Cardwell is a tropical coastal town and locality in the Cassowary Coast Region in Far North Queensland, Australia. In the 2016 census, Cardwell had a population of 1,309 people; the Bruce Highway National Highway 1 and the North Coast railway line are the dominant transport routes. Cardwell suffered significant damage from Cyclone Yasi, a category 5 cyclone, in February 2011. West of Cardwell the rugged topography of the Cardwell Range intercepts the trade winds resulting in high rainfall; the coastal escarpment is covered in rainforest which transitions to the west to eucalypt woodland and tropical savanna. Cardwell Range biodiversity has been protected by the introduction of Forestry Reserves, National Parks and Queensland World Heritage Wet Tropics Areas. Seaward lies the Coral Sea, the Great Barrier Reef and Lagoon, Rockingham Bay and Hinchinbrook Channel. Islands are visible from Cardwell including protected areas i.e. Hinchinbrook Island, Goold Island and the Brook Islands Group. Oyster Point is one kilometre south of Cardwell.
This location experienced one of Australia's important conservation battles. With the establishment of Port Hinchinbrook, the Marina Public Boat Ramp provides year round access to the protected marine environments of Hinchinbrook Channel, Estuaries and Great Barrier Reef; the Cardwell Jetty is an important infrastructure asset, where visitors can socialize and view the coastal scenery. The Aboriginal heritage is defined by Language Groups; the first Europeans settled in the area in January 1864 in order to create a port called "Port Hinchinbrook". Subsequently, the town was renamed after 1st Viscount Cardwell. Cardwell was the first port settlement on the Queensland coast north of Port Denison; the first party of non-indigenous people to settle at Rockingham Bay arrived in January 1864 and was led by George Elphinstone Dalrymple. They were 20 in number including James Morrill, William Alcock Tully, Arthur Jervoise Scott, Lieut. Marlow of the Native Police and his troopers Norman and Warbragen. Dalrymple brought his "black boy" servant, an Aboriginal man from Stradbroke Island that he called "Cockey".
They came from Bowen on the small schooner Policeman, under the command of ex-Native Police officer Captain Walter Powell, with the 3 ton cutter Heather Bell in tow. Dalrymple's main purpose in establishing a settlement in Rockingham Bay was to create a port as close as possible to the Valley of Lagoons Station of which he was part owner. Soon after disembarking from the Policeman, he endeavoured to create a road from the coast to the Valley of Lagoons by expanding existing native paths. A few miles inland from the landing site was a beautiful aboriginal village and bora ground surrounded by native banana plantations that reminded Dalrymple of villages in Ceylon; the Warrgamay people in the area and on nearby Hinchinbrook Island were described as numerous and having some of the largest spears and wooden swords recorded in Australia. Having told the local people through his interpreter that he had come to take possession of their lands, Dalrymple bizarrely expressed frustration at the supposed inability of the aboriginals to understand the concept of "Thou shalt not steal".
James Morrill was more factual in his account of the founding of Cardwell writing that "I said to that they must clear out..as we wished to occupy the land and would shoot any who approached, that we were strong and that another party would soon follow", he described how a group of Aboriginals "were set upon by Dalrymple's men and rather cut up."Cardwell Post Office opened on 10 July 1864. In March 1865, Lieutenant Blakeney and seven troopers of the Native Police spent two days clearing the area around Cardwell of Aboriginal presence by "burning camps and dispersing the natives."In the late 1860s and early 1870s, Cardwell became a transport hub for prospectors heading to the Etheridge Shire goldfields 200 km inland from the town. Captain John Moresby visited Cardwell in 1871 and wrote that "various tribes of aborigines roam about the vicinity, not unnaturally regard the white men, who are dispossessing them of their homes, as mortal enemies. They..suffer terrible retaliation at the hands of our countrymen, who employ native troopers, commanded by white men to hunt down and destroy the offenders when the opportunity offers".
In January 1872, two British dugong fishermen named Henry Smith and Charles Clements were killed at nearby Goold Island by resident Aboriginals. Wet weather prevented an immediate punitive expedition of four boats of armed local white men who were eager that "the blacks" be "taught that what they do is punishable by death". However, within the same month the Native Police forces of Sub-Inspectors Crompton and Johnstone completed a punitive mission and returned to Cardwell with three young Aboriginal children from the island; the eldest of the children was ten and "they were given away in Cardwell to domesticate them."The Cardwell Library opened in 2008. Cardwell has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Valley of Lagoons Road, Damper Creek: Stone Bridge, Dalrymple Gap Track 51 Victoria Street: Cardwell Divisional Board Hall 53 Victoria Street: Cardwell Post Office Cardwell has a granite monument erected in memory of Walter Jervoise Scott, a pioneer of the Valley of Lagoons; the monument was sent from Great Britain by his brothers intended for his grave at Valley of Lagoons.
