Infiniti is the luxury vehicle division of Japanese automaker Nissan. Infiniti started selling vehicles on November 8, 1989, in North America; the marketing network for Infiniti-branded vehicles includes dealers in over 50 countries. In January 2018 chief executive Hiroto Saikawa announced that the Infiniti brand would be transformed into an electric brand, with all new vehicles either being hybrid or all electric by 2021. In 2012, Infiniti moved its global headquarters from the Nissan corporate building in Yokohama and incorporated in Hong Kong as Infiniti Global Limited, with Carlos Ghosn intending for Infiniti to have a greater focus on the burgeoning luxury market in mainland China as it forecast the country to become the largest luxury car market. Nissan appointed Roland Krüger, former head of BMW's Asian division, as president of Infiniti in September 2014. With its QX60 crossover Infiniti began to produce vehicles outside Japan. In 2014, it started producing two models in Xiangyang, China, a plant operated by Nissan's joint venture with Dongfeng Motor.
At the same time Nissan Motor Manufacturing UK expanded in Sunderland, England, to produce a new compact car named Q30 in 2015. The Infiniti marque is not used in Japan. However, the Infiniti Q50 is sold as a Nissan Skyline in Japan and retains Infiniti badging, though without the Infiniti brand or name. Most Infiniti models have direct equivalents in the Japanese domestic market Nissan lineup. Examples include the Infiniti G as the Nissan Skyline sedan and coupe and the Nissan Primera, Infiniti M as the Nissan Fuga and the Nissan Leopard, Infiniti EX as the Nissan Skyline crossover, the Infiniti Q45 as the Nissan Cima; the Infiniti FX is not sold in Japan. The Infiniti brand was introduced in the United States in 1989; the marketing strategy was to target the premium vehicle segments in the United States that would not have otherwise fit in with Nissan's more mainstream image, influenced by the Plaza Accord of 1985. The brand was created around the same time as Japanese rivals Toyota and Honda developed their Lexus and Acura premium brands.
The Japanese government imposed voluntary export restraints for the U. S. market, so it was more profitable for automakers to export more expensive cars to the U. S; the Infiniti marque was launched with two models, the Q45, the M30 that were sold at Japanese Nissan Motor Store dealership networks. The Q45 was based on the all new second generation JDM Nissan President on a five millimeter shorter wheelbase platform at 2,875 mm. Starting with model year 1992, the wheelbase matched the President's wheelbase at 2880 mm; the Q45 included a 278 hp V8 engine, four wheel steering, active suspension system offered on the first generation Q45t. The car's features would have made it competitive in the full-sized "luxury" segment against the Mercedes S-Class, BMW 7 Series, Jaguar XJ and Cadillac Fleetwood. A second model was introduced in the 2-door M30, a badge engineered Nissan Leopard, it remained in production for three years as an alternative to the Lexus SC. The powertrain was an automatic transmission.
The M30 coupe was underpowered for its stock weight of 3,333 lb. The M30 convertible weighed more, due to the required body and chassis reinforcements; the appearance of the M30 had no resemblance to the larger Q45, the interior was completely different. Infiniti did not offer a mid-luxury sedan to match the first Japanese luxury sedan introduced to North America, the Acura Legend, joined by the Lexus GS. Infiniti's first offering in the entry-level luxury segment was the Infiniti J30, which had to compete with the revised 1992 Lexus ES and was unsuccessful owing to its small interior and unusual styling to which it was succeeded in 1996 by the Infiniti I series introduced in April 1995, related to the Nissan Maxima and in 2002 by the Infiniti G35. According to the company, the Infiniti badge has a double meaning, as stylized representations of both a road extending into the horizon and of Mount Fuji, reflecting its Japanese origins. In September 1990, Infiniti introduced a third model, the Infiniti G20, derived from the compact and European-focused Nissan Primera.
