A camel is an even-toed ungulate in the genus Camelus that bears distinctive fatty deposits known as "humps" on its back. Camels have long been domesticated and, as livestock, they provide food and textiles; as working animals, camels—which are uniquely suited to their desert habitats—are a vital means of transport for passengers and cargo. There are three surviving species of camel; the one-humped dromedary makes up 94% of the world's camel population, the two-humped Bactrian camel makes up the remainder. The Wild Bactrian camel is now critically endangered; the word camel is derived via Latin: camelus and Greek: κάμηλος from Hebrew or Phoenician: gāmāl. Used informally, "camel" refers to any of the seven members of the family Camelidae: the dromedary, the Bactrian, the wild Bactrian, plus the llama, the alpaca, the guanaco, the vicuña; the dromedary known as the Arabian camel, inhabits the Middle East and the Horn of Africa, while the Bactrian inhabits Central Asia, including the historical region of Bactria.
The critically endangered wild Bactrian is found only in remote areas of northwest China and Mongolia. An extinct species of camel in the separate genus Camelops, known as C. hesternus, lived in western North America until humans entered the continent at the end of the Pleistocene. The average life expectancy of a camel is 40 to 50 years. A full-grown adult camel stands 1.85 m at 2.15 m at the hump. Camels can sustain speeds of up to 40 km/h. Bactrian camels dromedaries 300 to 600 kg; the widening toes on a camel's hoof provide supplemental grip for varying soil sediments. The male dromedary camel has an organ called a dulla in its throat, a large, inflatable sac he extrudes from his mouth when in rut to assert dominance and attract females, it resembles a long, pink tongue hanging out of the side of its mouth. Camels mate by having both male and female sitting on the ground, with the male mounting from behind; the male ejaculates three or four times within a single mating session. Camelids are the only ungulates to mate in a sitting position.
Camels do not directly store water in their humps. Concentrating body fat in their humps minimizes the insulating effect fat would have if distributed over the rest of their bodies, helping camels survive in hot climates; when this tissue is metabolized, it yields more than one gram of water for every gram of fat processed. This fat metabolization, while releasing energy, causes water to evaporate from the lungs during respiration: overall, there is a net decrease in water. Camels have a series of physiological adaptations that allow them to withstand long periods of time without any external source of water; the dromedary camel can drink as as once every 10 days under hot conditions, can lose up to 30% of its body mass due to dehydration. Unlike other mammals, camels' red blood cells are oval rather than circular in shape; this facilitates the flow of red blood cells during dehydration and makes them better at withstanding high osmotic variation without rupturing when drinking large amounts of water: a 600 kg camel can drink 200 L of water in three minutes.
Camels are able to withstand changes in body temperature and water consumption that would kill most other animals. Their temperature ranges from 34 °C at dawn and increases to 40 °C by sunset, before they cool off at night again. In general, to compare between camels and the other livestock, camels lose only 1.3 liters of fluid intake every day while the other livestock lose 20 to 40 liters per day. Maintaining the brain temperature within certain limits is critical for animals. Camels sweat when ambient temperatures reach 49 °C. Any sweat that does occur evaporates at the skin level rather than at the surface of their coat. Camels can withstand losing 25% of their body weight to sweating, whereas most other mammals can withstand only about 12–14% dehydration before cardiac failure results from circulatory disturbance; when the camel exhales, water vapor becomes trapped in their nostrils and is reabsorbed into the body as a means to conserve water. Camels eating green herbage can ingest sufficient moisture in milder conditions to maintain their bodies' hydrated state without the need for drinking.
The camels' thick coats insulate them from the intense heat radiated from desert sand. During the summer the coat becomes lighter in color, reflecting light as well as helping avoid sunburn; the camel's long legs help by keeping its body farther from the ground, which can heat up to 70 °C. Dromedaries have a pad of thick tissue over the sternum called the pedestal; when the animal lies down in a sternal recumbent position, the pedestal raises the body from the hot surface and allows cooling air to pass under the body. Camels' mouths have a thick leathery lining. Long eyelashes and ear hairs, together with nostrils, form a barrier against sand. If sand gets lodged in their eyes, they can dislodge it using their transparent t
Sardis or Sardes was an ancient city at the location of modern Sart, near the Salihli in Turkey's Manisa Province. Sardis was the capital of the ancient kingdom of Lydia, one of the important cities of the Persian Empire, the seat of a proconsul under the Roman Empire, the metropolis of the province Lydia in Roman and Byzantine times; as one of the seven churches of Asia, it was addressed by John, the author of the Book of Revelation in the New Testament, in terms which seem to imply that its church members did not finish what they started, that they were about image and not substance. Its importance was due first to its military strength, secondly to its situation on an important highway leading from the interior to the Aegean coast, thirdly to its commanding the wide and fertile plain of the Hermus. Sardis was situated in the middle of Hermus valley, at the foot of Mount Tmolus, a steep and lofty spur which formed the citadel, it was about 4 kilometres south of the Hermus. Today, the site is located by the present day village of Sart, near Salihli in the Manisa province of Turkey, close to the Ankara - İzmir highway.
