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Cape Verde

Cape Verde or Cabo Verde the Republic of Cabo Verde, is an island country spanning an archipelago of 10 volcanic islands in the central Atlantic Ocean. It forms part of the Macaronesia ecoregion, along with the Azores, Canary Islands and the Savage Isles. Located 570 kilometres west of the Cape Verde Peninsula off the coast of Northwest Africa, the islands cover a combined area of 4,033 square kilometres; the Cape Verde archipelago was uninhabited until the 15th century, when Portuguese explorers discovered and colonized the islands, establishing the first European settlement in the tropics. Ideally located for the Atlantic slave trade, the islands grew prosperous throughout the 16th and 17th centuries, attracting merchants and pirates; the end of transatlantic slavery in the 19th century led to economic emigration. Cape Verde recovered as an important commercial center and stopover for shipping routes. Incorporated as an overseas department of Portugal in 1951, the islands continued to campaign for independence, achieved in 1975.

Since the early 1990s, Cape Verde has been a stable representative democracy, remains one of the most developed and democratic countries in Africa. Lacking natural resources, its developing economy is service-oriented, with a growing focus on tourism and foreign investment, its population of around 550,000 is of mixed European, Moorish and African heritage, predominantly Roman Catholic, reflecting the legacy of Portuguese rule. A sizeable diaspora community exists across the world outnumbering inhabitants on the islands; the name "Cape Verde" has been used in English for the archipelago and, since independence in 1975, for the country. In 2013, the Cape Verdean government determined that the Portuguese designation Cabo Verde would henceforth be used for official purposes, such as at the United Nations in English contexts. Cape Verde is a member of the African Union; the country is named on the Senegalese coast. In 1444, a few years before they discovered the islands, Portuguese explorers named that landmark Cabo Verde.

On 24 October 2013, the country's delegation announced at the United Nations that the official name should no longer be translated into other languages. Instead of "Cape Verde", the designation "Republic of Cabo Verde" is to be used. Before the arrival of Europeans, the Cape Verde Islands were uninhabited, they were discovered by Genoese and Portuguese navigators around 1456. According to Portuguese official records, the first discoveries were made by Genoa-born António de Noli, afterwards appointed governor of Cape Verde by Portuguese King Afonso V. Other navigators mentioned as contributing to discoveries in the Cape Verde archipelago are Diogo Gomes, Diogo Dias, Diogo Afonso and the Italian Alvise Cadamosto. In 1462, Portuguese settlers arrived at Santiago and founded a settlement they called Ribeira Grande. Ribeira Grande was the first permanent European settlement in the tropics. In the 16th century, the archipelago prospered from the Atlantic slave trade. Pirates attacked the Portuguese settlements.

Francis Drake, an English privateer, twice sacked the capital Ribeira Grande in 1585 when it was a part of the Iberian Union. After a French attack in 1712, the town declined in importance relative to nearby Praia, which became the capital in 1770. Decline in the slave trade in the 19th century resulted in an economic crisis. Cape Verde's early prosperity vanished. However, the islands' position astride mid-Atlantic shipping lanes made Cape Verde an ideal location for re-supplying ships; because of its excellent harbour, the city of Mindelo, located on the island of São Vicente, became an important commercial centre during the 19th century. Diplomat Edmund Roberts visited Cape Verde in 1832. Cape Verde was the first stop of Charles Darwin's voyage with HMS Beagle in 1832. With few natural resources and inadequate sustainable investment from the Portuguese, the citizens grew discontented with the colonial masters, who refused to provide the local authorities with more autonomy. In 1951, Portugal changed Cape Verde's status from a colony to an overseas province in an attempt to blunt growing nationalism.

In 1956, Amílcar Cabral and a group of fellow Cape Verdeans and Guineans organised the clandestine African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde. It demanded improvement in economic and political conditions in Cape Verde and Portuguese Guinea and formed the basis of the two nations' independence movement. Moving its headquarters to Conakry, Guinea in 1960, the PAIGC began an armed rebellion against Portugal in 1961. Acts of sabotage grew into a war in Portuguese Guinea that pitted 10,000 Soviet Bloc-supported PAIGC soldiers against 35,000 Portuguese and African troops. By 1972, the PAIGC controlled much of Portuguese Guinea despite the presence of the Portuguese troops, but the organization did not attempt to disrupt Portuguese control in Cape Verde. Portuguese Guinea declared independence in 1973 and was granted de jure independence in 1974. A budding independence movement — led by Amílcar Cabral, assassinated in 1973 — passed on to his half-brother Luís Cabral and culminated in independence for the archipelago in 1975.

Following the April 1974 revolution in Portugal, the PAIGC became an act

UCL School of Pharmacy

The UCL School of Pharmacy is the pharmacy school of University College London. The School is located in London, United Kingdom; the School was founded by the Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain in 1842 as the College of the Pharmaceutical Society. It was renamed The School of Pharmacy in 1949 when it became independent of the Pharmaceutical Society and was incorporated into the University of London as a constituent college; the School was granted a royal charter in 1952 and merged with UCL in January 2012. The School was founded in 1842 by the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain; the School began offering University of London degrees in 1925 and joined the university as a specialist school in 1949. It received a Royal Charter in 1952. Construction of the School's current main building, designed by Herbert Rowse, began in 1938, although work was stopped on the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939 and the building was not completed until 1960. To its alumni and colleagues in the profession it is known as "the Square", which refers to the fact that it was located in Bloomsbury Square and now in Brunswick Square.

