Capri is an island located in the Tyrrhenian Sea off the Sorrento Peninsula, on the south side of the Gulf of Naples in the Campania region of Italy. The main town Capri, located on the island shares the name, it has been a resort since the time of the Roman Republic. Some of the main features of the island include the Marina Piccola, the Belvedere of Tragara, the limestone crags called sea stacks that project above the sea, the town of Anacapri, the Blue Grotto, the ruins of the Imperial Roman villas, the various towns surrounding the Island of Capri including Positano, Ravello, Sorrento and Naples. Capri is part of the region of Metropolitan City of Naples; the town of Capri is the island's main population centre. The island has Marina Piccola and Marina Grande; the separate comune of Anacapri is located high on the hills to the west. The etymology of the name Capri is unclear, but it could derive from Latin capreae. Fossils of wild boars have been discovered, lending credence to the "kapros" etymology.
There is the possibility that the name derives from an Etruscan word for "rocky", though any historical Etruscan rule of the island is disputed. Capri consists of sandstone rock; the voters of the island elect representatives for the two municipalities on the island. The chosen representatives choose two mayors to govern with them; the island has been inhabited since early times. Evidence of human settlement was discovered during the Roman era; the emperor ordered these to be displayed in the garden of the Sea Palace. Modern excavations have shown that human presence on the island can be dated to the Neolithic and the Bronze Age. Augustus developed Capri. In his Aeneid, Virgil states that the island had been populated by the Greek people of Teleboi, coming from the Ionian Islands. Strabo says that "in ancient times in Capri there were two towns reduced to one." Tacitus records. Ruins of one at Tragara could still be seen in the 19th century. Augustus' successor Tiberius built a series of villas at Capri, the most famous of, the Villa Jovis, one of the best-preserved Roman villas in Italy.
In 27 AD, Tiberius permanently moved to Capri, running the Empire from there until his death in 37 AD. In 182 AD, Emperor Commodus banished his sister Lucilla to Capri, she was executed shortly afterwards. After the end of the Western Roman Empire, Capri returned to the status of a dominion of Naples, suffered various attacks and ravages by pirates. In 866 Emperor Louis II gave the island to Amalfi. In 987 Pope John XV consecrated the first bishop of Capri, when Capri, Scala and Lettere were made dioceses to serve as suffragans of Amalfi, which thereby became a metropolitan see. Capri continued to be a residential diocese until 1818, when the island became part of the archdiocese of Sorrento. No longer a residential bishopric, Capreae in Latin, is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see. In 1496, Frederick IV of Naples established legal and administrative parity between the settlements of Capri and Anacapri; the pirate raids reached their peak during the reign of Charles V: the famous Turkish admirals Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha and Turgut Reis captured the island for the Ottoman Empire, in 1535 and 1553 respectively.
The first recorded tourist to visit the island was French antiques dealer Jean-Jacques Bouchard in the 17th century. His diary, found in 1850, is an important information source about Capri. French troops under Napoleon occupied Capri in January 1806; the British ousted the French in the following May, after which Capri was turned into a powerful naval base, but the building program caused heavy damage to the archaeological sites. The French reconquered Capri in 1808, remained there until the end of the Napoleonic era, when Capri was returned to the Bourbon ruling house of Naples; the natural scientist Ignazio Cerio catalogued Capri's fauna during the 19th century. His work was continued by his son and engineer Edwin Cerio, who wrote several books on life in Capri in the 20th century. Prior to the First World War the island was popular with wealthy gay men. John Ellingham Brooks and Somerset Maugham shared a villa there. Norman Douglas, Friedrich Alfred Krupp, Jacques d'Adelswärd-Fersen, Christian Wilhelm Allers, Emil von Behring, Curzio Malaparte, Axel Munthe, Louis Coatalen and Maxim Gorky are all reported to have owned a villa there, or to have stayed there for more than three months.
