects that are not included in the MOC itself; the movement of surface currents pushed by the wind is intuitive. For example, the wind produces ripples on the surface of a pond, thus the deep ocean—devoid of wind—was assumed to be static by early oceanographers. However, modern instrumentation shows that current velocities in deep water masses can be significant. In general, ocean water velocities range from fractions of centimeters per second to sometimes more than 1 m/s in surface currents like the Gulf Stream and Kuroshio. In the deep ocean, the predominant driving force is differences in density, caused by salinity and temperature variations. There is confusion over the components of the circulation that are wind and density driven.
Note that ocean currents due to tides are significant in many places. There they are thought to facilitate mixing processes diapycnal mixing; the density of ocean water is not globally homogeneous, but varies and discretely. Defined boundaries exist between water masses which form at the surface, subsequently maintain their own identity within the ocean, but these sharp boundaries are not to be imagined spatially but rather in a T-S-diagram where water masses are distinguished. They position themselves above or below each other according to their density, which depends on both temperature and salinity. Warm seawater is thus less dense than cooler seawater. Saltier water is denser than fresher water because the dissolved salts fill interstices between water molecules, resulting in more mass per unit volume. Lighter water masses float over denser ones; this is known as "stable stratification" as opposed to unstable stratification where denser waters are located over less dense waters. When dense water masses are first formed, they are not stably stratified, so they seek to locate themselves in the correct vertical position according to their density.
This motion is called it orders the stratification by gravitation. Driven by the density gradients this sets up the main driving force behind deep ocean currents like the deep western boundary current; the thermohaline circulation is driven by the formation of deep water masses in the North Atlantic and the Southern Ocean caused by differences in temperature and salinity of the water. The great quantities of dense water sinking at high latitudes must be offset by equal quantities of water rising elsewhere. Note that cold water in polar zones sink rapidly over a small area, while warm water in temperate and tropical zones rise more across a much larger area, it slowly returns poleward near the surface to repeat the cycle. The continual diffuse upwelling of deep water maintains the existence of the permanent thermocline found everywhere at low and mid-latitudes; this model was described by Henry Stommel and Arnold B. Arons in 1960 and is known as the Stommel-Arons box model for the MOC; this slow upward movement is approximated to be about 1 centimeter per day over most of the ocean.
If this rise were to stop, downward movement of heat would cause the thermocline to descend and would reduce its steepness. The dense water masses that sink into the deep basins are formed in quite specific areas of the North Atlantic and the Southern Ocean. In the North Atlantic, seawater at the surface of the ocean is intensely cooled by the wind and low ambient air temperatures. Wind moving over the water produces a great deal of evaporation, leading to a decrease in temperature, called evaporative cooling related to latent heat. Evaporation removes only water molecules, resulting in an increase in the salinity of the seawater left behind, thus an increase in the density of the water mass along with the decrease in tem
Portuguese discoveries are the numerous territories and maritime routes discovered by the Portuguese as a result of their intensive maritime exploration during the 15th and 16th centuries. Portuguese sailors were at the vanguard of European overseas exploration and mapping the coasts of Africa, Canada and Brazil, in what became known as the Age of Discovery. Methodical expeditions started in 1419 along West Africa's coast under the sponsorship of prince Henry the Navigator, with Bartolomeu Dias reaching the Cape of Good Hope and entering the Indian Ocean in 1488. Ten years in 1498, Vasco da Gama led the first fleet around Africa to India, arriving in Calicut and starting a maritime route from Portugal to India. Portuguese explorations proceeded to southeast Asia, where they reached Japan in 1542, forty-four years after their first arrival in India. In 1500, the Portuguese nobleman Pedro Álvares Cabral became the first European to discover Brazil. In 1139 the Kingdom of Portugal achieved independence from León, having doubled its area with the Reconquista under Afonso Henriques.