It was decided on 13 May 2011, after a consultation and development process, that the School would merge with University College London. The merger was completed on 1 January 2012, the School was renamed the UCL School of Pharmacy; the School is organised into four academic departments, each with one or more associated specialist research centres. The Department of Pharmaceutical and Biological Chemistry is the largest of the School's departments, its research is focused on cancer, natural products and phytomedicines, molecular neurosciences and biopharmaceutical analysis. The department's staff help teach the undergraduate MPharm degree in the areas of drug discovery, medicinal chemistry, pharmaceutical chemistry and pharmacognosy/medicinal plants, an MSc in Pharmacognosy is offered; the Wellcome Department of Pharmacology is one of the oldest departments of pharmacology in the UK. The department has played a major role in the development of Pharmacology in the UK and many pharmacologists who trained here are to be found in academies and in industries all over the world.

The department's research focuses on the nervous system, a wide range of approaches are used to study normal brain function and the causes of many neurological and psychiatric diseases. The Department of Pharmaceutics is home to a wide range of research activities, such as in Materials Science and Processing and Clinical Pharmaceutical Science; the department's research in Materials Science and Processing is centred on the fundamental properties of materials and their adaptation to optimise processing and enhance drug delivery. It operates a number of joint ventures, including the Centre for Paediatric Pharmacy Research, a joint venture with Great Ormond Street Hospital and the Institute of Child Health, in the Clinical Pharmaceutics with University College Hospitals and Camden and Islington's NHS Trust; the Microbiology Research Group is well-established, with work focusing in overcoming antibiotic resistance and obtaining new actives from natural sources. The Group has been successful in investigating new approaches to the treatment of the ‘superbugMRSA.

The Department of Practice and Policy focuses upon making the use of medicines safer and more effective through teaching and research. The department has collaborations with organisations including Imperial College London, the London School of Economics, the Institute of Education and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, as well as several major London hospitals including Guy's and St Thomas's, University College Hospital, Hammersmith and the London, Great Ormond Street; the department's staff are involved in curricular development and teaching across all four years of the MPharm course. Its student body includes hospital pharmacists studying for a range of Certificate, Diploma and MSc qualifications; the School offers a number of Masters Degree programmes, including Drug Discovery, Drug Delivery and Pharmacy Practice, PhD research degrees. The only undergraduate degree which it offers is the four year MPharm, Master of Pharmacy; the School offered BSc degrees in Toxicology and Pharmacology until 2001.

In 2010/11 the School had a total research income of £8.13 million. In the 2008 Research Assessment Exercise, 90 per cent of the research activity at the School was deemed "internationally significant" and 25 per cent "world-leading"; the School's research focuses on advancing and understanding medicines and health care, in creating new medicines. It is organised into four divisions: Drug Discovery; the School is home to the following research centres: Cancer Research UK Biomolecular Structure Group. In the 2015 QS World University Rankings by Subject, UCL is ranked 5th in the world for Pharmacy & Pharmacology. Pharmacy Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain List of schools of pharmacy in the United Kingdom UCL School of Pharmacy website

James Martinez (NYPD Blue)

James Martinez was a fictional character in the television series NYPD Blue. He was played by Nicholas Turturro from Seasons 1 to 7. Martinez was assigned to the 15th Precinct detective squad as a temporary replacement for Andy Sipowicz after Sipowicz was shot. Though inexperienced, he demonstrated enthusiasm for the job and a willingness to learn from John Kelly, whom he idolized, he proved a quick study, his competence and upbeat approach to his job enabled him to earn a permanent assignment as a detective. He went on to work as the partner of Greg Medavoy, his family life wasn't always stable. Martinez pursued fellow Detective Adrienne Lesniak, who sought to avoid his romantic interests by falsely claiming to be a lesbian, they did begin to date, but Lesniak's constant suspicions and criticism caused James to end their relationship. In season three, Martinez was shot in the side, bullet fragments lodged near his spine, while responding to a call with Medavoy. Gina Colon, a new administrative assistant assigned to the 15th Precinct began a tentative courtship with Martinez.

After Gina was beaten and her face was slashed, Martinez aided in her recovery, their relationship blossomed. She became pregnant, but rebuffed Martinez's proposals because she didn't want him to feel trapped or obligated, he convinced her of his sincerity, they got married shortly before the birth of their son, James Martinez Jr. The character of James Martinez was written out of the show in Season 7. Sepinwall, Alan. "Biographies: James Martinez, Nicholas Turturro". NYPD Blue Online. Retrieved November 29, 2016. Sepinwall, Alan. "Biographies: Adrienne Lesniak, Justine Miceli". NYPD Blue Online 2. Retrieved November 29, 2016. Sepinwall, Alan. "Plot Summary: NYPD Blue, Season 4, Episode 11, Alice Doesn't Fit Here Anymore". NYPD Blue Online 3. Retrieved November 29, 2016. Kendall, G.. "NYPD Blue Season Five, The Cast & Guest Stars". The Milch Studies. Gentlemen of Leisure. Huff, Richard. "A'Blue' Sendoff for Nick Turturro". New York Daily News. New York, NY. CS1 maint: extra punctuation Shales, Tom. "On ABC, True'Blue'".

Washington Post. Washington, DC. CS1 maint: extra punctuation "'NYPD Blue' fans to welcome precinct newcomer Simmons". Lubbock Avalanche-Journal. Lubbock, TX. Knight Ridder. February 22, 2000. CS1 maint: extra punctuation