Oyster Point (Australia)
Oyster Point lies at the mouth of Stoney Creek, about one kilometre south of Cardwell in northern Australia. The location provides excellent boating access to the shallow, warm waters of the Hinchinbrook Channel, numerous reefs and many islands including Hinchinbrook Island, the point was the location for one of the countries most important conservation battles. The developer Keith Williams controversially built a 1500-bed resort and 250-berth marina called Port Hinchinbrook that now includes the construction of two breakwaters into the channel, the project gained approval from the local Shire of Cardwell. Support from the Queensland Government, led by Rob Borbidge at the time, was forthcoming, local public support was reported as being high due to economic benefits of having a large resort nearby. Environmental groups were concerned the development was a threat to Great Barrier Reef and Wet Tropics world heritage areas and they took the federal environment minister Senator Robert Hill to the High Court
Queensland is the second-largest and third-most-populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia. Situated in the north-east of the country, it is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west, to the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Sea and Pacific Ocean. Queensland has a population of 4,750,500, concentrated along the coast, the state is the worlds sixth largest sub-national entity, with an area of 1,852,642 km2. The capital and largest city in the state is Brisbane, Australias third largest city, often referred to as the Sunshine State, Queensland is home to 10 of Australias 30 largest cities and is the nations third largest economy. Tourism in the state, fuelled largely by its tropical climate, is a major industry. Queensland was first inhabited by Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders, the first European to land in Queensland was Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in 1606, who explored the west coast of the Cape York Peninsula near present-day Weipa.
In 1770, Lieutenant James Cook claimed the east coast of Australia for the Kingdom of Great Britain. The colony of New South Wales was founded in 1788 by Governor Arthur Phillip at Sydney, New South Wales at that time included all of what is now Queensland, Queensland was explored in subsequent decades until the establishment of a penal colony at Brisbane in 1824 by John Oxley. Penal transportation ceased in 1839 and free settlement was allowed from 1842, the state was named in honour of Queen Victoria, who on 6 June 1859 signed Letters Patent separating the colony from New South Wales. The 6th of June is now celebrated statewide as Queensland Day. Queensland achieved statehood with the Federation of Australia on 1 January 1901, the history of Queensland spans thousands of years, encompassing both a lengthy indigenous presence, as well as the eventful times of post-European settlement. The north-eastern Australian region was explored by Dutch and French navigators before being encountered by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770, the Australian Labor Party has its origin as a formal organisation in Queensland and the town of Barcaldine is the symbolic birthplace of the party.
June 2009 marked the 150th anniversary of its creation as a colony from New South Wales. The Aboriginal occupation of Queensland is thought to predate 50,000 BC, likely via boat or land bridge across Torres Strait, during the last ice age Queenslands landscape became more arid and largely desolate, making food and other supplies scarce. This led to the worlds first seed-grinding technology, warming again made the land hospitable, which brought high rainfall along the eastern coast, stimulating the growth of the states tropical rainforests. In February 1606, Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon landed near the site of what is now Weipa and this was the first recorded landing of a European in Australia, and it marked the first reported contact between European and Aboriginal Australian people. The region was explored by French and Spanish explorers prior to the arrival of Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. Cook claimed the east coast under instruction from King George III of the United Kingdom on 22 August 1770 at Possession Island, naming Eastern Australia, including Queensland, the Aboriginal population declined significantly after a smallpox epidemic during the late 18th century
Innisfail a town and locality in the Cassowary Coast Region in Far North Queensland, Australia. The town was originally called Geraldton until 1910 and it is the major township of the Cassowary Coast Region and is well renowned for its sugar and banana industries, as well as for being one of Australias wettest towns. In March 2006 Innisfail gained worldwide attention when severe Tropical Cyclone Larry passed over causing extensive damage, in the 2011 census, the town of Innisfail had a population of 7,176 people. Prior to European settlement the Innisfail area was occupied by five separate societies of the Mamu people and these Aboriginal people followed migratory lifestyles in the rainforest and traversed rivers in string-bark canoes. The first arrival of European people came in 1872 when survivors of the shipwreck, sub-Inspector Robert Arthur Johnstones search party came with the intention of rescuing remaining survivors. The crew would venture up river between what is today Flying Fish Point and Coquette Point, Johnstone named the area after himself and upon his recommendation the explorer George Elphinstone Dalrymple arrived in the area in September 1873 to chart the area further.