In 1992 for the 1993 model year, Infiniti introduced a four-door coupé J30 with only one engine option, the 210 hp VG30DE. This engine was from the 222 hp 300ZX, the JDM Nissan Cedric, Nissan Gloria and the Nissan Cima, was the North American version of the third generation JDM Nissan Leopard. Infiniti sales were slow; the company's initial campaign aimed to bring about brand awareness with Zen-influenced spots that focused on nature and tranquility, without showing the actual cars. Designers decided not to adorn the interiors with wood accents and chrome brightwork, opting instead for a monochrome and rounded surface appearance, focusing on padded leather and vinyl throughout; some buyers had faux wood appliques added to areas surrounding the center console and around the interior door handles. The only item that had a bright appearance was the centrally installed analog clock in all models, a design, maintained by the designers. By the mid-1990s, Infiniti was lagging behind Acura in sales; the Q45 had retreated from its focused, taut rendition of a sporty full-size luxury sedan, having become a recognizable, ponderously handling sedan that earned the nickname "The Japanese Lincoln".
In the summer of 1998, Infiniti revived the G20, based on the JDM Nissan Primera, a compact sport sedan. The second generation G20 was marketed as a compe
A computing platform or digital platform is the environment in which a piece of software is executed. It may be the hardware or the operating system a web browser and associated application programming interfaces, or other underlying software, as long as the program code is executed with it. Computing platforms have different abstraction levels, including a computer architecture, an OS, or runtime libraries. A computing platform is the stage. A platform can be seen both as a constraint on the software development process, in that different platforms provide different functionality and restrictions. For example, an OS may be a platform that abstracts the underlying differences in hardware and provides a generic command for saving files or accessing the network. Platforms may include: Hardware alone, in the case of small embedded systems. Embedded systems can access hardware directly, without an OS. A browser in the case of web-based software; the browser itself runs on a hardware+OS platform, but this is not relevant to software running within the browser.
An application, such as a spreadsheet or word processor, which hosts software written in an application-specific scripting language, such as an Excel macro. This can be extended to writing fully-fledged applications with the Microsoft Office suite as a platform. Software frameworks. Cloud computing and Platform as a Service. Extending the idea of a software framework, these allow application developers to build software out of components that are hosted not by the developer, but by the provider, with internet communication linking them together; the social networking sites Twitter and Facebook are considered development platforms. A virtual machine such as the Java virtual machine or. NET CLR. Applications are compiled into a format similar to machine code, known as bytecode, executed by the VM. A virtualized version of a complete system, including virtualized hardware, OS, storage; these allow, for instance, a typical Windows program to run on. Some architectures have multiple layers, with each layer acting as a platform to the one above it.
In general, a component only has to be adapted to the layer beneath it. For instance, a Java program has to be written to use the Java virtual machine and associated libraries as a platform but does not have to be adapted to run for the Windows, Linux or Macintosh OS platforms. However, the JVM, the layer beneath the application, does have to be built separately for each OS. AmigaOS, AmigaOS 4 FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD IBM i Linux Microsoft Windows OpenVMS Classic Mac OS macOS OS/2 Solaris Tru64 UNIX VM QNX z/OS Android Bada BlackBerry OS Firefox OS iOS Embedded Linux Palm OS Symbian Tizen WebOS LuneOS Windows Mobile Windows Phone Binary Runtime Environment for Wireless Cocoa Cocoa Touch Common Language Infrastructure Mono. NET Framework Silverlight Flash AIR GNU Java platform Java ME Java SE Java EE JavaFX JavaFX Mobile LiveCode Microsoft XNA Mozilla Prism, XUL and XULRunner Open Web Platform Oracle Database Qt SAP NetWeaver Shockwave Smartface Universal Windows Platform Windows Runtime Vexi Ordered from more common types to less common types: Commodity computing platforms Wintel, that is, Intel x86 or compatible personal computer hardware with Windows operating system Macintosh, custom Apple Inc. hardware and Classic Mac OS and macOS operating systems 68k-based PowerPC-based, now migrated to x86 ARM architecture based mobile devices iPhone smartphones and iPad tablet computers devices running iOS from Apple Gumstix or Raspberry Pi full function miniature computers with Linux Newton devices running the Newton OS from Apple x86 with Unix-like systems such as Linux or BSD variants CP/M computers based on the S-100 bus, maybe the earliest microcomputer platform Video game consoles, any variety 3DO Interactive Multiplayer, licensed to manufacturers Apple Pippin, a multimedia player platform for video game console development RISC processor based machines running Unix variants SPARC architecture computers running Solaris or illumos operating systems DEC Alpha cluster running OpenVMS or Tru64 UNIX Midrange computers with their custom operating systems, such as IBM OS/400 Mainframe computers with their custom operating systems, such as IBM z/OS Supercomputer architectures Cross-platform Platform virtualization Third platform Ryan Sarver: What is a platform
Internavi is a vehicle telematics service offered by the Honda Motor Company to drivers in Japan. In the United States, the service is known as HondaLink, or sometimes MyLink, it provides mobile connectivity for on-demand traffic information services and internet provided maps displayed inside selected Honda vehicles. The service began August 1997 and was first offered in the 1998 Honda Accord and the Honda Torneo sold only in Japan starting July 1998; the service received a revision to services offered October 2002, adding traffic information delivery capabilities for subscribers to the Internavi Premium Club, was optional on most Honda vehicles sold in Japan. VICS was integrated into the service starting September 2003. Membership in the service has grown to exceed 5 million subscribers as of March 2007; the subscription service replaces the need to periodically update in-car navigation systems that use CD, or DVD installed maps that must be updated with the latest information. The maps are sent by internet connections established through the drivers cellphone with a data download plan associated with the cellphone.