In 1297 king Denis of Portugal took personal interest in the development of exports, having organized the export of surplus production to European countries. On May 10, 1293 he instituted a maritime insurance fund for Portuguese traders living in the County of Flanders, which were to pay certain sums according to tonnage, accrued to them when necessary. Wine and dried fruits from Algarve were sold in Flanders and England, salt from Setúbal and Aveiro was a profitable export to northern Europe, leather and kermes, a scarlet dye, were exported. Portuguese imported armors and munitions, fine clothes and several manufactured products from Flanders and Italy. In 1317 king Denis made an agreement with Genoese merchant sailor Manuel Pessanha, appointing him first Admiral with trade privileges with his homeland in return for twenty war ships and crews, with the goal of defending the country against Muslim pirate raids, thus laying the basis for the Portuguese Navy and establishment of a Genoese merchant community in Portugal.
Forced to reduce their activities in the Black Sea, the Republic of Genoa had turned to north African trade of wheat, olive oil and a search for gold – navigating into the ports of Bruges and England. Genoese and Florentine communities established since in Portugal, who profited from the enterprise and financial experience of these rivals of the Republic of Venice. In the second half of the fourteenth century outbreaks of bubonic plague led to severe depopulation: the economy was localized in a few towns, migration from the country led to agricultural land being abandoned and resulting in village unemployment rise. Only the sea offered alternatives, with most people trading coastal areas. Between 1325–1357 Afonso IV of Portugal granted public funding to raise a proper commercial fleet and ordered the first maritime explorations, with the help of Genoese, under command of admiral Manuel Pessanha. In 1341 the Canary Islands known to Genoese, were discovered under the patronage of the Portuguese king, but in 1344 Castile disputed them, further propelling the Portuguese navy efforts.
In 1415, Ceuta was occupied by the Portuguese aiming to control navigation of the African coast, moved by expanding Christianity with the avail of the Pope and a desire of the unemployed nobility for epic acts of war after the reconquista. Young prince Henry the Navigator was there and became aware of profit possibilities in the Saharan trade routes. Governor of the rich Order of Christ since 1420 and holding valuable monopolies on resources in Algarve, he invested in sponsoring voyages down the coast of Mauritania, gathering a group of merchants, shipowners and participants interested in the sea lanes, his brother Prince Pedro, granted him a royal monopoly of all profits from trading within the areas discovered. Soon the Atlantic islands of Madeira and Azores were reached. There wheat and sugarcane were cultivated, like in Algarve, by the Genoese, becoming profitable activities; this helped. Henry the Navigator took the lead role in encouraging Portuguese maritime exploration until his death in 1460.
At the time, Europeans did not know. Henry wished to know how far the Muslim territories in Africa extended, whether it was possible to reach Asia by sea, both to reach the source of the lucrative spice trade and to join forces with the long-lost Christian kingdom of Prester John, rumoured to exist somewhere in the "Indies". In 1419 two of Henry's captains, João Gonçalves Zarco and Tristão Vaz Teixeira were driven by a storm to Madeira, an uninhabited island off the coast of Africa, known to Europeans since the 14th century. In 1420 Zarco and Teixeira returned with Bartolomeu Perestrelo and began Portuguese settlement of the islands. A Portuguese attempt to capture Grand Canary, one of the nearby Canary Islands, settled by Spaniards in 1402 was unsuccessful and met with protestations from Castile. Although the exact details are uncertain, cartographic evidence suggests the Azores were discovered in 1427 by Portuguese ships sailing under Henry's direction, settled in 1432, suggesting that the Portuguese were able to navigate at least 745 miles from the Portuguese coast.
At around the same time as the unsuccessful attack on the Canary Islands, the Portuguese began to explore the North African coast. Sailors feared what lay beyond Cape Bojador, whether it was possible to return once it was passed. In 1434 one of Prince Henry's ca
Agulhas National Park
The Agulhas National Park is a South African national park located in the Agulhas Plain in the southern Overberg region of the Western Cape, about 200 kilometres south-east of Cape Town. The park stretches along the coastal plain between the towns of Gansbaai and Struisbaai, includes the southern tip of Africa at Cape Agulhas; as of January 2009 it covered an area of 20,959 hectares. The primary tourist attraction in the park is Cape Agulhas, the southernmost tip of Africa and the official meeting-point of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Nearby is the Agulhas lighthouse, the second-oldest lighthouse in South Africa, which includes a small museum and tearoom. Whale watching in season - November to January. Animals to see include the southern right whale, African black oystercatcher, Damara tern and Cape platanna. Agulhas National Park at South African National Parks