The part of remains including the bath-gymnasium complex and Byzantine shops is open to visitors year-round. The Greek historian and father of history, notes that the city was founded by the sons of Hercules, the Heraclides. According to Herodotus, the Heraclides ruled for five hundred and five years beginning with Agron, 1220 BCE, ending with Candaules, 716 BCE, they were followed by the Mermnades, which began with Gyges, 716 BCE, ended with Croesus, 546 BCE. The earliest reference to Sardis is in The Persians of Aeschylus, it is, more probable that Sardis was not the original capital of the Maeonians, but that it became so amid the changes which produced the powerful Lydian empire of the 8th century BCE. The city was captured by the Cimmerians in the 7th century BCE, by the Persians in the 6th, by the Athenians in the 5th, by Antiochus III the Great at the end of the 3rd century BCE. In the Persian era, Sardis was conquered by Cyrus the Great and formed the end station for the Persian Royal Road which began in Persepolis, capital of Persia.
Sardis was the site of the most important Persian satrapy. During the Ionian Revolt, the Athenians burnt down the city. Sardis remained under Persian domination until it surrendered to Alexander the Great in 334 BCE; the early Lydian kingdom was advanced in the industrial arts and Sardis was the chief seat of its manufactures. The most important of these trades was the manufacture and dyeing of delicate woolen stuffs and carpets; the stream Pactolus which flowed through the market-place "carried golden sands" in early antiquity, in reality gold dust out of Mount Tmolus. It was during the reign of King Croesus that the metallurgists of Sardis discovered the secret of separating gold from silver, thereby producing both metals of a purity never known before; this was an economic revolution, for while gold nuggets panned or mined were used as currency, their purity was always suspect and a hindrance to trade. Such nuggets or coinage were occurring alloys of gold and silver known as electrum and one could never know how much of it was gold and how much was silver.
Sardis now could mint nearly pure silver and gold coins, the value of which could be – and was – trusted throughout the known world. This revolution made Croesus' name synonymous with wealth itself. For this reason, Sardis is famed in history as the place. Disaster came to the great city under the reign of the emperor Tiberius, when in 17 CE, Sardis was destroyed by an earthquake, but it was rebuilt with the help of ten million sesterces from the Emperor and exempted from paying taxes for five years, it was one of the great cities of western Asia Minor until the Byzantine period. Trade and the organization of commerce continued to be sources of great wealth. After Constantinople became the capital of the East, a new road system grew up connecting the provinces with the capital. Sardis lay rather apart from the great lines of communication and lost some of its importance, it still, retained its titular supremacy and continued to be the seat of the metropolitan bishop of the province of Lydia, formed in 295 CE.
It was enumerated as third, after Ephesus and Smyrna, in the list of cities of the Thracesion thema given by Constantine Porphyrogenitus in the 10th century. However, over the next four centuries it was in the shadow of the provinces of Magnesia-upon-Sipylum and Philadelphia, which retained their importance in the region. After 1071, the Hermus valley began to suffer from the inroads of the Seljuk Turks but the Byzantine general John Doukas reconquered the city in 1097; the successes of the general Philokales in 1118 relieved the district from Turkish pressure and the ability of the Comneni dynasty together with the gradual decay of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum meant that it remained under Byzantine dominion. When Constantinople was taken by the Venetians and Franks in 1204 Sardis came under the rule of the Byzantine Empire of Nicea; however once the Byzantines retook Constantinople in 1261, Sardis with the entire Asia Minor was neglected and the region fell under the control of Ghazi emirs.