The service is available without having to purchase a Honda vehicle installed with the technology. One of the features offered is the ability to overlay weather information on the in-car map screen in 3D. Route guidance is provided in conjunction with VICS provided information so as to display a large weather disturbance approaching, such as a snow storm or typhoon, allowing drivers to take alternate routes; the following is a description of the various elements that comprise Honda's "Internavi" information service, including integration of the Japanese governments nationally offered service VICS, or Vehicle Information and Communication System Press release for Internavi introduction The technology is dependent on the user's cell phone service, uses the data download plan associated with the users account. Once connected, one of the services available is route calculations towards a specific destination; the navigation technology interface connects to the server automatically at the Internavi Information Center and route planning is determined towards establishing the quickest route towards the selected destination.
The identified route takes into consideration all known traffic and local transportation issues that may affect the plotted course from the VICS center, updated every five minutes based on reports from various sources. As travel begins towards the destination, any updated conditions are relayed to the vehicle in real time. If cellphone service connection is lost, information will be updated as the connection is reestablished. Under normal navigation conditions, FM-multiplex broadcast VICS will prompt when specific conditions become aware, such as traffic congestion; the plotted course is modified based on new information received to adjust travel time information, to include inter-city motorway links. Information received to vehicles installed with Internavi technology are installed with an antenna externally installed. Information is transmitted by transmitter towers located throughout Japan, identified with a "Beacon Light" located on main urban roads. In this manner vehicles with Internavi receive information from both the "beacon light" towers and by individual cellphones paired up' with vehicles, providing accurate information in real time.
As the vehicle travels, either on a planned destination or unguided autonomous driving, the vehicle installed with Internavi records the vehicle's GPS position and speed onto the vehicle's hard disk drive, periodically updates to the Internavi Center Information Server. This autonomous information is retransmitted towards other users, notifying of road conditions. Vehicles installed with previous internal maps utilizing a DVD are not given updated traffic conditions. Speed conditions are displayed in three colors—red and blue—to signify traffic congestion conditions, overlaid with updated VICS known conditions; this feature can be deactivated by the driver if position and speed of the individual vehicle does not want to be transmitted, however by doing so, road conditions can not be shared unless the tracking system is activated. Reports will be limited to VICS information only. Road conditions can be defined towards individual lane conditions, as opposed to general road conditions, such as to identify a traffic incident in a particular lane.
As the information is stored by various contributing vehicles, congestion prediction can be provided. Road conditions are transmitted by the VICS system, Internavi provides additional and more specific road and traffic conditions based on individual lane conditions provided by vehicles recording Internavi "floating car" conditions, specifying which lane and the direction of the road itself. Internavi supporting traffic information is transmitted by individual driver's cell phones, if cellphone conditions are disrupted, the information is recorded onto the vehicles HDD, so that when cellphone reception is restored, all recorded information is transmitted and updates are sent towards participating vehicles. Internavi participating vehicles benefit from available parking spaces, whether it be on the street or in parking structures, public or private parking, from Internavi-equipped vehicles having made available a parking space; the space is defined by the size of the leaving vehicle so that vehicles looking for a parking space can be reasonably confident the vacant space will accommodate the arriving vehicle.
