click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Capillary

A capillary is a small blood vessel from 5 to 10 micrometres in diameter, having a wall one endothelial cell thick. They are the smallest blood vessels in the body: they convey blood between the arterioles and venules; these microvessels are the site of exchange of many substances with the interstitial fluid surrounding them. Substances which exit include water and glucose. Lymph capillaries connect with larger lymph vessels to drain lymphatic fluid collected in the microcirculation. During early embryonic development new capillaries are formed through vasculogenesis, the process of blood vessel formation that occurs through a de novo production of endothelial cells which form vascular tubes; the term angiogenesis denotes the formation of new capillaries from pre-existing blood vessels and present endothelium which divides. Blood flows from the heart through arteries, which branch and narrow into arterioles, branch further into capillaries where nutrients and wastes are exchanged; the capillaries join and widen to become venules, which in turn widen and converge to become veins, which return blood back to the heart through the venae cavae.

Individual capillaries are part of the capillary bed, an interweaving network of capillaries supplying tissues and organs. The more metabolically active a tissue is, the more capillaries are required to supply nutrients and carry away products of metabolism. There are two types of capillaries: true capillaries, which branch from arterioles and provide exchange between tissue and the capillary blood, sinusoids, a type of open-pore capillary found in the liver, bone marrow, anterior pituitary gland, brain circumventricular organs. Capillaries and sinusoids are short vessels that directly connect the arterioles and venules at opposite ends of the beds. Metarterioles are found in the mesenteric microcirculation. Lymphatic capillaries are larger in diameter than blood capillaries, have closed ends; this structure permits interstitial fluid to flow into them but not out. Lymph capillaries have a greater internal oncotic pressure than blood capillaries, due to the greater concentration of plasma proteins in the lymph.

There are three types of blood capillaries: Continuous capillaries are continuous in the sense that the endothelial red blood cells provide an uninterrupted lining, they only allow smaller molecules, such as water and ions to pass through their intercellular clefts. Lipid-soluble molecules can passively diffuse through the endothelial cell membranes along concentration gradients. Continuous capillaries can be further divided into two subtypes: Those with numerous transport vesicles, which are found in skeletal muscles, fingers and skin; those with few vesicles, which are found in the central nervous system. These capillaries are a constituent of the blood–brain barrier. Fenestrated capillaries have pores known as fenestrae in the endothelial cells that are 60–80 nm in diameter, they are spanned by a diaphragm of radially oriented fibrils that allows small molecules and limited amounts of protein to diffuse. In the renal glomerulus there are cells with no diaphragms, called podocyte foot processes or pedicels, which have slit pores with a function analogous to the diaphragm of the capillaries.

Both of these types of blood vessels have continuous basal laminae and are located in the endocrine glands, intestines and the glomeruli of the kidney. Sinusoidal capillaries or discontinuous capillaries are a special type of open-pore capillary known as a sinusoid, that have wider 30–40 μm diameters, wider openings in the endothelium. Fenestrated capillaries have diaphragms that cover the pores whereas sinusoids lack a diaphragm and just have an open pore; these types of blood vessels allow red and white blood cells and various serum proteins to pass, aided by a discontinuous basal lamina. These capillaries lack pinocytotic vesicles, therefore utilize gaps present in cell junctions to permit transfer between endothelial cells, hence across the membrane. Sinusoids are irregular spaces filled with blood and are found in the liver, bone marrow and brain circumventricular organs; the capillary wall performs an important function by allowing nutrients and waste substances to pass across it. Molecules larger than 3 nm such as albumin and other large proteins pass through transcellular transport carried inside vesicles, a process which requires them to go through the cells that form the wall.

Molecules smaller than 3 nm such as water and gases cross the capillary wall through the space between cells in a process known as paracellular transport. These transport mechanisms allow bidirectional exchange of substances depending on osmotic gradients and can be further quantified by the Starling equation. Capillaries that form part of the blood–brain barrier however only allow for transcellular transport as tight junctions between endothelial cells seal the paracellular space. Capillary beds may control their blood flow via autoregulation; this allows an organ to maintain constant flow despite a change in central blood pressure. This is achieved by myogenic response, in the kidney by tubuloglomerular feedback; when blood pressure increases, arterioles are stretched and subsequently constrict to counteract the increased tendency for high pressure to increase blood flow. In the lungs special mechanisms have been adapted to meet the needs of increased necessity of blood flow duri

K. K. Ramachandran Nair

K. K. Ramachandran Nair was an Indian politician of the Communist Party of India and represented Chengannur constituency in the Kerala state legislative assembly from 2016 until his death. Nair was born in 1953 at Chengannur, he graduated in Master of Economics from Pandalam. He pursued a degree in law from Government Law College, Thiruvananthapuram and completed the course in 1978, he died at Apollo Hospital in Chennai on 14 January 2018 at 4 am. He was undergoing treatment for liver disease. Nair started his political career by unsuccessfully contesting in the Kerala Legislative Assembly Election 2001 from Chengannur assembly constituency, he was defeated by Shobhana George of the Indian National Congress by a margin of 1465 votes. He was elected to Kerala Legislative Assembly from Chengannur assembly constituency in 2016 Kerala Legislative Assembly election by defeating P. C. Vishnunath of the Indian National Congress by a margin of 7983 votes, he held this post until his death in 2018