Later in 1879, Irishman Thomas Henry FitzGerald arrived in the area to establish a sugar industry and he was accompanied by large numbers of Kanaka South Sea Islanders workers accompanied by smaller numbers of Irish labourers. The house built by FitzGerald and thus the first establishment in the area was called Innisfallen, after the largest island in the Lakes of Killarney, inis Fáil is an ancient Irish name for Ireland itself. The name is used in the third verse of The Soldiers Song. The stone mentioned may be the stone at Tara, Co Meath, from 1879, the settlement was named Geraldton after FitzGerald, but in 1910 was renamed Innisfail to avoid confusion with the town of the same name in Western Australia. Johnstone River Post Office opened on 1 November 1882, was renamed Geraldton two months and Innisfail in 1910, in 1906 Patrick Leahy established the Johnstone River Advocate newspaper. Later it was renamed the Johnstone River Advocate and Innisfail News, the Evening Advocate, the newspaper continues to be published as the Innisfail Advocate.
The 1920s and 1930s saw the beginning of a period of settlement by Italian immigrants and noteworthy populations from Greece. Later in this period populations from Yugoslavia and the Philippines would settle in the area, local rugby league footballer Kerry Boustead was the only player from outside the Sydney and Brisbane Leagues selected to represent Australia on the 1978 Kangaroo tour. The Innisfail War Memorial in Jack Fossey Park on Fitzgerald Esplanade was dedicated on 16 April 2005, in the 2006 census, Innisfail had a population of 8,262 people. Today the town still boasts many examples of the Art Deco. In 2001 Los Angeles band Sugar Ray filmed part of their music DVD Music in High Places at the Johnstone Crocodile Farm in Innisfail, being a small community, and one that was recently subjected to a severe natural disaster Innisfail harbours a definite sense of community. The township has only 2 secondary schools, Good Counsel College and Innisfail State College, in the past Chinese Australians built the Innisfail Temple/Lit Sing Gung
Brisbane is the capital of and most populous city in the Australian state of Queensland, and the third most populous city in Australia. Brisbanes metropolitan area has a population of 2.35 million, the Brisbane central business district stands on the original European settlement and is situated inside a bend of the Brisbane River, about 15 kilometres from its mouth at Moreton Bay. The demonym of Brisbane is Brisbanite, one of the oldest cities in Australia, Brisbane was founded upon the ancient homelands of the indigenous Turrbal and Jagera peoples. A penal settlement was founded in 1824 at Redcliffe,28 kilometres north of the business district. The city was marred by the Australian frontier wars between 1843 and 1855, and development was set back by the Great Fire of Brisbane. Brisbane was chosen as the capital when Queensland was proclaimed a colony from New South Wales in 1859. During World War II, Brisbane played a role in the Allied campaign. Today, Brisbane is well known for its distinct Queenslander architecture which forms much of the built heritage.
It receives attention for its damaging flood events, most notably in 1974 and 2011. Several large cultural and sporting events have held at Brisbane, including the 1982 Commonwealth Games, World Expo 88, the final Goodwill Games in 2001. Prior to white settlement, the Brisbane area was inhabited by the Turrbal and they knew the area that is now the central business district as Mian-jin, meaning place shaped as a spike. The Moreton Bay area was explored by Matthew Flinders. On 17 July 1799, Flinders landed at what is now known as Woody Point, in 1823 Governor of New South Wales Sir Thomas Brisbane instructed that a new northern penal settlement be developed, and an exploration party led by John Oxley further explored Moreton Bay. Oxley discovered and explored the Brisbane River as far as Goodna,20 kilometres upstream from the Brisbane central business district, Oxley recommended Red Cliff Point for the new colony, reporting that ships could land at any tide and easily get close to the shore.
The party settled in Redcliffe on 13 September 1824, under the command of Lieutenant Henry Miller with 14 soldiers and 29 convicts. However, this settlement was abandoned after a year and the colony was moved to a site on the Brisbane River now known as North Quay,28 km south, chief Justice Forbes gave the new settlement the name of Edenglassie before it was named Brisbane. Non-convict European settlement of the Brisbane region commenced in 1838, German missionaries settled at Zions Hill, Nundah as early as 1837, five years before Brisbane was officially declared a free settlement. The band consisted of ministers Christopher Eipper and Carl Wilhelm Schmidt and lay missionaries Haussmann, Johann Gottried Wagner, Hartenstein, Franz, Rode and they were allocated 260 hectares and set about establishing the mission, which became known as the German Station
Isidor Siegfried Lissner was a politician in Queensland, Australia. He was a Member of the Queensland Legislative Assembly, Lissner was born in Posen, the son of Siegfried Lissner and Julia Gluckmann. Lissner was member for Kennedy from 5 October 1883 to 13 May 1893, Lissner died in 1902 and was buried in Toowong Cemetery. The heritage-listed Lissner Park in Charters Towers is named after him
Postcodes in Australia
Postcodes are used in Australia to more efficiently sort and route mail within the postal system. All postcodes in Australia have four digits and are placed at the end of the Australian address, Australian postcodes are managed by Australia Post. Postcodes are published in booklets available from post offices or online from the Australia Post website, Australian envelopes and postcards often have four square boxes printed in orange at the bottom right for the postcode. These are used when addressing mail by hand, use of the Australian postcode system commenced in 1967, implemented by the Postmaster-Generals Department, now called Australia Post. It replaced earlier postal sorting systems, such as Melbournes letter and number codes, if addressing a letter from outside Australia, the postcode is recorded before Australia. They are often linked with one area, due to post code rationalization, But are now sometimes they can be quite complex, especially in country areas. The south-western Victoria 3221 postcode of the Geelong Mail Centre includes twenty places around Geelong with very few people and this means that mail for these places is not fully sorted until it gets to Geelong.
Some postcodes cover large populations, while other postcodes have much smaller populations, Australian postcodes range from 0200 for the Australian National University to 9944 for Cannonvale, Queensland. Some towns and suburbs have two postcodes — one for deliveries and one for post office boxes. g. The Royal Brisbane and Womens Hospital has the postcode 4029, the Australian National University had the postcode 0200, more postcode ranges were made available for LVRs in the 1990s. Australia Post has been progressively discontinuing the LVR programme since 2006, Australian National Universitys postcode 0200 was the last LVR to be closed in September 2014. For example, postcode 2620 covers both a locality in NSW as well as a locality in the ACT, and postcode 0872 covers a number of localities across WA, SA, NT and QLD. Jervis Bay Territory, once an exclave of the ACT but now a territory, is geographically located on the coast of NSW. It is just south of the towns of Vincentia and Huskisson, Mail to the Jervis Bay Territory is still addressed to the ACT.
The numbers used to show the state on each radio callsign in Australia are the number as the first number for postcodes in that state, e. g. 2xx in New South Wales, 3xx in Victoria. Radio callsigns pre-date postcodes in Australia by more than forty years, australias external territories are included in Australia Posts postcode system. Capital city postcodes were the lowest postcodes in their state or territory range, before new ranges for LVRs, postcodes with the same second number are not always next to each other. As an example, postcodes in the range 2200–2299 are split between the suburbs of Sydney and the Central Coast of New South Wales
Brook Islands National Park
For the islands near Hawaii, see Midway Atoll. The Brook Islands National Park is a park in Queensland, Australia,1246 km northwest of Brisbane. The fourth island of the Brooks group, South Island, is not part of the park but is protected by the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority. Public access to the three islands in the park is prohibited in order to protect breeding birds, especially the Torresian imperial-pigeon. The islands have no roads, walking tracks or other facilities, popular activities in the waters around the islands are boating and fishing. The islands are managed by the Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service, the Parks IUCN category is II. There are breeding colonies of bridled, black-naped, lesser crested, beach stone-curlews breed on North Island beaches. The islands have been classified by BirdLife International as an Important Bird Area because of the importance of the site for pied imperial-pigeons. Brook Island, the largest in the group, was in 1944 the venue for a series of British, a documentary film Keen as Mustard, relating to these and other tests, was released by Film Australia in 1989.