The Cayster valleys and a fort on the citadel of Sardis was handed over to them by treaty in 1306. The city
Wuḍūʾ is the Islamic procedure for wiping parts of the body, a type of ritual purification, or ablution. Wudu involves washing the hands, nostrils, arms and feet with water and is an important part of ritual purity in Islam. What activities require wuḍūʾ, what rituals constitute it and what breaks or invalidates it are governed by fiqh and its rules concerning hygiene. Wuḍūʾ in other languages is Persian: آبدست or دستنماز ābdast or dast-namāz Urdu: وضوء / ALA-LC: wuz̤ūʾ IPA:. Wuḍūʾ is done in preparation for formal prayers and before handling and reading the Qur'an. Impurifying activities that invalidate wudu include urination, flatulence, deep sleep, light bleeding and sexual intercourse. Wuḍūʾ is translated as "partial ablution", as opposed to ghusl, washing the whole body, or tayammum, replacing water with sand or dust due to its scarcity, its harmful effect on the person or some other reason. Purification of the body and clothes is called taharah; the Qur'an says "For God loves those who turn to Him and He loves those who keep themselves pure and clean."
In regard to Muslims being required to be clean when handling and reading the Qur'an, the Qur'an says "Which none shall touch but those who are clean." The Islamic prophet Muhammad said that "Cleanliness is half of faith". Spring, sea or river water Water of melting snow or hail Water of a big tank or pond Well water Unclean or impure water Water extracted from fruit and trees Water that has changed its colour and smell and has become thick because something was soaked in it Small quantity of water in which something unclean has fallen, e.g. urine, stool or wine or some animal had died after falling into it Water left over after drinking by haraam animals Used water of wuḍūʾ or ghusl There are four fard acts. If one of these acts is omitted, it must be returned to and the succeeding acts completed. There are other acts that are performed during wuḍūʾ and the detailed acts of the wuḍūʾ can be classed into 3 types: According to Sunni Muslims, the Qur'anic mandate for wuḍūʾ comes in the sixth ayat of sura 5.
The ayat has been translated by Muhammad Muhsin Khan, Rashad Khalifa, Abdullah Yusuf Ali and Maulana Muhammad Ali as follows. Note that these scholars' translation refer to washing the feet. O you who have believed, when you rise to prayer, wash your faces and your forearms to the elbows and wipe over your heads and wash your feet to the ankles, and if you are in a state of janabah purify yourselves. But if you are ill or on a journey or one of you comes from the place of relieving himself or you have contacted women and do not find water seek clean earth and wipe over your faces and hands with it. Allah does not intend to make difficulty for you, but He intends to purify you and complete His favor upon you that you may be grateful. Washing the face thrice. Washing both the arms including the elbows thrice. Performing masah of one-fourth of the head. Washing both the feet once up to and including the ankles. It's not sufficient for one to pass wet hand over the shoes. Under certain conditions masah can be done over leather socks known as khuffs.
Narrated by Abd-Allah ibn Amr: "...we were just passing wet hands over our feet so he addressed us in a loud voice saying twice or thrice,'Save your heels from the fire.'." Narrated by'Ubaid Ibn Juraij: "...and he used to perform ablution while wearing the shoes." Narrated by Yahya Al-Mazini: "'Can you show me how Allah's Apostle used to perform ablution?'...and washed his feet." Narrated by'Amr: "...and he washed his feet up to the ankles." Narrated by Humran: "...and washed his feet up to the ankles..." Narrated by'Amr bin Yahya: "...and washed his feet up to the ankles..." Narrated by'Abdullah bin Zaid: "...and washed his feet." According to Shia Muslims the Qur'anic mandate for wuḍūʾ comes in the sixth ayat of sura 5. The ayat has been translated by Muhammad Habib Shakir. Note this scholars translation refers to wiping the feet. O ye who believe! when ye prepare for prayer, wash your faces, your hands to the elbows. If ye are in a state of ceremonial impurity, bathe your whole body, but if ye are ill, or on a journey, or one of you cometh from offices of nature, or ye have been in contact with women, ye find no water take for yourselves clean sand or earth, rub therewith your faces and hands, Allah doth not wish to place you in a difficulty, but to make you clean, to complete His favour to you, that ye may be grateful.