On arrival at Cardwell, it was found to b
The Coral Sea is a marginal sea of the South Pacific off the northeast coast of Australia, classified as an interim Australian bioregion. The Coral Sea extends 2,000 kilometres down the Australian northeast coast, it is bounded in the west by the east coast of Queensland, thereby including the Great Barrier Reef, in the east by Vanuatu and by New Caledonia, in the northeast by the southern extremity of the Solomon Islands. In the northwest, it reaches to the south coast of eastern New Guinea, thereby including the Gulf of Papua, it merges with the Tasman Sea in the south, with the Solomon Sea in the north and with the Pacific Ocean in the east. On the west, it is bounded by the mainland coast of Queensland, in the northwest, it connects with the Arafura Sea through the Torres Strait; the sea is characterised with frequent rains and tropical cyclones. It contains numerous islands and reefs, as well as the world's largest reef system, the Great Barrier Reef, declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1981.
All previous oil exploration projects were terminated at the GBR in 1975, fishing is restricted in many areas. The reefs and islands of the Coral Sea are rich in birds and aquatic life and are a popular tourist destination, both nationally and internationally. While the Great Barrier Reef with its islands and cays belong to Queensland, most reefs and islets east of it are part of the Coral Sea Islands Territory. In addition, some islands west of and belonging to New Caledonia are part of the Coral Sea Islands in a geographical sense, such as the Chesterfield Islands and Bellona Reefs; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Coral Sea as follows: On the North. The South coast of New Guinea from the entrance to the Bensbach River to Gadogadoa Island near its Southeastern extreme, down this meridian to the 100 fathom line and thence along the Southern edges of Uluma Reef and those extending to the Eastward as far as the Southeast point of Lawik Reef off Tagula Island, thence a line to the Southern extreme of Rennell Island and from its Eastern point to Cape Surville, the Eastern extreme of San Cristobal Island, Solomons.
On the Northeast. From the Northernmost island of the Duff Islands, through these islands to their Southeastern extreme, thence a line to Méré Lava, Vanuatu Islands and down the Eastern coasts of the islands of this Group to Anatom Island in such a way that all the islands of these Groups, the straits separating them, are included in the Coral Sea. On the Southeast. A line from the Southeastern extreme of Anatom Island to Nokanhoui off the Southeast extreme of New Caledonia, thence through the East point of Middleton Reef to the Eastern extreme of Elizabeth Reef and down this meridian to Latitude 30° South. On the South; the parallel of 30° South to the Australian coast. On the West; the Eastern limit of the Arafura Sea and the East Coast of Australia as far south as Latitude 30° South. The Coral Sea basin was formed between 58 million and 48 million years ago when the Queensland continental shelf was uplifted, forming the Great Dividing Range, continental blocks subsided at the same time; the sea has been an important source of coral for the Great Barrier Reef, both during its formation and after sea level lowering.
The geological formation processes are still proceeding, as evidenced by the seismic activity. Several hundred earthquakes with the magnitude between 2 and 6 were recorded in the period 1866–2000 along the Queensland coast and in the Coral Sea. On 2 April 2007, the Solomon Islands were struck by a major earthquake followed by a several metres tall tsunami; the epicentre of this magnitude 8.1 earthquake was 349 km northwest of Honiara, at a depth of 10 kilometres. It was followed by more than 44 aftershocks of a magnitude greater; the resulting tsunami destroyed more than 900 homes. The sea received its name because of its numerous coral formations, they include the GBR, which extends about 2,000 km along the northeast coast of Australia and includes 2,900 individual reefs and 1000 islands. The Chesterfield Islands and Lihou Reef are the largest atolls of the Coral Sea. Major Coral Sea currents form a counter-clockwise gyro, it brings warm nutrient-poor waters from the Coral Sea down the east coast of Australia to the cool waters of the Tasman Sea.