As of October 2004, inclement weather conditions are overlaid onto the Internavi display m
Honda Gold Wing
The Honda Gold Wing is a series of touring motorcycles manufactured by Honda. Gold Wings feature shaft drive, a flat engine. Introduced at the Cologne Motorcycle Show in October 1974, the Gold Wing went on to become a popular model in North America, Western Europe and Australia, as well as Japan. Total sales are more than 640,000, most of them in the U. S. market. Gold Wings were manufactured in Marysville, Ohio from 1980 until 2010, when motorcycle production there was halted. No Gold Wings were produced for the 2011 model year; the Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan includes a Honda Gold Wing GL1000 manufactured in 1974 as one of their 240 Landmarks of Japanese Automotive Technology. Through 2012, Honda GL models have appeared eighteen times in the Cycle World list of Ten Best bikes. Over the course of its production history, the Gold Wing had many design changes. Beginning in 1975 with a 999 cc flat-four engine, by 2001 this had grown to a 1,832 cc flat-six; the 2012 model had anti-lock braking, cruise control, electrically-assisted reverse gear, an optional airbag, a fairing with heating and an adjustable windscreen, panniers and a trunk, a pillion backrest, a six-speaker radio/audio system with MP3/iPod connectivity.
In 1972, following the success of the ground-breaking CB750 superbike, the company assembled an R&D design team to explore concepts for a new flagship motorcycle. The project leader was Shoichiro Irimajiri, who in the 1960s had designed Honda’s multi-cylinder MotoGP engines and their Formula One V12 engine; the 1974 Gold Wing with its flat-four shaft-drive powertrain used technologies both from earlier motorcycle and automotive designs. Although preceded by the 1971 water-cooled Suzuki GT750 two-stroke triple, the Gold Wing was the first Japanese production motorcycle with a water-cooled four-stroke engine; the first four-cylinder boxer engine was produced in 1900. During its development, the CB750 was known within Honda as their "King of Motorcycles". Honda first envisaged the Gold Wing as a large sport motorcycle, but on learning that customers were "piling miles on touring", Honda reconsidered the bike’s design objectives, realising that the primary market for the Gold Wing was the long-distance motorcyclist.
In North America a motorcycle suitable to that task would need comfort for the long haul, wind protection, a smooth ride, a comfortable seat, luggage storage, power in abundance. In American in the early 1970s, long-distance motorcyclists had only a few manufacturers to choose from: Harley-Davidson, Moto Guzzi and BMW; the H-D Electra Glide was a comfortable, high-maintenance and high-vibration motorcycle with a loyal cult following. It faced strong competition from Moto Guzzi's 850cc Eldorado. BMW motorcycles were more reliable, if expensive. Other large Japanese motorcycles, such as the Honda CB750 and the Kawasaki Z1 were cheaper but were not ideal tourers with their small fuel tanks and rear drive-chains needing regular maintenance; the Gold Wing was aimed at a newly-emerging market segment namely, a new kind of American long distance rider not to buy a Harley-Davidson or BMW but who would open their wallets for an affordable machine offering comfort, low-maintenance and a smooth, quiet engine.
The Gold Wing's secondary target market was Europe, where riders prioritised handling and performance over luxury.. In 1972, the project team broke from Honda practice to produce an experimental prototype motorcycle, code-named "M1". Instead of the usual transverse engine layout with a chain final drive, the M1 had a longitudinal engine suitable for shaft drive; the M1 had a 1470cc liquid-cooled flat-six engine. Instead of seeking high performance the M1 engine was designed to have a broad torque output and to produce 80 horsepower at 6700 rpm, with a top speed of 220 kilometres per hour; the brainstorming team's M1 project was never intended as a production prototype. Nonetheless, the M1 should be seen as the primordial Gold Wing because so many of its distinctive features appeared on the GL1000; the flat-six gave the M1 a low center of gravity, enhancing stability, but the extreme length of the engine/gearbox unit resulted in a cramped riding position. Instead, the project team chose to build a bike with a compact one liter flat-four engine.