Protected areas of Queensland Brook Islands National Park
Ashleigh Southern is an Australian water polo player. She is currently a student at Brisbane North Institute of TAFE and is studying criminal justice, in water polo, she is a centre forward or outside shooter who has represented Australia on the junior and senior national teams. She has been selected for the 2012 Summer Olympics Australia womens national water polo team and she plays club water polo for the Brisbane Barracudas, where she won a league championship in 2010. In 2014–15 season she played for the Greek powerhouse Olympiacos where she won the LEN Euroleague, Southern was born on 22 October 1992 in Ingham, Queensland. She is 188 cm tall, and is right handed, Southern has attended Cardwell State School and Gilroy Santa Maria College. She lives in Cardwell and attends the Brisbane North Institute of TAFE, Southern has a brother who has represented Australia on the junior national team. In late 2011, she had an elbow injury, Southern plays in the centre forward or outside shooter position, She has worn number 4, but prefers to wear the number 10 cap.
Southern first represented Queensland on a level in water polo as a ten-year-old on the states U14 team. Southern started playing polo in Townsville when she was eleven years old. As a young player, she traveled between Cardwell and Townsville in order to play, while competing for a school team, she was selected to participate in a development camp. She won a water polo scholarship from the Queensland Academy of Sport in 2010, in 2008, Southern competed in the Womens International Series. Her arm has been described as lethal, and better than most women players by Greg McFadden and she is characterised by the Brisbane Courier Mail as being the Happy Gilmore of the national team. Southern plays club water polo for the Brisbane Barracudas in the National Water Polo League, Southern was with the team for the 2010,2011 and 2012 seasons. Her 2010 team won the league championship, prior to that, she played for the New South Wales based Drummoyne Devils in 2009. In 2014–15 season she played for the Greek champions Olympiacos in the European competitions and she was instrumental in Olympiacos triumph, scoring 4 crucial goals in the 10–9 win against Sabadell in the Euroleague final.
She participated in the preliminary round loss to Hungary 19–17, scoring four goals, at the same tournament, Southern scored one goal in the gold medal finals match where her team took silver following a 10–9 loss to Hungary. In July 2010, she was a member of the Born ‘91 junior national team that toured New Zealand and she was a member of the Australian side that finished third at the 2011 FINA Junior World Championships. Southern has competed for the Australian Stingers, having made her debut in 2010 at the Longmont Tournament, at that tournament she scored eight goals in a 10–8 finals win over the United States
Bowen is a town and locality in the Whitsunday Region on the eastern coast of Queensland, Australia. At the 2011 census, Bowen had a population of 10,260, Bowen is located on the north-east coast, in North Queensland, Australia, at exactly twenty degrees south of the equator. The twentieth parallel crosses the main street, Bowen is halfway between Townsville and Mackay, and 1,130 kilometres by road from Brisbane. Bowen sits on a peninsula, with the Coral Sea to the north, east. To the south-east is Port Denison, on the western side, where the peninsula connects with the mainland, the Don Rivers alluvial plain provides fertile soil that supports a prosperous farming industry. The town enjoys a diversified and prosperous economy based on agriculture, fishing and mining. Its unusually dry climate for a location, plus its fertile alluvial soil, makes it the ideal place to grow a wide variety of small crops, including tomatoes, rockmelons. Outside the alluvial plain, much of the Bowen area is used for beef cattle, just north of Bowen is the Abbot Point coal loading port.
Coal mined inland of Bowen in Collinsville and other towns in the Bowen Basin is brought by rail to a pier to be loaded on bulk carriers. Coal is exported mainly to China and India, in 1944 Bowen elected a Communist, Fred Paterson, to Queensland Legislative Assembly. He was re-elected in 1947, but lost the seat in 1950 when the boundaries were changed to include Bowen in the seat of Whitsunday, Bowen was the administrative centre for the Shire of Bowen. On 15 March 2008, under the Local Government Act 2007 passed by the Parliament of Queensland on 10 August 2007, although Proserpine is the administrative centre for the new regional council, the council maintains offices in Bowen and holds a number of council meetings in Bowen each year. Captain James Cook named Cape Gloucester on his voyage of exploration up the Australian coast in 1770 and this cape turned out to be an island, and Gloucester Island dominates the view from Bowens eastern beaches. Behind the island is a bay that forms an excellent port and this bay was eventually discovered in 1859 by Captain Henry Daniel Sinclair, in response to a reward offered by the colony of New South Wales for finding a port somewhere north of Rockhampton.
Sinclair named Port Denison after the governor of New South Wales. Two years later, Sinclair led one group of settlers by sea and they met on 11 April 1861 at Port Denison and founded the town of Bowen on the next day,13 April 1861. By this time, Queensland had separated from New South Wales, Port Denison Post Office opened on 1 April 1861 and was renamed Bowen by 1865. In 1863, the new settlers discovered a sailor, James Morril, Morril made his home in the new town, and his grave is still to be seen in the Bowen cemetery
Conservation in Australia
Conservation in Australia is an issue of state and federal policy. Australia is one of the most biologically diverse countries in the world, preserving this wealth of biodiversity is important for future generations. Animal habitats like reefs and forests must be preserved in order to preserve population, Conservation is vital for future study and for field research to be taken, and because biological richness is an unmeasurable aesthetic that may be developed into commercial recreational attractions. According to Janine Benyus, the potential for advances in biomimicry in Australia are great because the extreme weather, research on natural processes can only occur if habitat is preserved and organisms continue to thrive. Federal and State governments manage protected areas and national parks, a number of organizations are involved in conservation. A key conservation issue is the preservation of biodiversity, especially by protecting the remaining rainforests, the destruction of habitat by human activities, including land clearing, remains the major cause of biodiversity loss in Australia.
The importance of the Australian rainforests to the movement is very high. Australia is the western country to have large areas of rainforest intact. Forests provide timber and food and should be managed to maximize the possible uses, there are a number of environmental movements and campaigners advocating for action on saving the environment, one such campaign is the Big Switch. Land management issues including clearance of vegetation, reafforestation of once-cleared areas, control of exotic weeds and pests, expansion of dryland salinity. Intensification of resource use in such as forestry, fisheries. Coastal and marine environments have reduced biodiversity from reduced water quality caused by pollution and sediments arising from human settlements, in central New South Wales where there are large plains of grassland, problems have risen from—unusual to say—lack of land clearing. Before European settlement, Aborigines burnt the grassland regularly for thousands of years and eventually native animals became dependent on the grasslands, when Europeans settled the area in the early 19th century, their ignorance lead to the destruction of the grassland through lack of regular burning.
Thus the grasslands were swallowed up by woody weeds and shrub, degrading the soil, accelerating erosion, international agreements that affect conservation policy in Australia. The primary federal law is the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999, there are numerous protected areas in all States and Territories that have been created to protect and preserve Australias unique ecosystems. Protected areas include national parks and other reserves, as well as 64 wetlands which are registered under the Ramsar Convention and 16 World Heritage Sites, as of 2002,10. 8% of the total land area of Australia is within a protected area. Protected marine zones have been created in areas to preserve marine biodiversity
Division of Kennedy
The Division of Kennedy is an Australian Electoral Division in Queensland. The division was one of the original 75 divisions contested at the first federal election, the division is named after Edmund Kennedy, an explorer in the area where the division is located in Queensland. The member since 1993 is Bob Katter, Jr. the leader of Katters Australian Party and he was previously elected as a member of the National Party, but became an independent in 2001 before forming his own party in 2011. The largest population centre in the electorate is the city of Mount Isa, until 1949, it was even larger, encompassing most of the state north of Townsville. However, much of its portion, including the Cairns area. Kennedy was held by the Australian Labor Party for most of the first half of the 20th century, from Federation until 1966, Labor held it for all but two terms. However, since 1966 it has held by the conservative Katter family—Bob Sr. and his son, Bob, Jr. —for all. It has long since shaken off its Labor past, and is now considered one of the most conservative electorates in Australia.
Besides the Katters, other prominent members include Charles McDonald, the first Labor Speaker of the Australian House of Representatives, and Bill Riordan, the seat has been held by two father-son combinations. Darby Riordan succeeded McDonald in 1929, and held the seat until his death in 1936 and his son, won the seat at the ensuing by-election and held it until his retirement in 1966. Bob Katter, Sr. won it in the 1966 Coalition landslide and his son and current member, Bob, Jr. defeated his fathers successor, Rob Hulls, in 1993. Hulls would become Deputy Premier of Victoria, at the 2013 election, sitting member Bob, Jr. faced his first serious contest in two decades. Hed gone into the election holding Kennedy with a margin of 18 percent, Liberal National candidate Noeline Ikin was well ahead on the primary vote by 10,000 votes. Katter narrowly pulled through and won another term on Labor preferences, however, he suffered a swing of 17 percent, reducing his majority to only 2.19 percent. Katter did not however face a rematch against Ikin at the 2016 election due to her having a brain tumour which forced her out of the election, Division of Kennedy — Australian Electoral Commission