This current is the strongest along the Australian coasts and transforms 30 million m3/s of water within a flow band of about 100 kilometres wide and 500 metres deep. The current is weakest around August; the major river flowing into the sea is the Burdekin River, which has its delta southeast of Townsville. Owing to the seasonal and annual variations in occurrence of cyclones and in precipitation, its annual discharge can vary more than 10 times between the two succeeding years. In particular, in the period 1920–1999, the average flow rate near the delta was below 1000 m3/s in 1923, 1931, 1939, 1969, 1982, 1985, 1987, 1993 and 1995; this irregul
The Tablelands Region is a local government area in Far North Queensland, Australia inland from the city of Cairns. Established in 2008, it was preceded by four previous local government areas which dated back more than a century. On 1 January 2014, one of those local government areas, the Shire of Mareeba, was re-established independent of the Tablelands Region, it has an estimated operating budget of A$62.2 million. Prior to the 2008 amalgamation, the Tablelands Region consisted the entire area of four previous local government areas: the Shire of Atherton. On 11 November 1879, when the Divisional Boards Act 1879 came into effect proclaiming 74 divisions around Queensland, the nature and distribution of the population in the Tablelands region was vastly different from today. Most of the area was divided between the Woothakata divisions. On 3 September 1881, Tinaroo Division was proclaimed from part of Hinchinbrook, making the mining towns of Tinaroo and Thornborough the administrative centres of the region.
A number of changes occurred from that point: 15 September 1888 – Formation of the Borough of Herberton to manage the town of Herberton 14 May 1889 – Walsh Division separated from Woothakata 20 December 1890 – Barron Division separated from Tinaroo 11 May 1895 – Herberton Division separated from Tinaroo. 16 December 1908 – Shire of Chillagoe formed from part of Woothakata 18 November 1910 – Shire of Eacham formed from part of Tinaroo 20 December 1919 – Shire of Barron abolished and divided between Mulgrave and Woothakata 1933 – Shires of Walsh and Chillagoe amalgamated into Woothakata 1935 – Shire of Tinaroo renamed Shire of Atherton 20 December 1947 – Shire of Woothakata renamed Shire of MareebaIn July 2007, the Local Government Reform Commission released its report and recommended that the four areas amalgamate. Amongst its reasons given for this recommendation were that a community of interest revolved around the towns of Mareeba and Atherton, with residents travelling to Cairns for services not offered in the region.
The opportunity for tourism and leisure promotion under a single banner, the close proximity of most major towns, the lack of natural barriers and similar economic interests including beef, dairy and sugar production. All councils opposed the amalgamation, although Atherton and Eacham were willing to consider shared service delivery. On 15 March 2008, the Shires formally ceased to exist, elections were held on the same day to elect councillors and a to the Regional Council. In 2012, a proposal was made to de-amalgamate the Shire of Mareeba from the Tablelands Region. On 9 March 2013, the citizens of the former Mareeba shire voted in a referendum to de-amalgamate; the Shire of Mareeba was re-established on 1 January 2014. Tablelands Regional Council consists of: Joe Paronella Division 1 Councillor: Kate Eden Division 2 Councillor: Annette Haydon Division 3 Councillor: Anthony Ball Division 4 Councillor: Samantha Banks Division 5 Councillor: Katrina Spies Division 6 Councillor: Bronwyn Voyce 2008: Tom Gilmore2012: Rosa Lee Long2016: Joe Paronella The Tablelands Region includes the following settlements: 1 - shared with Cassowary Coast Region2 - shared with Cairns Region and Cassowary Coast Region The populations given relate to the component entities prior to 2008.
The Tablelands Regional Council operate public libraries in Atherton, Malanda, Millaa Millaa, Mount Garnet and Yungaburra
Midgenoo is a town and a locality in the Cassowary Coast Region, Australia. The town is north of centre within the locality; this land is used for crops, principally sugarcane. The Bruce Highway and North Coast railway line traverse the locality from south-west to north, passing through the town. Midgenoo railway station services the town. There are sugarcane tramways in the locality; the town's name Midgenoo is taken from its railway station and is an Aboriginal word for a local tree. Midgenoo State School opened in 1923 but closed in 1933. Media related to Midgenoo, Queensland at Wikimedia Commons Town map of Midgenoo, 1975
Far North Queensland
Far North Queensland is the northernmost part of the state of Queensland, Australia. Centered on the city of Cairns, the region stretches north to the Torres Strait, west to the Gulf Country; the region has Australia's only international border, with the independent nation of Papua New Guinea. The region is home to three World Heritage Sites, the Great Barrier Reef, the Wet Tropics of Queensland and Riversleigh, Australia's largest fossil mammal site. Far North Queensland lays claim to over 70 national parks, including Mount Bartle Frere; the Far North region is the only region of Australia, home to both the Aboriginal Australians and the Torres Strait Islanders. Far North Queensland supports a significant agricultural sector, a number of significant mines and is home to Queensland's largest wind farm, the Windy Hill Wind Farm. Various government departments and agencies have different definitions for the region; the Queensland Government department of Trade and Investment Queensland defines the region as an area comprising the following 25 local government areas.
The main population and administrative centre of the region is the city of Cairns. Other key population centres include Cooktown, the Atherton Tableland, Weipa and the Torres Strait Islands; the region consists of many Aboriginal and farming groups. The northeastern point of Highway 1 passes through the region in the city of Cairns and connects the southern-running Bruce Highway to the western-running Savannah Way. Highway 1 circumnavigates the continent at a length of 14,500 kilometres and is the second-longest national highway in the world after the Pan-American Highway. Despite being Highway 1, not all sections of the Savannah Way are designated as a federally funded National Highway and certain sections remain unsealed. Significant industries include tourism, cattle grazing and mining of both sand and bauxite. Agricultural products generate between $600 and $700 million a year. Sugar cane, tropical fruits including bananas, papaya and coffee are grown in Far North Queensland; the region is home to the world's biggest silica mine at Cape Flattery.
The mine was established in 1967 and was damaged by Cyclone Ita in 2014. Rio Tinto Alcan operates a bauxite mine on the western coast of Cape York Peninsula near Weipa which contains one of the largest bauxite deposits in the world. In recent years, Far North Queensland has become known for its artistic and creative offerings, with the Cairns Indigenous Art Fair, Cairns Festival both held annually. Active arts organisation include the Tanks Arts Centre, Cairns Civic Theatre, Cairns Art Gallery; the region supports a large tourism industry and is considered a premier tourist destination in Australia. Nearly one third of international visitors to the state come to the region. Attractions include the Great Barrier Reef, Daintree Rainforest and other Queensland tropical rain forests within the Wet Tropics of Queensland heritage area, the Atherton Tableland, Hinchinbrook Island and other resort islands such as Dunk Island and Green Island. Major attractions around and in Cairns include The Reef Hotel Casino, Kuranda Scenic Railway, Barron Falls and the Skyrail Rainforest Cableway.
Towns and localities attracting large numbers of tourists include Cape Tribulation, Port Douglas, Mission Beach and Cardwell. The Australian Bureau of Statistics estimates the region's population at 280,638 in 2014; the region contains 25.6% of the state's Indigenous population, or 28,909 people, making up 11.8% of the region's population. Far North Queensland is the location of the first amber fossils to be found in Australia; the four-million-year-old fossils were found on a beach in Cape York Peninsula but were washed ashore after drifting with the currents for about 200 km. In the 1860s, Richard Daintree discovered gold and copper deposits along several rivers which led early prospectors to the area; the region suffered Queensland's worst maritime disaster on 4 March 1899 when the Mahina Cyclone destroyed all 100 ships moored in Princess Charlotte Bay. The entire North Queensland pearling fleet was in the bay at the time of the cyclone. 100 Aboriginals assisting survivors and 307 men from the pearling fleet were drowned.
Its pressure was measured at 914 hPa with a recorded tidal surge of 13 m, the highest in Australia. The 1918 Mackay cyclone hit the Queensland coast in January of that year. In March 1997, Cyclone Justin resulted in the deaths of seven people. In early 2000, Cyclone Steve caused major flooding between Mareeba. Cyclone Larry crossed the Queensland coast near Innisfail in March 2006; the storm damaged 10,000 homes. 80% of Australia's banana crop was destroyed. Cyclone Monica was the most intense cyclone on record in terms of wind speed to cross the Australian coast, it impacted the Northern Territory and Far North Queensland in April 2006. In January 2011, Cyclone Yasi passed over Tully and resulted in an estimated $3.6 billion worth of damage, making it the costliest cyclone to hit Australia. The name Tropical North Queensland is sometimes used to refer to the region. However, the phrase is ambiguous and may be used to name a wider area including parts of North Queensland, or Mackay. Proposal for a new state of North
Division of Kennedy
The Division of Kennedy is an Australian Electoral Division in Queensland. The division was one of the original 65 divisions contested at the first federal election, it is named after Edmund Kennedy, an explorer in the area where the division is located in Queensland. The member since 1993 is Bob Katter Jr. the leader of Katter's Australian Party. He was elected as a member of the National Party, but became an independent in 2001 before forming his own party in 2011. Geographically, the electorate is rural, it takes in the Pacific coast of Queensland between Cairns and Townsville, including a small portion of Cairns itself, before sweeping westward to take in most of Queensland's northern outback—a large sparsely populated area stretching west to the border with the Northern Territory. The largest population centre in the electorate is the city of Mount Isa, in its far west; until 1949, it was larger, encompassing most of the state north of Townsville, becoming still larger when it absorbed Cairns in 1934.
