The Cape of Good Hope known as the Cape Colony, was a British colony in present-day South Africa, named after the Cape of Good Hope. The British colony was preceded by an earlier Dutch colony of the same name, the Kaap de Goede Hoop, established in 1652 by the Dutch East India Company; the Cape was under Dutch rule from 1652 to 1795 and again from 1803 to 1806. The Dutch lost the colony to Great Britain following the 1795 Battle of Muizenberg, but had it returned following the 1802 Peace of Amiens, it was re-occupied by the UK following the Battle of Blaauwberg in 1806, British possession affirmed with the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814. The Cape of Good Hope remained in the British Empire, becoming self-governing in 1872, uniting with three other colonies to form the Union of South Africa in 1910, it was renamed the Province of the Cape of Good Hope. South Africa became a sovereign state in 1931 by the Statute of Westminster. In 1961 it obtained its own monetary unit called the Rand. Following the 1994 creation of the present-day South African provinces, the Cape Province was partitioned into the Eastern Cape, Northern Cape, Western Cape, with smaller parts in North West province.
The Cape of Good Hope was coextensive with the Cape Province, stretching from the Atlantic coast inland and eastward along the southern coast, constituting about half of modern South Africa: the final eastern boundary, after several wars against the Xhosa, stood at the Fish River. In the north, the Orange River known as the Gariep River, served as the boundary for some time, although some land between the river and the southern boundary of Botswana was added to it. From 1878, the colony included the enclave of Walvis Bay and the Penguin Islands, both in what is now Namibia. An expedition of the Dutch East India Company led by Jan van Riebeeck established a trading post and naval victualing station at the Cape of Good Hope in 1652. Van Riebeeck's objective was to secure a harbour of refuge for Dutch ships during the long voyages between Europe and Asia. Within about three decades, the Cape had become home to a large community of "vrijlieden" known as "vrijburgers", former VOC employees who settled in Dutch colonies overseas after completing their service contracts.
Vrijburgers were married Dutch citizens who undertook to spend at least twenty years farming the land within the fledgling colony's borders. Reflecting the multi-national nature of the early trading companies, the Dutch granted vrijburger status to a number of former Scandinavian and German employees as well. In 1688 they sponsored the immigration of nearly two hundred French Huguenot refugees who had fled to the Netherlands upon the Edict of Fontainebleau. There was a degree of cultural assimilation due to intermarriage, the universal adoption of the Dutch language. Many of the colonists who settled directly on the frontier became independent and localised in their loyalties. Known as Boers, they migrated westwards beyond the Cape Colony's initial borders and had soon penetrated a thousand kilometres inland; some Boers adopted a nomadic lifestyle permanently and were denoted as trekboers. The Dutch colonial period was marred by a number of bitter conflicts between the colonists and the Khoisan, followed by the Xhosa, both of which they perceived as unwanted competitors for prime farmland.
Dutch traders imported thousands of slaves to the Cape of Good Hope from the Dutch East Indies and other parts of Africa. By the end of the eighteenth century the Cape's population swelled to about 26,000 people of European descent and 30,000 slaves. In 1795, France occupied the Seven Provinces of the Netherlands, the mother country of the Dutch East India Company; this prompted Great Britain to occupy the territory in 1795 as a way to better control the seas in order to stop any potential French attempt to reach India. The British sent a fleet of nine warships which anchored at Simon's Town and, following the defeat of the Dutch militia at the Battle of Muizenberg, took control of the territory; the Dutch East India Company transferred its territories and claims to the Batavian Republic in 1798, went bankrupt in 1799. Improving relations between Britain and Napoleonic France, its vassal state the Batavian Republic, led the British to hand the Cape of Good Hope over to the Batavian Republic in 1803, under the terms of the Treaty of Amiens.
In 1806, the Cape, now nominally controlled by the Batavian Republic, was occupied again by the British after their victory in the Battle of Blaauwberg. The temporary peace between the UK and Napoleonic France had crumbled into open hostilities, whilst Napoleon had been strengthening his influence on the Batavian Republic; the British, who set up a colony on 8 January 1806, hoped to keep Napoleon out of the Cape, to control the Far East trade routes. The Cape Colony at the time of British occupation was three months’ sailing distance from London; the white colonial population, was small no more than 25,000 in all, scattered across a territory of 100,000 square miles. Most lived in Cape Town and the surrounding farming districts of the Boland, an area favoured with rich soils, a Mediterranean climate and reliable rainfall. Cape Town had a population of 16,000 people. In 1814 the Dutch government formally ceded sovereignty over the Cape to the British, under the terms of the Convention of London.
The British started to settle the eastern border of the colony, with the arrival in Port Elizabeth of the 1820 Settlers. They began to introduce the first ru
Daniel Roy Parsons is professor of process sedimentology at the University of Hull. He is a visiting professor at the University of Leeds, he obtained his PhD at the University of Sheffield in 2003. Parsons has claimed that the most significant marker for the Anthropocene age may be the fossilisation of plastic debris such as formed in plastiglomerate. 2010: Gordon Warwick Award from the British Society for Geomorphology 2012: Chandler-Misener Award from the International Association for Great Lakes Research 2015: Bigsby Medal from The Geological Society of London Darby, S. E. Hackney, C. R. Leyland, J. Kummu, M. Lauri, H. Parsons, D. R. Best, J. L. Nicholas A. P. and Aalto, R.'Fluvial Sediment Supply to a Mega-Delta Reduced by Shifting Tropical-Cyclone Activity', Nature, 539, 276–279, doi:10.1038/nature19809. Parsons, D. R. et al, in press,'The Role of Bio-physical Cohesion on Subaqueous Bedform Size', Geophysical Research Letters, February, 2016. Malarkey, J. Baas, J. H. Hope, J. A. Aspden, R. J. Parsons, D.
R. et al.'The Pervasive Role of Biological Cohesion in Bedform Development', Nature Communications, 6, 6257. Reesink, A. J. H. Van den Berg, J. H. Parsons, D. R. Amsler, M. L. Best, J. L. Hardy, R. J. Orfeo, O. and Szupiany, R. N.'Extremes in Dune Preservation: Controls on the Completeness of Fluvial Deposits', Earth-Science Reviews, 150, 652-665. Schindler, R. J. Parsons, D. R. et al,'Sticky Stuff: Redefining Bedform Prediction in Modern and Ancient Environments', Geology, 43, 399-402. Https://twitter.com/bedform?lang=en https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Daniel_Parsons2 https://blogs.egu.eu/divisions/gm/2017/11/09/getting-to-know-the-gm-presidency-candidates-1-dan-parsons/
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Editor-in-chief, George M. Garrity. Bergey's manual of systematic bacteriology. New York: Springer. ISBN 0-387-24145-0. CS1 maint: extra text: authors list Neilson, with contributions by A.-S. Allard... Vol. ed.: Alasdair H.. Organic iodine compounds. Berlin: Springer. ISBN 3-540-02777-7. Neilson, Alasdair H.. Environmental degradation and transformation of organic chemicals. Boca Raton: CRC Press/Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-4200-0677-3. Ratledge, edited by Colin. Biochemistry of microbial degradation. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands. ISBN 94-011-1687-3. CS1 maint: extra text: authors list Type strain of Xanthobacter autotrophicus at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase