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Caravel

The caravel was a small manoeuvrable sailing ship developed in the 15th century by the Portuguese to explore along the West African coast and into the Atlantic Ocean. The lateen sails gave it the capacity for sailing windward. Caravels were used by the Portuguese and Castilians for the oceanic exploration voyages during the 15th and 16th centuries in the Age of Discovery, its English name derives from the Portuguese caravela, which in turn may derive from the Arabic qārib, used to refer to an ancient boat type known as carabus in Latin or καραβος in Greek indicating some continuity of its carvel build through the ages. Until the 15th century, Europeans were limited to coastal navigation, they used the barge or the balinger, which were ancient cargo vessels of the Mediterranean Sea with a capacity of around 50 to 200 tons. These boats were fragile, with only one mast with a fixed square sail that could not overcome the navigational difficulties of southward oceanic exploration, as the strong winds and strong ocean currents overwhelmed their abilities.

The caravel has origins in earlier Portuguese fishing boats built in the 13th century based on the medieval Islamic qarib, used in Islamic Spain. The caravel was developed in about 1451, based on existing fishing boats under the sponsorship of Henry the Navigator of Portugal, soon became the preferred vessel for Portuguese explorers like Diogo Cão, Bartolomeu Dias or Gaspar and Miguel Corte-Real, by Christopher Columbus, they were agile and easier to navigate than the barca and barinel, with a tonnage of 50 to 160 tons and 1 to 3 masts, with lateen triangular sails allowing beating. Being smaller and having a shallow keel, the caravel could sail upriver in shallow coastal waters. With the lateen sails attached, it was maneuverable and could sail much nearer the shore, while with the square Atlantic-type sails attached, it was fast, its economy, speed and power made it esteemed as the best sailing vessel of its time. The limited capacity for cargo and crew did not hinder its success; the exploration done with caravels made the Spanish possible.

However, for the trade itself, the caravel was replaced by the larger carrack, more profitable for trading. The caravel was one of the pinnacle ships in Iberian ship development from 1400–1600. Due to its lighter weight and thus greater speed, the caravel was a boon to sailors. Early caravels carried two or three masts with lateen sails, while types had four masts. Early caravels such as the caravela tilhada of the 15th century had an average length of between 12 and 18 m, an average capacity of 50 to 60 tons, a high length-to-beam ratio of around 3.5 to 1, narrow ellipsoidal frame, making them fast and maneuverable but with somewhat low capacity. It was in such ships that Christopher Columbus set out on his expedition in 1492. Towards the end of the 15th century, the Portuguese developed a larger version of the caravel, bearing a forecastle and sterncastle – though not as high as those carracks, which would have made it unweatherly – but most distinguishable for its square-rigged foremast, three other masts bearing lateen rig.

In this form it was referred to in Portuguese as a "round caravel" as in Iberian tradition, a bulging square sail is said to be round. It was employed in coast-guard fleets near the Strait of Gibraltar and as an armed escort for merchant ships between Portugal and Brazil and in the Cape Route; some remained in use until the 17th century. Iberian ship development, 1400–1600 Notorious - a replica caravel in Australia Portuguese India Armadas Carrack, a type of round ship used in voyage to East India Lateen sail, a type of sail that can be used to sail against the wind Tanja sail, a precursor type of sail with the same ability Square rig The History and Development of Caravels - A Thesis - George Robert Schwarz, B. A. University of Cincinnati, Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Luis Filipe Vieira de Castro, May 2008 Museu da Marinha Museu da Marinha, fac-similes, Instituto Camões. Caravela Durchbruch am Kap des Schreckens dir. Axel Engstfeld, Germany 2002, 52m. ZDF

Six Flags Hurricane Harbor Oklahoma City

Six Flags Hurricane Harbor Oklahoma City is a water theme park in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma built in 1981. Built by the Herschend Family Entertainment Corporation and known as White Water, the water park was picked up by Premier Parks in 1991 and its name was changed to White Water Bay. Both White Water Bay and the nearby theme park Frontier City were sold again in a seven park package by Six Flags on January 11, 2007, for $312 million. White Water Bay is owned by EPR Properties and operated by Six Flags Entertainment Corporation; the park will be renamed Six Flags Hurricane Harbor Oklahoma City in 2020."The Mega Wedgie, Built in 2005, it is a 277-foot-long speed slide that features a 64-foot free fall.'52" Height Requirement The Acapulco Cliff Dive is a water slide that begins with a short drop levels out in a section with water flowing into the slide, ends with a long drop to the splash area below. 52" Height Requirement"The Bermuda Triangle, is a set of three flume-style rides that allow single riders with inner tubes*.

It is seven stories tall and reaches speeds of 35 miles per hour. The Bermuda Triangle's starting pools are atop the same tower as those of the "Mega Wedgie" and "The Acapulco Cliff Dive"; this tower is visible from Interstate 40, with an American flag that could be seen flying on a pole mounted at the top of the tower. 36" Height Requirement Cannonball Falls is each with an 8-foot drop into a splash pool. One of Cannonball Fall's slides is enclosed and features a long left turn followed by a short right turn before dropping into the pool; the other slide is not enclosed, has no turns. Cannonball Falls's splash pool has two exits. 42" Height Requirement The Big Kahuna, Opened in 1995, this family tube ride takes up to four passengers down a 542-foot flume slide and into a 4-foot pool for a splash landing. Sits on ground occupied by the defunct "All American Plunge". 36" Height Requirement Swashbuckler Flumes* is a single-passenger flume slide that requires single tubes only. 36" Height Requirement Lazy River is a 4-foot-deep canal that travels around the park by a slow-moving current.

The Gangplank is a rock face eleven-feet above the surface of the water at the north end of "Shipwreck Island". No Height Requirement. Shipwreck Island is an activity pool with wobbly "Lily Pads", a set of high jump rocks known as "The Gangplank", four body slides: "Calypso Cannonball", "Blackbeard's Revenge", two rock slides which are closed. Keelhaul Falls is a shallow water tube ride that floats from one pool to the next via short drops and slides. 36" Height Requirement Pirates's Plunge, Formerly called "The Black Hole", it is a tube flume slide that takes goes through a dark tunnel and out into the west end of "Shipwreck Island". 36" Height Requirement Blackbeard's Revenge is a body slide that follows a clockwise turn and exits at water-level close to the middle of "Shipwreck Island". 36" Height Requirement Calypso Cannonball is a short body slide that exits at water level into the north end of "Shipwreck Island". 36" Height Requirement The Wave Pool is a large pool with depths ranging from the zero depth entry to eight feet.

The waves are on for five minutes and off for thirteen minutes. Top of every hour the pool is cleared for cleaning. Barefootin' Bay is a family attraction Wahoo Racer a 6 lane, WhiteWater West Whizzard mat racer slide that will open in 2020; every major water ride except one is in place when White Water opened in 1981 is still operational today. The only exception to the rule is the Caribbean Cruise, replaced by The Big Kahuna in the mid 1990s; some aspects of the rides have changed over the years. Below is a list of the names of the rides on opening day, what they are named. Great Sea Wave, now known as The Wave Pool; the Twister and The Sidewinder, now known collectively as Swashbuckler Flumes. Pirate's Cove known as Shipwreck Island; the Rapids, now known as Keelhaul Falls. Little Squirts Island, now known as Barefootin' Bay. All American Plunge, A speed slide that stood where the Big Kahuna is today. Guests rode special kickboards down this slide facing forwards. Guests could either sit atop the kickboard or lie atop it on their stomachs and ride the All American Plunge head first into the splash pool.

There was a miniature golf area present in the Northwest corner of the park. White Water Bay

Innovation Hub

Innovation Hub is a United States-based, syndicated public radio program produced by WGBH and distributed by Public Radio International. The weekly, hour-long show is hosted by Kara Miller and covers education, culture, sustainable living, business. Innovation Hub was launched at Boston’s WGBH in 2011 and began national syndication in May 2014, it is carried by more than 100 public radio stations, including WNYC, WBEZ, KUHF, WCPN and its home station, WGBH. Kara Miller is the host and executive editor of Innovation Hub, which she launched in 2011. Kara has appeared on “The Takeaway,” “PRI's The World,” and “Marketplace Tech." Her writing has appeared in The Boston Globe, The National Journal, TheAtlantic.com, The Huffington Post, The International Herald Tribune. Kara holds a Ph. D. from Tufts and a B. A. from Yale. She serves on the advisory committee of the Lemelson Foundation. Past guests on the program have included Michael Pollan, Marissa Mayer, Walter Isaacson, Sherry Turkle