Datanglong

Not to be confused with Datonglong, a hadrosauroid ornithopod dinosaur. Datanglong is an extinct genus of carcharodontosaurian theropod belonging to the Tetanurae, it existed during the Early Cretaceous in. In 2011, staff of the Geological Survey Research Institute at the village of Nazao, twenty kilometers southwest of the town of Datang, near Nanning in Guangxi, discovered the remains of a large theropod new to science; the dinosaur was named and described in 2014 as Datanglong guangxiensis, by Mo Jinyou, Zhou Fusheng, Li Guangning, Hunag Zhen and Cao Chenyun. The genus name combines a reference to the Datang basin with the Chinese word long, "dragon"; the specific name refers to the province of Guangxi. Datanglong guangxiensis is known from one specimen, holotype GMG 00001, which encompasses vertebrae and hip bones. There is a series of vertebrae that begins with the last dorsal vertebra, continues over the five sacral vertebrae, ends with the second tail vertebra; the sacrum is attached to a left ilium with the upper parts of the left pubic bone and the left ischium, one piece of the right ilium.

The bones were found in a layer of the Xinlong Formation, deposited sometime during the Early Cretaceous. Datanglong is a large predatory theropod with a length of 7 to 8 metres; the specimen has a preserved length of about 1 metre. The describing authors determined some distinguishing characteristics; the last dorsal vertebra has a pleurocoel, or pneumatic cavity, bounded by an enlarged posterior ridge between the diapophysis and the vertebral body, by the posterior ridge between the parapophysis and the vertebral body. The rear dorsal vertebra has a well-developed horizontal ridge between the prezygapophysis and the parapophysis; the last dorsal vertebra has a parapophysis. The groove in the underside of the rear blade of the ilium, serving as an attachment to the musculus caudofemoralis brevis, is shallow and the "brevis shelf", the inner surface of the medial blade wall uncovered by it, is short and shaped like a ridge; the pubic peduncle of the ilium, to which the pubic bone is attached, at the rear side transversely expands to below.

The last dorsal vertebra resembles those of the Ceratosauria in that the parapophysis, the lower rib joint process, extends beyond the diapophysis, the upper rib joint process. The vertebra is clearly pneumatised but the succeeding sacral vertebrae of the sacrum are not; the first tail vertebra has a depression at the level of the probable ridge between the prezygapophysis and the parapophysis. This vertebra has a straight chevron; the spinous processes of the tail vertebrae are broken but the remaining pieces are long and expand upwards. The upper profile of the ilium is due to damage; the front blade has a drooping point with a rounded front edge. The vertical ridge in front of the hip joint does not form a medial shelf; the blade of the ilium is pierced by several pneumatic cavities. The pubic peduncle of the ilium is excavated at the rear and has a rectangular bottom surface, twice longer than wide; the ischial peduncle inserts into an upper cavity of the ischium like a pin. The describing authors placed Datanglong in the Carcharodontosauria, in a basal position, making use of a previous cladistic analysis of Matthew Carrano.

Soon after the publication, the Italian paleontologist Andrea Cau pointed out that this analysis had been focused on the basal Tetanurae and therefore contained few traits of the Coelurosauria. That carried the danger. Cau entered the traits of Datanglong into his own, more comprehensive and this indeed revealed that Datanglong was a basal coelurosaur. If this is correct, it would be the first known basal coelurosaur of a large size, he directed attention to the fact that all synapomorphies that Datanglong shared with the Carcharodontosauria were shared with the Megaraptora

Aleksa Kolaković

Aleksa Kolaković is a Serbian handball player, son of Igor Kolaković and Sandra Kolaković. He is playing for Saint-Raphael Var Handball and the Serbian national team. Aleksa's father, Igor, is the coach of the Iran men's national volleyball team, he was the coach of Serbia men's national volleyball team for 8 years and he won 7 medals. Igor is Bachelor of business administration, graduated in 1989 of University of Montenegro Faculty of Economics. Aleksa's mother, was professional handball player, she won champions league with RK Krim in 2001, she has a bronze medal from world championship in Italy in 2001 with Serbia women's national handball team. Aleksa started playing handball at age of 7, his first handball steps he made in RK Gorica in 2004. RK Gorica was the only club at that moment in Podgorica. In 2005, first men's handball club arrives in Aleksa moves to it. RK Cepelin was led by Miodrag Misko Popovic, ex. coach of Montenegro national team and former of lot of players such as Draško Mrvaljević, Vuko Borozan, Vladan Lipovina...

