Cara Williams is an American film and television actress. She is best known for her role as Billy's Mother in The Defiant Ones, for which she was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress, for her role as Gladys Porter on the 1960-1962 CBS television series Pete and Gladys, for which she was nominated for the Emmy Award for Best Lead Actress in a Comedy. Cara Williams was born Bernice Kamiat in Flatbush, the daughter of New York-born Florence "Flora", whose parents were Romanian Jewish immigrants, Benjamin Irving Kamiat, a Jewish immigrant born in Lemberg, Austrian Empire. Benny Kamiat was a journalist for the Brooklyn Eagle, her mother worked as a manicurist next to Brooklyn's Albee Theatre, where she would leave her daughter Bernice with the theatre owners to babysit. Young Bernice began making impersonations of all the screen stars she watched in the movies there, knew she wanted to be an actress, her parents divorced, her mother relocated her to Los Angeles, where she chose Cara Williams as her stage name and attended the Hollywood Professional School.
Soon, she began performing in radio and at the age of 16 in 1941, she was signed to a film contract and began performing in bit roles, credited as Bernice Kay. Williams married Alan Gray in 1945. Williams married John Drew Barrymore, the father of Drew Barrymore, in 1952; the marriage was troubled and they divorced in 1959. Their son, John Blyth Barrymore, is a former actor, she is married to her third husband, Los Angeles real estate entrepreneur Asher Dann. Williams grew up in the same neighborhood as Oscar-winning actress Susan Hayward, her first credited role was in the 1941 western Wide Open Town. She followed this with the dramas Girls Happy Land with Don Ameche. In 1944, she appeared uncredited in the Oscar-nominated musical film Sweet and Low-Down and as a secretary in the Oscar-winning film Laura directed by Otto Preminger, she had a supporting role in the drama In the Meantime, which stars Jeanne Crain. Around this time, she took some time off, marrying her first husband, Alan Gray, in 1945 and having her daughter Cathy.
She had supporting roles in the Oscar-nominated films Boomerang directed by Elia Kazan, in Sitting Pretty. She next had supporting roles in The Saxon Charm which stars Susan Hayward, Knock on Any Door, which stars Humphrey Bogart. Williams started the'50s appearing in television from 1950–1952, she played supporting roles in The Great Diamond Robbery. She appeared in Monte Carlo Baby, a comedy with Audrey Hepburn. Williams took time off during this period in which she was married to John Drew Barrymore and gave birth to their son, John Blyth Barrymore, in 1954. In 1956, Williams appeared in the Oscar-nominated film Meet Me in Las Vegas, in which she performs a memorable song titled "I Refuse to Rock n Roll". In 1957, she played a supporting role in The Helen Morgan Story, which stars Ann Blyth and Paul Newman. In 1958, she was cast as Billy's Mother in The Defiant Ones, which went on to be nominated for the Academy Award for Best Picture and for which she was nominated for the Golden Globe and Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress.
In 1959, she appeared in a musical comedy with James Cagney. Williams co-starred with Danny Kaye in the 1963 comedy film The Man from the Diner's Club. Williams appeared in four episodes of Alfred Hitchcock Presents: "Decoy", "De Mortuis", "Last Request", "The Cure". From 1960 to 1962, she starred in the CBS television comedy series Pete and Gladys, with Harry Morgan as Pete; the series was a spin-off of the popular CBS comedy December Bride, in which Morgan appeared from 1954 to 1959 as Pete Porter. Gladys, his wife, was never shown. Williams brought the character to life with Morgan retaining his role as her husband; the show lasted for two seasons, Williams was nominated for the Emmy Award for Best Lead Actress in a Comedy. For the next two years, while still under contract to the network, CBS kept her in the public eye by repeating Pete and Gladys episodes as part of its morning line-up, an unusual move for a short-run series. CBS returned Williams to prime time in 1964 in her own series, The Cara Williams Show, which lasted only one season.