However, much of its northern portion, including the Cairns area, became the Division of Leichhardt in 1949. Kennedy was held by the Australian Labor Party for most of the first half of the 20th century, was one of the few country seats where Labor did well. From Federation until 1966, Labor held it for all but two terms. However, since 1966 it has been held by the conservative Katter family—Bob Sr. and his son, Bob Jr.—for all but one term. It has long since shaken off its Labor past, is now considered one of the most conservative electorates in Australia. A few Labor pockets still exist in Mount Isa, represented by Labor at the state level as late as 2012, as well as around Cairns and Townsville. However, they are no match for the conservative bent of the rest of the seat. Besides the Katters, other prominent members include Charles McDonald, the first Labor Speaker of the Australian House of Representatives, Bill Riordan, a minister in the Chifley government; the seat has been held by two father-son combinations.
Darby Riordan held the seat from 1929 until his death in 1936. His son, won the seat at the ensuing by-election and held it until his retirement in 1966. Bob Katter Sr. won it in the 1966 Coalition landslide, holding it until 1990. His son and current member, Bob Jr. defeated his father's successor, Rob Hulls, in 1993. Hulls would become Deputy Premier of Victoria. At the 2013 election, sitting member Bob Jr. faced his first serious contest in two decades. He'd gone into the election holding Kennedy with a margin of 18 percent, making Kennedy the second-safest seat in Australia. However, Liberal National candidate Noeline Ikin was well ahead on the primary vote by 10,000 votes. Katter narrowly won another term on Labor preferences. However, he suffered a swing of 17 percent. Katter did not however face a rematch against Ikin at the 2016 election due to her having a brain tumour which forced her out of the election. At that election, Katter picked up a swing of nine percent, making it a safe seat once again.
Division of Kennedy — Australian Electoral Commission
The Cairns Region is a local government area in Far North Queensland, Australia, centred on the regional centre of Cairns. It was established in 2008 by the amalgamation of the Shire of Douglas. However, following public protest and a referendum in 2013, on 1 January 2014, the Shire of Douglas was separated from the Cairns Region and re-established as a local government authority; the Cairns Regional Council has an estimated operating budget of A$300 million. Prior to the 2008 amalgamation, the new Cairns Region consisted the entire area of three previous local government areas: the City of Cairns; the City, which for most of its existence covered only the central business district and inner suburbs of Cairns, had its beginning in the Borough of Cairns, proclaimed on 28 May 1885 under the Local Government Act 1878. With the passage of the Local Authorities Act 1902, it became a Town on 31 March 1903 and was proclaimed a City on 12 October 1923; the Shire of Mulgrave had its origins in the Cairns Division, one of Queensland's 74 divisions created under the Divisional Boards Act 1879 on 11 November 1879.
The Douglas Division was created on 3 June 1880. They became the Shire of Cairns and the Shire of Douglas on 31 March 1903. On 20 December 1919, it grew to include some territory from the abolished Shire of Barron, on 16 November 1940, the shire was renamed Mulgrave. On 21 November 1991, the Electoral and Administrative Review Commission, created two years earlier, produced its second report, recommended that local government boundaries in the Cairns area be rationalised, that the Shire be dissolved and amalgamated with the City of Cairns; the Local Government Regulation 1994 was gazetted on 16 December 1994. On 22 March 1995, the Shire became part of the new City of Cairns. In July 2007, the Local Government Reform Commission released its report and recommended that Cairns amalgamate with the Shire of Douglas, that the new Cairns Regional Council be undivided with 10 councillors and a mayor. On 15 March 2008, the City and Shire formally ceased to exist, elections were held on the same day to elect councillors and a mayor to the Regional Council.
In 2012, a proposal was made to de-amalgamate the Shire of Douglas from the Cairns Region. On 9 March 2013, the citizens of the former Douglas shire voted in a referendum to de-amalgamate; the shire was re-established on 1 January 2014. The Region is divided into 10 divisions, each of whom elects one councillor to the Cairns Regional Council. At present, Division 10 contains all of the former Shire of Douglas, whilst Division 1 covers the southern districts which were part of the Shire of Mulgrave prior to 1995; the Cairns Region includes the following settlements: 1 - shared with Cassowary Coast Region2 - shared with Cassowary Coast Region and Tablelands Region The Cairns Regional Council operate public libraries at Babinda, Cairns City, Edmonton, Manunda and Stratford. The populations given relate to the component entities prior to 2008; the next census, due in 2016, will be the second for the Region. 2008–2012: Val Schier 2012–: Bob Manning The council members elected in 2016 were: Cairns Regional Council