This bike was code-named "Project 371", Toshio Nozue took over from Irimajiri as project leader. The Project 371 team settled on a layout that became the characteristic Gold Wing: a liquid-cooled flat-four SOHC engine, with a gear-driven generator that contra-rotated to counteract the engine's torque reaction. Cylinder blocks and crankcase were integral, with the transmission situated beneath the crankcase to keep the unit construction engine as short as possible. Final drive was by shaft. Before going on sale in the US and in Europe in 1975, the Gold Wing was revealed to dealers in September 1974 at American Honda's annual dealer meeting in Las Vegas, shown to the public the following month at the IFMA in Cologne. Small fairings had been mounted on two of the show models at the US dealer show in Las Vegas; these Honda-designed fairings were to be manufactured in the US by the Vetter Fairing Company and sold as Hondaline accessories. The Gold Wing was born into the world naked, lacking sa
An audiobook is a recording of a text being read. A reading of the complete text is described as "unabridged", while readings of a shorter version, or abridgement of the text are labeled as "abridged". Spoken audio has been available in schools and public libraries and to a lesser extent in music shops since the 1930s. Many spoken word albums were made prior to the age of cassette tapes, compact discs, downloadable audio of poetry and plays rather than books, it was not until the 1980s that the medium began to attract book retailers, book retailers started displaying audiobooks on bookshelves rather than in separate displays. The term "talking book" came into being in the 1930s with government programs designed for blind readers, while the term "audiobook" came into use during the 1970s when audiocassettes began to replace records. In 1994, the Audio Publishers Association established the term "audiobook" as the industry standard. Spoken word recordings first became possible with the invention of the phonograph by Thomas Edison in 1877.
"Phonographic books" were one of the original applications envisioned by Edison which would "speak to blind people without effort on their part." The initial words spoken into the phonograph were Edison's recital of "Mary Had a Little Lamb", the first instance of recorded verse. In 1878, a demonstration at the Royal Institution in Britain included "Hey Diddle Diddle, the Cat and the Fiddle" and a line of Tennyson's poetry thus establishing from the beginning of the technology its association with spoken literature. Many short, spoken word recordings were sold on cylinder in the late 1800s and early 1900s, however the round cylinders were limited to about 4 minutes each making books impractical. "One early listener complained that he would need a wheelbarrow to carry around talking books recorded on discs with such limited storage capacity." By the 1930s close-grooved records increased to 20 minutes making possible longer narrative. In 1931, the American Foundation for the Blind and Library of Congress Books for the Adult Blind Project established the "Talking Books Program", intended to provide reading material for veterans injured during World War I and other visually impaired adults.
The first test recordings in 1932 included a chapter from Helen Keller's Midstream and Edgar Allan Poe's "The Raven". The organization received congressional approval for exemption from copyright and free postal distribution of talking books; the first recordings made for the Talking Books Program in 1934 included sections of the Bible. Recording for the Blind & Dyslexic was founded in 1948 by Anne T. Macdonald, a member of the New York Public Library's Women's Auxiliary, in response to an influx of inquiries from soldiers who had lost their sight in combat during World War II; the newly passed GI Bill of Rights guaranteed a college education to all veterans, but texts were inaccessible to the blinded veterans, who did not read Braille and had little access to live readers. Macdonald mobilized the women of the Auxiliary under the motto "Education is a right, not a privilege". Members of the Auxiliary transformed the attic of the New York Public Library into a studio, recording textbooks using state-of-the-art six-inch vinyl SoundScriber phonograph discs that played 12 minutes of material per side.
In 1952, Macdonald established recording studios in seven additional cities across the United States. Caedmon Records was a pioneer in the audiobook business, it was the first company dedicated to selling spoken work recordings to the public and has been called the "seed" of the audiobook industry. Caedmon was formed in New York in 1952 by college graduates Barbara Marianne Roney, their first release was a collection of poems by Dylan Thomas. The LP's B-side contained A Child's Christmas in Wales, added as an afterthought - the story was obscure and Thomas himself couldn't remember its title when asked what to use to fill up the B-side - but this recording went on to become one of his most loved works, launched Caedmon into a successful company; the original 1952 recording was a selection for the 2008 United States National Recording Registry, stating it is "credited with launching the audiobook industry in the United States". Caedmon used LP records, invented in 1948, which made longer recordings more affordable and practical, however most of their works were poems and other short works, not unabridged books due to the LP's limitation of about a 45-minute playing time.