During the 1970s, Williams' acting appearances became less frequent. In 1971 she had a supporting role in the film Doctors' Wives, she guest-starred in three episodes of Rhoda in 1975, performing in the role of Mae.:891-892Her last television performance was in a 1977 episode of Visions. Her last film role came in 1978 with The One Man Jury. After retiring from acting, Williams began a career as an interior designer, she is married to Asher Dann, her third husband. Cara Williams on IMDb
Sarah Connor is a fictional character in the Terminator franchise. She is one of the protagonists of The Terminator, Terminator 2: Judgment Day, Terminator Genisys and Terminator: Dark Fate, as well as the television series Terminator: The Sarah Connor Chronicles; the character develops from a timid damsel in distress victim in the first film to a wanted fugitive committing acts of terrorism, a hardened warrior and mother who sacrificed everything for her son's future and is on the verge of losing touch with her own humanity, a mentor preparing and protecting a protégée for her destiny. In another timeline, depicted in Terminator Genisys, she is a young, headstrong heroine determined to take control of her own destiny. Sarah was portrayed by Linda Hamilton in The Terminator, Terminator 2: Judgment Day, T2-3D: Battle Across Time, Terminator Salvation, Terminator: Dark Fate; the Terminator does not specify Sarah Connor's age or birth date, although according to the original script, she was 19 years old.
The film is set in May 1984. In Terminator 2: Judgment Day, Sarah's psychologist states she is 29. However, her tombstone shown in Terminator 3 reads 1959–1997, which would make her several years older than what was established in the earlier films. In Terminator Genisys, Sarah was nine in 1973, placing her birth in 1963 or 1964, consistent with the original films. In Terminator: Dark Fate, the film is set twenty-five years after the events of Terminator 2: Judgment Day, making Sarah 55 years old by the time of its events. In The Terminator, Sarah Connor is a Los Angeles college student and waitress, pursued by a relentless android killer, the Cyberdyne Systems Model 101 Terminator, she learns she is in danger from a televised report of two identically-named Los Angeles women who were shot to death earlier that day. She is rescued from the Terminator by time-travelling soldier Kyle Reese, who says in the future an artificial intelligence called Skynet will be created by military software developers to make strategic decisions.
The program becomes self-aware, seizes control of most of the world's military hardware, launches an all-out attack on human beings. John Connor leads the remnants of the world's military and survivors, The Resistance, to victory, only to discover Skynet had invented a means of time travel and sent an android killer back in time to destroy John Connor's mother before he is born. John Connor is Sarah's future son. During their brief time together, Sarah falls in love with Kyle, who tells Sarah she would be responsible for training John in the skills and tactics he would use to fight Skynet. Kyle protects Sarah from the Terminator and they flee together, she is unaware that Reese has been in love with her. While they are avoiding the Terminator and Sarah have sex that results in John's conception. Kyle dies fighting the Terminator in a factory. Sarah crushes the Terminator in a hydraulic press. Kyle's sincerity and courage inspires her to develop the skills and abilities that make her a suitable mentor and teacher to John.
After these events, Sarah becomes pregnant and a fugitive and begins making a voice recording for John to give to him in life. While recording the tape, a boy takes a photograph. In Terminator 2: Judgment Day and her son John have been separated. In the years since the previous film, she has become a ferocious warrior. After the death of Kyle Reese, Sarah takes his warnings and the responsibility of raising her son to heart, her fixation on the disaster and her fanatical desire to keep John safe has made her mentally unstable and violent, aggravated by her fear and hatred of the Model 101. She lives off-grid to protect John. Sarah tried to teach her son the skills he would need to lead the resistance, she is sent to the institution after trying to blow up a computer factory. Several times at the hospital, she has tried to improve her behavior in hope of getting to see her son, but her caregivers do not believe her, her activities and claims of fighting evil robots from the future led to her being deemed incurable.