Swedish Queen Victoria stayed there because Axel Munthe was her doctor. Rose O'Neill, the American illustrator and creator of the Kewpie, owned the Villa Narcissus owned by the famous Beaux-Arts painter Charles Caryl Coleman. Dame Gracie Fields had a villa and restaurant on the island and is buried there. Mariah Carey owns a villa on the island. In 1908, Lenin was hosted by Maxim Gorky, the Russian author, at his house near the Giardini Augusto. In 1970, a monument by Giacomo Manzù was erec
Based on Id Software's open stance towards game modifications, their Quake series became a popular subject for player mods beginning with Quake in 1996. Spurred by user-created hacked content on their previous games and the company's desire to encourage the hacker ethic, Id included dedicated modification tools into Quake, including the QuakeC programming language and a level editor; as a game that popularized online first-person shooter multiplayer, early games were team- and strategy-based and led to prominent mods like Team Fortress, whose developers were hired by Valve to create a dedicated version for the company. Id's openness and modding tools led to a "Quake movie" community, which altered gameplay data to add camera angles in post-production, a practice that became known as machinima. Player modifications, or mods, change a game's art or gameplay to create alternative or new games. From the age of Atari through the 1990s, video game developers were known vigilantly protect their intellectual property through copyrights and general secrecy.
Id Software founders John Carmack and John Romero were instead excited when their Wolfenstein 3D was hacked to swap content into the game, decided to help rather than hinder the hacker ethic of those who would modify their games, including Doom and Quake. Doom added new graphical detail to its first-person shooter predecessors and local, networked multiplayer, but in 1996, Quake too added better graphics in a 3D world but became known for its Internet-based, long-distance multiplayer, it popularized consumer graphics cards with its implementation of 3D rendering under OpenGL technology, its dedicated developer tools encouraged users to create their own modifications, spawning a "healthy mod scene". Around the time of Quake's release, these user modifications became known as just "mods". Modding was made easy for Quake players, who could download level editors and the QuakeC programming language to make their own mods and content; the accessibility of QuakeC led to a new paradigm of mod creations.
Most player creations were team-based games, as players appreciated their strategic and cooperative elements. Among the first successful mods were Capture the Flag and Team Fortress; the mod community and their websites, such as PlanetQuake Featured Mods, became a place for aspiring game programmers and artists to train. Valve recruited its first employees from the Quake modding community, as the Team Fortress team was invited to create its sequel for Valve's first game, Half-Life—itself built on modifications of the Quake II game engine. In 1997, a "total conversion" Quake mod named "Alien Quake" replaced characters and sounds with replacements from the Alien film franchise, its developers received a takedown notice from 20th Century Fox. The producer's forceful response to a fan effort coined the term "Foxed". Id's choice to create and share an editor and scripting language with Quake spurred its modding community and led to unforeseen innovations, such as animated movies performed by players during gameplay.
Rock, Shotgun referred to this time as the "Silver Age of FPS modding" for the modder attention to hyper-realistic and polished detail in creating game assets that bordered the production quality of AAA developers. The art of using video games to create narrative videos rather than gameplay rose from the "Quake movie" community and became known as machinima. Players of Quake and Quake II created programs to alter the game's demo files, which contained records of the game's user input and events; the actors would control their characters live—creating the demo file—and editors would "re-cam" by revisiting the scene from a new point of view or swapping between pre-selected camera angles. The Quake tools created for these purposes led to dedicated machinima post-production utilities, such as David "CRT" Wright's Keygrip and Keygrip2; the rise of machinima was enabled by the choice of developers such as Id to release accessible code and tools to alter it. As more advanced tools were produced, players opted to their own homegrown tools and retain the "Quake movie"-style production as their own user-generated process.
Among the most popular Quake II mods was Chaos Deathmatch by Chaotic Dream Group. Multiple shareware level editors were created for the game. A programmer frustrated with the game's QuakeEd level editor released his own version for free and was offered a job by Id's John Carmack. Robert Duffy modified the game's editing tool into a package called QeRadiant. Another example is Qoole. Qoole, short for Quake Object Oriented Level Editor, is a level editor for video games based on the Quake engine, was developed by Lithium Software. Among the supported games are Quake II, Hexen II and Half-Life, it uses a brush-based method to construct new maps, in which monsters and lights can be placed, or any of the on-board prefabs. It was sold on a CD-ROM, but the source code was released under the GPL v2. In 2000, Id transferred maintenance control of the Quake III Arena level editor tools to community programmers, who added new features and released the result as the Windows- and Linux-compatible GtkRadiant.