Listening Library was a pioneering company, it was one of the first to distribute children's audiobooks to schools and other special markets, including VA hospitals. It was founded by his wife in 1955 in their Red Bank, New Jersey home. Another early pioneering company was Spoken Arts founded in 1956 by Arthur Luce Klein and his wife, they produced over 700 recordings and were best known for poetry and drama recordings used in schools and libraries. Like Caedemon, Listening Library and Spoken Arts benefited from the new technology of LPs, but increased governmental funding for schools and libraries beginning in the 1950s and 60s. Though spoken recordings were popular in 33⅓ vinyl record format for schools and libraries into the early 1970s, the beginning of the modern retail market for audiobooks can be traced to the wide adoption
Clarion Co. Ltd. is a Japanese manufacturer of car audio, automotive navigation systems, AutoPCs, visual equipment, bus equipment, communication equipment. It is majority joined by Foxconn. Up until the end of 2005, products in Japan were marketed under the brand name AddZest, while outside Japan the same product carried the Clarion name brand; this was changed in 2006, the brand "Clarion" along with a redesigned logo are now used worldwide. It is known for its close relationship with Nissan, who uses Clarion products exclusively in its vehicles, owned a 6.25% share in them until 2002. Clarion has an OEM relationship with many automotive companies, providing car headunits and components to them for their production vehicles. Clients include Saab Automobile, Ford, Proton, Toyota and Peugeot. A contest is held annually to select the Clarion Girl, chosen to represent Clarion's car audio equipment in television and print advertising campaigns during the following year; the contest was started in 1975, is now co-sponsored by Fuji TV.
December 1940 – Established as Hakusan Wireless Electric Company in 21 Hakusanmae-cho, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo. November 1943 – Merges with Takizawa Wireless Electric Industries Co. Ltd.. December 1970 – Trade name changed to Clarion Co. Ltd. December 1970 – First overseas factory established as a joint venture in Malaysia. July 1983 – Factory established in France. October 1989 – Manufacturing company established in the Philippines. January 1995 – Clarion Orient Co. established in Hong Kong. March 1995 – ISO9001 certification obtained at all Clarion business sites. April 1995 – Manufacturing company established in China. October 1997 – Manufacturing company established in Hungary. January 1998 – In-car PC “Clarion AutoPC” jointly developed with Microsoft Corporation. December 1998 – Launch of the world's first in-vehicle computer "AutoPC" in the United States. December 1999 – OEM supply of "AutoPC" to French automaker Citroën begins. November 2001 – “AutoPC CADIAS” exhibits at Tokyo Motor Show. March 2002 – Launch of satellite radio receiver in North America.
August 2003 – Started supplying CD car audio to Shanghai GM, China. February 2004 – World First Launch of Linux, Java J2ME CDC equipped in-vehicle information terminal for commercial vehicles. December 2006 – Becomes a Hitachi Group company. January 2007 – Xanavi Informatics Corporation becomes a wholly owned subsidiary. November 2008 – Launch of mobile communication terminal “ClarionMiND” in North America. April 2009 – Wholly owned subsidiary Xanavi Informatics Corp. is absorbed and merged. January 2010 – Car audio supplied to Tata Motors, India for its "Nano" car. October 2010 – Registered Head Office transferred to Saitama Shintoshin. March 2011 – World's first in-vehicle full-digital speakers developed. June 2012 – "Smart Access" cloud-based information network service for vehicles launches in North America. May 2013 – Sales company established in India. September 2015 – Development and release of a new Full Digital Sound August 2018- JL Audio assumes responsibility for Clarion's Marine Audio Electronics and Accessories Business in North America, South America and New Zealand.
October 2018 - Faurecia Automotive announces plans to acquire 100% of Clarion to form a new business unit Faurecia Clarion Electronic Systems to be headquartered in Tokyo Japan, transaction is expected to be complete in the first quarter of 2019. System licensed by Trigence, Demo exhibition held at the Frankfurt Motor Show. Official website Clarion Corporation of America Clarion Japan Clarion Taiwan 歌樂旺企業股份有限公司
Victor Company of Japan, Ltd. TYO: 6792 referred to as JVC or The Japan Victor Company, is a Japanese international professional and consumer electronics corporation based in Yokohama. Founded in 1927, the company is best known for introducing Japan's first televisions and for developing the Video Home System video recorder. From 1953 to 2008, Matsushita Electric Industrial Co. Ltd. was the majority stockholder in JVC. In 2008, JVC merged with Kenwood Corporation to create JVCKenwood. JVC sold their electronic products in their home market of Japan under the "Victor" name with the His Master's Voice logo, but used the name JVC or Nivico in the past for export due to differing ownership of the His Master's Voice logo and the ownership of the "Victor" name from successors of the Victor Talking Machine Company. In 2011, the Victor brand for electronics in Japan was replaced by the global JVC brand. However, the previous "Victor" name and logo is retained by JVC Kenwood Victor Entertainment. JVC was founded in 1927 as "The Victor Talking Machine Company of Japan, Limited," a subsidiary of the United States' leading phonograph and record company, the Victor Talking Machine Company.