Sarah only seemed to confirm the judgment of psychiatrists by committing acts of violence against hospital staff. She tries to escape multiple times; when she encounters the Model 101, she flees in terror and is captured by the hospital staff, but she goes with the android. They escape in a police car after knocking the driver unconscious. Sarah finds it nearly impossible to accept. John develops a bond with it. In the director's cut of the movie, Sarah has an opportunity to destroy the machine's CPU, she nearly does so but John persuades her they need its help. Sarah loses her hostility towards the machine. After having a nightmare about Judgment Day occurring, Sarah tries to murder Miles Dyson (Joe Morton
Podosomes are conical, actin-rich structures found on the outer surface of the plasma membrane of animal cells. Their size ranges from 0.5 µm to 2.0 µm in diameter. While situated on the periphery of the cellular membrane, these unique structures display a polarized pattern of distribution in migrating cells, situating at the front border between the lamellipodium and lamellum, their primary purpose is connected to cellular invasion. Many different specialized cells exhibit these dynamic structures such as invasive cancer cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, certain immune cells like macrophages and dendritic cells. A podosome consists of a core rich in actin surrounded by scaffolding proteins; the actin filaments within these structures are regulated by many actin nucleators, polymerization activators, actin binding and crosslinking proteins, small GTPases, scaffold proteins. To distinguish podosomes from others types of cellular adhesions, the protein Tks5 and WASP are used as markers alongside actin and the Arp2/3 complex to localize and isolate these protrusions because Tks5 and WASP are unique to the podosome when compared with other actin-based cellular structures.
In their outward structure, the podosomes demonstrate two distinct features: an actin core and a ring complex. Within the core, coordinators of actin nucleation are found; the Arp2/3 complex and WASP when close to the plasma membrane or cortactin when further away comprise this group of proteins. Emanating radially from the dense core of actin are actin filaments reaching to the plasma membrane and between neighboring podosomes. In the ring complex and integrin-associated proteins serve to connect the cytoskeleton to cell surface integrins forming the outward protrusion. Initial research suggested that the superstructure of podosomes were cylindrical, but new advances in bioimaging techniques have altered that perception and show the ring complex to display a polygonal form; these finding were made possible through the application of Bayesian blinking and bleaching analytics to data gained from standard widefield microscopy using cells that expressed fluorescently tagged proteins specific to the podosome ring complex.
The podosome size falls between 0.5 um and 2.0 um in diameter and depth. The lifetime of the structure is only minutes in duration, much shorter than observed in invadopodia. Podosomes are thought to be intimately connected to cellular motility within tissue microenvironments through coordinating degradation of the extracellular matrix with cellular movement; the migration of cells is essential to proper embryonic development and, in maturity, to wound healing and the inflammatory response. Examples of these motile cell behaviors include: transendothelial migration of dendritic cells, migration of aortic endothelial cells for arterial vessel remodeling, tissue infiltration by macrophages. Aberrations in cell migration lie beneath pathologies involving development and immunity. Podosomes are present in cell types associated with tissue remodeling and the immune system. Patients who suffer from Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome demonstrate, through their immune cells, continued evidence of the role podosomes fulfill in cell motility.
These patients do not possess formed WASP, shown to localize in podosomes and to be integral to their formation from previous studies. The dendritic cells and macrophages of these patients’ immune systems do not manifest podosome formations and demonstrate defects in cellular movement within tissue microenvironments; some researchers suspect. Patients who exhibit Frank–ter Haar syndrome are known to be mutant for the podosome specific protein Tks4 and demonstrate defects in neural crest cell migration. Adding to the known functionalities of podosomes, research suggests that these dynamic structures exhibit mechanosensory attributes. Initial formation of podosomes seems to be influenced by the structure and composition of the underlying substratum including the presence and distribution of specific ligands. Various integrin receptors monitor the mechanical properties of the cellular microenvironment and can influence and initiate formation of a podosome. Once formed, the integrity of the matrix substratum dictates the lifespan of the podosome with increased stiffness leading to longer endurance and closer spacing between podosome sites.
Some studies indicates a putative role for podosomes in the regulation of bone marrow stem cell's function. Podosomes have been shown to be present in vitro on mesodermal progenitor cells, cell capable of differentiating into mesenchymal stromal cells, it has been proposed that podosomes are important in the mobilisation of MPCs in the event of physiological need. Osteoclasts are multinucleated bone cells that conduct the process of bone resorption. In this remodeling process, podosomes play an integral role. During the maturation of osteoclast precursors, groups of podosomes form higher ordered ring structures which coalesce into a band about the cell periphery; the resulting arrangement of podosomes is interconnected through a dense, radial network of actin filaments that extend between and onto neighboring podosomes. Accumulation of F-actin, paxillin, α-actin within the podosomes of the coalescent band signals the development of a matured osteoclast. Upon initiation of bone resorption, the band of podosomes disassembles leaving