After 8 years spent in RK Cepelin, Aleksa moves to Slovenia and he starts playing for RD Slovan in Ljubljana. After one year of good work with Bojan Čotar, ex. assist coach of Slovenia national handball team, Aleksa will move to France and he will continue his career in Saint-Raphael Var Handball where he's still playing. Aleksa's road to national team was difficult, he started playing for youth national team of Montenegro, he didn't participate in any official game. After 2 years of pause, he started playing for youth national team of Serbia and he did two competitions. In 2014, he participated in U18 European championship with Serbia, they finished 13th out of 16 teams. In 2015, he was not on the list of 16 players for U18 World championship. In 2016, he played U20 European championship in Denmark and he finished in 14th place

Susan Kent (politician)

Susan Kent is a Minnesota politician and minority leader of the Minnesota Senate. A member of the Minnesota Democratic–Farmer–Labor Party, she represents District 53 in the eastern Twin Cities metropolitan area. Kent was born in 1963 in Louisiana, she earned her bachelor's degree in communication studies from the University of Texas at Austin. Kent was first elected to the Minnesota Senate in 2012. In late 2019, it was reported that Kent intended to challenge Minority Leader Tom Bakk for his caucus leadership post. On February 1, 2020, after a private meeting that lasted more than six hours, the caucus elected Kent as its new leader. Kent met Chris, a Maplewood native and 3M employee, in Austin, Texas; the couple moved to Minnesota in the mid-2000s. They have one child. Susan Kent at Minnesota Legislators Past & Present Senator Susan Kent official Minnesota Senate website Senator Susan Kent official campaign website

William Nimmo Smith, Lord Nimmo Smith

William Austin Nimmo Smith is a former Senator of the College of Justice, a judge of the Supreme Courts of Scotland, sitting in the High Court of Justiciary and the Inner House of the Court of Session. He retired from this position on 30 September 2009. Nimmo Smith was educated as a King's Scholar at Eton College, studied Classics at Balliol College, University of Oxford, Law at the School of Law of the University of Edinburgh, he was admitted to the Faculty of Advocates in 1969. Nimmo Smith was appointed Standing Junior Counsel to the Department of Employment in 1977, serving until 1982, at which time he took silk. From 1983 to 1986, he was an Advocate Depute, representing the Crown in prosecutions and appeals in the High Court. From 1986 to 1991, he was Chairman of the Medical Appeal Tribunals and the Vaccine Damage Tribunals, from 1988 to 1996 was a part-time member of the Scottish Law Commission. In 1993, he was appointed along with James Friel, Senior Procurator Fiscal of North Strathclyde, to conduct an investigation into allegations of corruption amongst a so-called Magic Circle in the Scottish justice system, comprising homosexual members of the judiciary, legal profession and police.

The allegations included liability to blackmail and giving preferential treatment, including unusually lenient sentences, to homosexual criminals. Concerns had been raised by Linlithgow MP Tam Dalyell with Lothian and Borders Chief Constable Sir William Sutherland; the Report on an Inquiry into an Allegation of a Conspiracy to Pervert the Course of Justice in Scotland was presented to the House of Lords on 26 January 1993 by Lord Advocate Lord Rodger of Earlsferry, found no evidence of the existence of such a Magic Circle, but criticised some police officers, who it said had treated rumours as fact or had been motivated by homophobia. In 1995 he was appointed by Michael Forsyth, the Secretary of State for Scotland, to conduct a local inquiry with the terms of reference: "To inquire into the question whether Monklands District Council have failed to comply with the duty imposed on them by section 7 of the Local Government and Housing Act 1989 to make appointments to paid office or employment on merit, to report thereon."

After conducting the inquiry, which included the taking of evidence at hearings open to the public, he reported on 15 December 1995 that there was no evidence that any such appointment had been made otherwise than on merit. The Secretary of State so advised the House of Commons on 20 December 1995. Nimmo Smith was appointed a temporary judge of the Court of Session in 1995, in 1996 was raised to the Bench as a Senator of the College of Justice, a judge of the Court of Session and High Court of Justiciary, Scotland's Supreme Courts, with the judicial title, Lord Nimmo Smith. Whilst a judge of the Outer House of the Court of Session, he served as the Insolvency Judge and one of the Intellectual Property Judges. In 2002, he was one of five judges who heard the appeal of Abdelbaset al-Megrahi, the man convicted of the 1988 Lockerbie bombing, at the Scottish Court in the Netherlands, he was promoted to the First Division of the Inner House in 2005, at which time he was appointed a member of the Privy Council, affording him the style, The Right Honourable.

He retired on 30 September 2009. Nimmo Smith married Jennifer Main in 1968, with whom he has a daughter, he was Chairman of the Council of the Cockburn Association from 1996 to 2001, being succeeded in this position by fellow judge Lord Brodie. List of Senators of the College of Justice