Washing the face once or twice with your right hand. Washing both the arms including the elbows once or twice. Wiping one fourth of the head with the water left on your right hand. Wiping both the feet once up to and including the ankles once with the water remaining on both hands. A handful of mustahabb acts. If one of these acts is omitted, the wuḍūʾ is still considered valid. Reciting the shahadah after the ablution. During wuḍūʾ one should not engage in worldly talk. Choosing
Karaj is the capital of Alborz Province, a suburb of Tehran. Although the county hosts a population around 1.97 million, as recorded in the 2016 census, most of the 1,419 sq km county is rugged mountain, the urban area is the fourth-largest in Iran, after Tehran and Isfahan. Eshtehard County and Fardis County were split off from Karaj county since the previous census; the earliest records of Karaj date back to 30th century BC. The city was developed under the rule of the Safavid and Qajar dynasties, is home to historical buildings and memorials from those eras; until the second half of the 20th century, it used to be known as a summer resort. Today, it is a major industrial city, with factories producing sugar, textiles and alcohol. Karaj has been hosting communities since 3000 years BC; the Khurvin region of Karaj has been inhabited since the Bronze Age, the Kelak region on the left bank of Karaj River since the Iron Age. The stone built Takht-e Rostam, located on a mount in the west of Shahriar County, was built in the Parthian era as a Zoroastrian fire temple.
Until the late 20th century, the city was crossed into by a stone bridge built in the Safavid era. The stone built Shah-Abbasi Caravansary, located at the southeast of Towhid Square, was built in the same era, under the rule of Šāh Esmāil. In the 1810s, the Palace of Soleymaniye, which included four towers surrounded by gardens and walls, was built as a summer resort by the order of Shahzaden Soleyman, an old prince governor of Kermānšāh. Granted in the Pahlavi era by Rezā Šāh Pahlavi, it is now housing the Faculty of Agriculture of the University of Tehran; the Morvārid Palace was constructed during the Pahlavi era. It was designed by the Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation on instructions from Shams Pahlavi, elder sister of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. Majority of the structure is now controlled by the Basij Organization, some sections of it are open to public under the operation of Cultural Heritage Organization of Iran. Other historical sites of the city include the Mausoleum of Šāhzāde Soleymān, Emāmzāde Rahmān, Emāmzāde Zeyd, Palang Ābād e Eštehārd.
Karaj is situated 20 kilometres west at the foothills of the Alborz mountains. Built on a wide plain with some gentle hills, the city is located north of the agricultural plain of Šahriār and east of the plains of Sāvoj Bolāq and Haštgerd; the downtown of Karaj is referred to Karaj Square, located hundred of meters to the west of Karaj River and the old Karaj Bridge. The villages Hesārak, Gowhar Dašt, Šahrak e Azimie are located in the northern Greater Karaj. Mehršahr, an abortive residential luxury resort, Šahrak e Fardis, a popular modern quarter close to the industrial facilities, were designed by the Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation in the late 1960s. Meškin Dašt, a large agricultural area between Mehršahr and Fardis, lies outside the municipal limits of Karaj; the following table includes the major districts of the city: Open space recreational areas of Karaj include Irānzamin Park, Pārk e Xānvāde, Tennis Park, Pārk e Mādar, Tāleqān Gardens, Kordān Gardens, Jahānšahr Gardens, Pardis e Golhā, the Tulip Garden of Gačsār.
The climate of Karaj is a bit cooler than Tehran's, it receives 260 mm of rain annually. The Köppen-Geiger climate classification system classifies the city's climate as cold semi-arid. Amir Kabir Dam and some other small lakes are based in Karaj; the city is a starting point for a drive along road forced north through the Alborz mountain to the Caspian Sea. The majority of the residents of Karaj are Persian-speaking people, with Azerbaijanis making up the second major ethno-linguistic group of the city. Kurds, Gilaks and Lurs include the other ethnicities among the population of Karaj. Karaj is connected by railway and highways to Tehran 40 km east and Qazvin 100 km northwest, by commuter rail to the subway system of Tehran; the city is served by an urban railway organization established on 21 December 2001. It is served by the Karaj Metro Station, established on 7 March 1999, is located in the south-eastern Karaj, near Tehran-Qazvin Freeway; the highway system of Karaj includes Tehran-Karaj Highway, Karaj Special Road, the old road of Karaj.