A public beta test ran in January 2001. It became one of Quake's most used level editors and was released under the GNU General Public License. Timothee Besset Quake Army Knife
Riley Freeman is a character from the syndicated comic strip The Boondocks written by Aaron McGruder and its TV series adaptation. He refers to himself as "Riley Escobar," and in season two of the TV series, he refers to himself as "Young Reezy." He is Huey's younger brother who aspires to be like the rap artists and the gangsters that he admires. Riley, who grew up on the South side of Chicago, was moved along with his brother to the peaceful, white suburb of Woodcrest in Baltimore, Maryland by their granddad. Riley is eight. In some episodes and Huey would have a single storyline and in others, the two would each have their own in a single episode. Riley, like Huey, is voiced by Regina King, it is suggested that Huey and Riley's birth parents are deceased. Riley Freeman is an impressionable third grader who embraces the stereotypical "gangsta" lifestyle and lives his life like his idol rappers. Influenced by rap music and television, he uses poor grammar, tends to defend his idols when his imitations go against common sense and righteousness.
One example is his support of R. Kelly in "The Trial of R. Kelly": despite overwhelming evidence proving R Kelly's guilt, Riley believes he should not have to miss out on his next album; this is further shown in "The Story of Gangstalicious Part 2" where he dresses in effeminate clothing because Gangstalicious created the style. In order to be like his idols, he collects airsoft weapons and tags houses, as demonstrated in "The Garden Party" and "Riley Wuz Here", he is a fan of the movie Scarface in that he quotes lines from or alludes to the movie, he has a white suit similar to the one worn by Tony Montana. Riley seems to have a fair amount of criminal aptitude, as is demonstrated when he helped coordinate the kidnapping of Oprah Winfrey, further demonstrated by his criticisms of Ed Wuncler III and Gin Rummy for their lack of criminal know-how. Despite his pretensions to the contrary, Riley is not simpleminded: he can in fact be resourceful and pragmatic, "beats" Tom, a district attorney, in an argument over R. Kelly's confinement and trial.
Due to idolizing the gangsta rap lifestyle he seems to have a level of street smarts as great as his brother able to manipulate situations through lying and reverse psychology, which he refers to as getting into someone's "mental mind". Despite his crude thuggish lifestyle on rare occasions he has displayed acts of compassion. Riley is quite brash and abrasive and gets into undesirable situations without considering the consequences, he is rebellious and does not listen to anyone Huey and Robert. He is brutally honest to the point of being rude. Despite the fact that Huey is forced to act as the voice of reason towards Riley's antics without any success, Riley himself does become the voice of reason for his own friends, such as Thugnificent or Ed and Rummy; when forced to fight, he resorts to a crude and thuggish form of attack, in contrast to his brother's calculated attacks which seem rooted in martial arts. His method is to continue attacking with concealed BB guns, random objects, such as vases, or lamps.
Riley sometimes overestimates his own crude combat abilities, such as when he tried to fight his brother in "Let's Nab Oprah". His thuggish fighting style, both with weapons and hand-to-hand, failed several times against the precision of Huey's martial arts ability, his street-fighting style has improved to a certain degree in season 3. He does seem to have some talent with airsoft guns, he has a strong amount of endurance and determination and given his previous beatings by his grandfather seems to have a high threshold for pain. Riley has, in spite of himself, shown a great degree of intelligence from time to time, it has been shown he has a great understanding of the Media music industry. This was shown when he tried to advise Thugnificent against starting a rap war with a much younger aspiring rap star Sgt. Gudder, knowing it would only cause unnecessary problems. Huey FreemanHuey and Riley tend to have a regular brotherly relationship despite their contradictory personalities. Due to the blunders Riley makes, Huey tries to teach him the error of his ways, but to no avail.
When their granddad is not around, Huey will not hesitate to set Riley straight himself. In "... Or Die Trying", Riley does not have any problem at abandoning his brother to his fate, but in other episodes he seems to trust him. Despite all this, Riley insults his brother with the repeated phrase "Nigga, you gay," after receiving a hug. In the Season 3 finale however, Riley offers Huey a hug near the end without insulting him but admiring Huey when they saw him on the television instead. Robert FreemanRobert Freeman is Riley's paternal grandfather. Riley disrespects Robert and Robert resorts to physical punishment to keep Riley in line, but Riley seems accustomed to this kind of disciplinary action to the point where it does not influence or change his actions in any significant way, he seems to not understand his grandpa's rules and gets whipped with his belt when he makes a bad choice. They are shown to agree on things in season two. In season three, the two are seen to have "father and son" moments, such as when they go out to try the new fried chicken in "The Fried Chicken Flu".