In 1929, majority ownership was transferred to RCA-Victor. In the 1930s, JVC produced records. In 1932, JVC began producing radios, in 1939 Japan's first locally-made television. In 1943, amidst World War II, JVC severed relations with RCA Victor. Today the record company in Japan is known as Victor Entertainment. In 1953, JVC became majority-owned by the Panasonic Corporation. Panasonic released its ownership in 2007. In the 1960s, JVC established the Nivico brand for Delmonico's line of console televisions and stereos. In 1970, JVC marketed the Videosphere, a portable cathode ray tube television inside a space-helmet-shaped casing with an alarm clock at the base, it was a commercial success. In 1971, JVC introduced the first discrete system for four channel quadraphonic sound on vinyl records - CD-4 or Quadradisc, as it was called by the Radio Corporation of America in the United States. In 1975, JVC introduced the first combined portable battery-operated radio with inbuilt TV, as the model 3050.
The TV was a 3-inch black-and-white cathode ray tube. One year JVC expanded the model to add a cassette-recorder, as the 3060, creating the world's first boombox with radio, cassette and TV. In 1976, the first VCR to use VHS was the Victor HR-3300, was introduced by the president of JVC at the Okura Hotel on September 9, 1976. JVC started selling the HR-3300 in Akihabara, Japan on October 31, 1976. Region-specific versions of the JVC HR-3300 were distributed on, such as the HR-3300U in the United States, HR-3300EK in the United Kingdom. In the late 1970s, JVC developed the VHS format, introducing the first VHS recorders to the consumer market in 1976 for the equivalent of US $1060. Sony, which had introduced the Betamax home videocassette tape a year earlier, became the main competitor for JVC's VHS format into the 1980s, creating the videotape format war; the Betamax cassette was smaller, with superior picture quality to the VHS cassette, but this resulted in Betamax having less recording time.
The two companies competed fiercely to encourage others to adopt their format, but by 1984 forty companies were using JVC's VHS format, while only 12 used Betamax. Sony began producing VHS recorders in 1988 and after 1993 stopped making Betamax recorders for the US market, completely in 2002. In 1979, JVC demonstrated a prototype of its video high density disc system; this system was capacitance-based, like capacitance electronic disc, but the discs were grooveless with the stylus being guided by servo signals in the disc surface. The VHD discs were handled by the operator and played on a machine that looked like an audio LP turntable, but JVC used caddy-housed discs when the system was marketed. Development suffered numerous delays, the product was launched in 1983 in Japan, followed by the United Kingdom in 1984, to a limited industrial market. In 1981, JVC introduced a line of revolutionary direct-drive cassette decks, topped by the DD-9, that provided unattainable levels of speed stability.
During the 1980s JVC marketed its own portable audio equipment similar to the Sony Walkman on the market at the time. The JVC CQ-F2K was released in 1982 and had a detachable radio that mounted to the headphones for a compact, wire-free listening experience. JVC had difficulty making the products successful, a few years stopped making them. In Japan, JVC marketed the products under the name "Victor". In 1986, JVC released the HC-95, a personal computer with a 3.58 MHz Zilog Z80A processor, 64 KB RAM, running on MSX Basic 2.0. It included two 3.5" floppy disk drives and conformed to the graphics specification of the MSX-2 standard. However, like the Pioneer PX-7, it carried a sophisticated hardware interface that handled video superimposition and various interactive video processing features; the JVC HC-95 was first sold in Japan, Europe, but sales were disappointing. JVC video recorders were marketed by the Ferguson Radio Corporation in the UK, with just cosmetic changes. However, Ferguson needed to find another supplier for its camcorders when JVC produced only the VHS-C format, rather than video8.
Ferguson was acquired by Thomson SA, which ended the relationship. JVC invented hard drive camcorders. In October 2001, the National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences presented JVC an Emmy Award for "outstanding achievement in technological advancement" for "Pioneering Development of Consumer Camcorders". Annual sponsorships of the world-renowne