Bākeri Expressway is one of the main north-to-south routes in west Tehran, connected to the Tehran-Karaj Highway. Tehran-Karaj Highway is one of the busiest sections in Iran with AADT of 217084. Karaj-Qazvin has an AADT of 79606; the aerial transport of Karaj is served by the Payam International Airport, established in 1990, was opened in 1997. The economic base of Karaj is its proximity to Tehran, it is due to the transportation of products between the Caspian Sea. Chemicals and processed agricultural goods are produced in the city. Karaj is a major industrial city, with factories producing sugar, textiles and alcohol, it has become a major area for middle class migrants from Tehran. This is due to the cheaper housing conditions. Zowb Āhan, the avenue leading to an industrial plant, is located at the south of Ostandar Square. Zowb e Āhan or Zowb Āhan "steel mill", was a contract between the Pahlavi government and a consortium from Nazi Germany; the establishment of the factory Zowb Āhan e Karaj was halted by the beginning of the Second World War, it was never launched.
Šahrak e Jahānšahr was the first modern private industrial and housing complex of Karaj, built in the 1960s. The factories Jahān Čit, Rowqan Nabāti e Jahān (oil f
Iran called Persia, the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th most populous country. Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2, it is the second largest country in the Middle East and the 17th largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, to the west by Turkey and Iraq; the country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE, it was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history.
The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE; the Islamization of Iran led to the decline of Zoroastrianism, by the country's dominant religion, Iran's major contributions to art and science spread within the Muslim rule during the Islamic Golden Age. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were conquered by the Seljuq Turks and the Ilkhanate Mongols; the rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses.
The Iranian Constitutional Revolution in the early 20th century led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing Western political influence. Subsequent widespread dissatisfaction and unrest against the monarchy led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for eight years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides; the sovereign state of Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy.
The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage sites, the third largest number in Asia and 11th largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians, Azeris and Lurs. Organizations including Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch have criticized Iran's women's rights record; the term Iran derives directly from Middle Persian Ērān, first attested in a third-century inscription at Rustam Relief, with the accompanying Parthian inscription using the term Aryān, in reference to the Iranians. The Middle Iranian ērān and aryān are oblique plural forms of gentilic nouns ēr- and ary-, both deriving from Proto-Iranian *arya-, recognized as a derivative of Proto-Indo-European *ar-yo-, meaning "one who assembles". In the Iranian languages, the gentilic is attested as a self-identifier, included in ancient inscriptions and the literature of the Avesta, remains in other Iranian ethnic names Alan and Iron.
Iran has been referred to as Persia by the West, due to the writings of Greek historians who referred to all of Iran as Persís, meaning "land of the Persians", while Persis itself was one of the provinces of ancient Iran, today defined as Fars. As the most extensive interaction the Ancient Greeks had with any outsider was with the Persians, the term persisted long after the Greco-Persian Wars. In 1935, Reza Shah requested the international community to refer to the country by its native name, effective March 22 that year; as The New York Times explained at the time, "At the suggestion of the Persian Legation in Berlin, the Tehran government, on the Persian New Year, March 21, 1935, substituted Iran for Persia as the official name of the country." Opposition to the name change led to the reversal of the decision, Professor Ehsan Yarshater, editor of Encyclopædia Iranica, propagated a move to use Persia and Iran interchangeably. Today, both Iran and Persia are used in cultural contexts, while Iran remains irreplaceab
Caravanserai of Sa'd al-Saltaneh
The Caravanserai of Sa'd al-Saltaneh is a large Caravanserai located in the city of Qazvin in Qazvin Province of Iran. Built during the Qajar era, the caravanserai is one of Persia's best preserved urban caravanserais; the builder of this large caravanserai was a person by the name Sa'd al-Saltaneh Isfahani, for whom the caravanserai is named after. The caravanserai is built on a square plan, has 4 iwans facing a courtyard; the interiors are decorated with Rasmi bandi. The Hujrehs, or the rooms for the travelers, are situated one meter above the courtyard ground level; the Hashti behind the southern iwan has the largest gonbad, with 4 semi-domes adjacent to it. The eastern-western axis of the Hashti is called Dalan-i Qeisariyeh or "Caesar's Hall", the north-south axis of the Caravanserai's Hashti is named Dalan-i Ghahremani or "Ghahremani Hall"; the former is connected to the "Bazaar of Vizir" of the city. There are two smaller courtyards in the east and west of the Caravanserai. Architecture of Iran Caravanserai
Grand Trunk Road
The Grand Trunk Road is one of Asia's oldest and longest major roads — founded around 3rd century BCE by the Mauryan Empire of ancient India. For more than two millennia, it has linked the South Asia with Central Asia, it runs from Chittagong through to Dhaka in Bangladesh across Northern India through Delhi, passing from Amritsar. From there, the road continues towards Lahore and Peshawar in Pakistan terminating in Kabul, Afghanistan; the route spanning the Grand Trunk road existed during the reign of Chandragupta Maurya, extending from the mouth of the Ganges to the north-western frontier of the Empire. The predecessor of the modern road was rebuilt by Sher Shah Suri, who renovated and extended the ancient Mauryan route in the 16th century; the road was upgraded in the British period between 1833 and 1860.coincides with current N1, N4 & N405, N507 and N6 in Bangladesh. Research indicates that the Grand Trunk road predated Buddha's birth and was called Uttara Path, road to the North. Salman Rashid attributes the Road's construction to Chandragupta Maurya.
During the time of the Maurya Empire in the 3rd century BCE, overland trade between India and several parts of Western Asia and the Hellenistic world went through the cities of the north-west Takshashila. Takshashila was well connected by roads with other parts of the Mauryan Empire; the Mauryas had maintained this ancient highway from Takshashila to Patliputra. Chandragupta Maurya had a whole army of officials overseeing the maintenance of this road as told by the Greek diplomat Megasthenes who spent fifteen years at the Mauryan court. Constructed in eight stages, this road is said to have connected the cities of Purushapura, Hastinapura, Prayag and Tamralipta, a distance of around Canton 2,600 kilometres. Sher Shah Suri, the medieval ruler of the Sur Empire, is credited with rebuilding the road in the 16th century, he laid out the road, referred to as Shah Rah e Azam. During his reign, caravanserais and mosques were built and trees were planted along the entire stretch on both sides of the road to provide shade to travelers.
Wells were dug along the western section. The Mughals extended the road further east to Chittagong and west to Kabul and referred to the road as Sadak e Azam and Badshahi Sadak. In the 1830s the East India Company started a programme of metalled road construction, for both commercial and administrative purposes; the Grand trunk road, from Calcutta, through Delhi, to Peshawar was rebuilt at a cost of £1000 / mile, a Public Works Department, the Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee founded, to train and employ local surveyors and overseers, to perform the work, in future maintain it and other roads. Over the centuries, the road acted as one of the major trade routes in the region and facilitated both travel and postal communication; the Grand Trunk Road is still used for transportation in present-day India, where parts of the road have been widened and included in the national highway system, retaining the old name. GT Road is mentioned in a number of literary works including those of Rudyard Kipling.
Kipling described the road as: "Look! Look again! and chumars and tinkers, barbers and bunnias, pilgrims – and potters – all the world going and coming. It is to me as a river, and the Grand Trunk Road is a wonderful spectacle. It runs straight, bearing without crowding India's traffic for fifteen hundred miles – such a river of life as nowhere else exists in the world." The ensemble of historic sites along the road in India were submitted to the tentative list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 2015, by the name Sites along the Uttarapath, Badshahi Sadak, Sadak-e-Azam, Grand Trunk Road. Travelling along the Grand Trunk Road, you can find a lot of significant heritage sites Aam Khas Bagh Phillaur Fort Kos Minar Ram Bagh Palace Mughal Serai,Doraha Moorish Mosque Pul Kanjari Mughal Bridge Sanghol cantonment church tower Akbar's Tomb Farooque, Abdul Khair Muhammad and Communications in Mughal India. Delhi: Idarah-i Adabiyat-i Delli. Weller, Anthony and Nights on the Grand Trunk Road: Calcutta to Khyber.
Marlowe & Company. Kipling, Kim. Considered one of Kipling's finest works, it is set along the Grand Trunk Road. Free e-texts are available, for instance here. Usha Masson Luther. Historical routes of north west Indian Subcontinent, Lahore to Delhi, 1550s–1850s A. D. Sagar Publications. Arden, Harvey. "Along the Grand Trunk Road". National Geographic. 177: 118–38. Mozammel, Md Muktadir Arif. "Grand Trunk Road". In Islam, Sirajul. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. Tayler, Jeffrey. "India's Grand Trunk Road". The Atlantic Monthly. 284: 42–48. National Highway Authority of India National Highway Authority of Pakistan NPR: Along the Grand Trunk Road