Waldorf Astoria New York
The Waldorf Astoria New York is a luxury hotel in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. The hotel has been housed in two historic landmark buildings in New York; the first, bearing the same name, was built in two stages, as the Waldorf Hotel and the Astoria Hotel, which accounts for its dual name. That original site was situated on Astor family properties along Fifth Avenue, opened in 1893, designed by Henry J. Hardenbergh, it was demolished in 1929 to make way for the construction of the Empire State Building. The present building, at 301 Park Avenue between 49th and 50th Streets in Midtown Manhattan, is a 47-story 190.5 m Art Deco landmark designed by architects Schultze and Weaver, completed in 1931. The current hotel was the world's tallest hotel from 1931 until 1963, when it was surpassed by Moscow's Hotel Ukraina by 7 metres. An icon of glamour and luxury, the current Waldorf Astoria is one of the world's most prestigious and best known hotels. Waldorf Astoria Hotels and Resorts is a division of Hilton Hotels, a portfolio of high-end properties around the world now operate under the name, including in New York City.
From its inception, the Waldorf Astoria gained international renown for its lavish dinner parties and galas at the center of political and business conferences and fundraising schemes involving the rich and famous. After World War II it played a significant role in world politics and the Cold War, culminating in the controversial World Peace Conference of March 1949 at the hotel, in which Stalinism was denounced. Conrad Hilton acquired management rights to the hotel on October 12, 1949, the Hilton Hotels Corporation bought the hotel outright in 1972, it underwent a $150 million renovation by Lee Jablin in the 1980s and early 1990s, in October 2014 it was announced that the Anbang Insurance Group of China had purchased the Waldorf Astoria New York for US$1.95 billion, making it the most expensive hotel sold. On July 1, 2016, Anbang announced that it would convert some of the Waldorf's hotel rooms into condominiums, closing the hotel for a three-year renovation on March 1, 2017; the Waldorf Astoria and Towers has a total of 1,413 hotel rooms as of 2014.
In 2009, when it had 1,416 rooms, the main hotel had 1,235 single and double rooms and 208 mini suites, while the Waldorf Towers, from the 28th floor up to the 42nd, had 181 rooms, of which 115 were suites, with one to four bedrooms. Several of the luxury suites are named after celebrities who lived or stayed in them such as the Cole Porter Suite, the Royal Suite, named after the Duke and Duchess of Windsor, the MacArthur Suite and the Churchill Suite; the most expensive room, the Presidential Suite, is designed with Georgian-style furniture to emulate that of the White House. It was the residence of Herbert Hoover from his retirement for over 30 years, Frank Sinatra kept a suite at the Waldorf from 1979 until 1988; the hotel has three main restaurants: Peacock Alley, The Bull and Bear Steak House, La Chine—a new Chinese restaurant that replaced Oscar's Brasserie in late 2015. Sir Harry's Bar located in the hotel, is named after British explorer Sir Harry Johnston; the name of the hotel is derived from the town of Walldorf in Germany, the ancestral home of the prominent German-American Astor family who originated there.
The hotel was known as the Waldorf-Astoria with a single hyphen, as recalled by a popular expression and song, "Meet Me at the Hyphen". The sign was changed to a double hyphen, looking similar to an equals sign, by Conrad Hilton when he purchased the hotel in 1949; the double hyphen visually represents "Peacock Alley", the hallway between the two hotels that once stood where the Empire State building now stands today. The use of the double hyphen was discontinued by parent company Hilton in 2009, shortly after the introduction of the Waldorf Astoria Hotels and Resorts chain; the hotel has since been known as the Waldorf Astoria New York, without any hyphen, though this is sometimes shortened to the Waldorf Astoria. The original hotel started as two hotels on Fifth Avenue built by feuding relatives; the first hotel, the 13-story, 450-room Waldorf Hotel, designed by Henry Janeway Hardenbergh in the German Renaissance style, was opened on March 13, 1893, at the corner of Fifth Avenue and 33rd Street, on the site where millionaire developer William Waldorf Astor had his mansion.
The original hotel stood 225 feet high, with a frontage of about 100 feet on Fifth Avenue, with an area of 69,475 square feet. The original hotel was described as having a "lofty stone and brick exterior", "animated by an effusion of balconies, alcoves and loggias beneath a tile roof bedecked with gables and turrets". William Astor, motivated in part by a dispute with his aunt Caroline Webster Schermerhorn Astor, had built the Waldorf Hotel next door to her house, on the site of his father's mansion; the hotel was built to the specifications of founding proprietor George Boldt, who owned and operated the Bellevue-Stratford Hotel, a fashionable hotel on Broad Street in Philadelphia, with his wife Louise. Boldt was described as "Mild mannered, unassuming", resembling "a typical German professor with his close-cropped beard which he kept fastidiously trimmed... and his pince-nez glasses on a black silk cord". Boldt continued to own the Bellevue after his relationship with the Astors blossomed.
At first, the Waldorf appeared destined for failure. It was a laughing stock with its high number of bathrooms and was known as "Boldt's Folly" or "Astor's Folly", with the general perception of the palatial hotel being that it had no place in New York City. Wealthy New Yorkers were angry because they viewed the construction of the hotel as
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal government's official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property; the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually; the remainder are contributing resources within historic districts. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service, an agency within the United States Department of the Interior, its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States.
While National Register listings are symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties. Protection of the property is not guaranteed. During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places; the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Historic sites outside the country proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, multiple property submissions; the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties: district, structure, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties; some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service.
These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks, National Memorials, some National Monuments. On October 15, 1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices; the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Register's creation, as well as any other historic sites in the National Park system. Approval of the act, amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy; the 1966 act required those agencies to work in conjunction with the SHPO and an independent federal agency, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, to confront adverse effects of federal activities on historic preservation. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, with director George B.
Hartzog Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law. Ernest Connally was the Office's first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register; the division administered several existing programs, including the Historic Sites Survey and the Historic American Buildings Survey, as well as the new National Register and Historic Preservation Fund. The first official Keeper of the Register was an architectural historian. During the Register's earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. However, funds were still being supplied for the Historic Preservation Fund to provide matching grants-in-aid to listed property owners, first for house museums and institutional buildings, but for commercial structures as well. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U.
S. National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two "Assistant Directorates." Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation. From 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs. Jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate, he was described as a skilled administrator, sensitive to the need for the NPS to work with SHPOs, local governments. Although not described in detail in the 1966 act, SHPOs became integral to the process of listing properties on the National Register; the 1980 amendments of the 1966 law further defined the responsibilities of SHPOs concerning the National Register.
Several 1992 amendments of the NHPA added a category to the National Register, known as Traditional Cultural Properties: those properties associated with Native American or Hawaiian groups
Kentucky the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States. Although styled as the "State of Kentucky" in the law creating it, Kentucky is one of four U. S. states constituted as a commonwealth. A part of Virginia, in 1792 Kentucky became the 15th state to join the Union. Kentucky is the 26th most populous of the 50 United States. Kentucky is known as the "Bluegrass State", a nickname based on the bluegrass found in many of its pastures due to the fertile soil. One of the major regions in Kentucky is the Bluegrass Region in central Kentucky, which houses two of its major cities and Lexington, it is a land with diverse environments and abundant resources, including the world's longest cave system, Mammoth Cave National Park, the greatest length of navigable waterways and streams in the contiguous United States, the two largest man-made lakes east of the Mississippi River. Kentucky is known for horse racing, bourbon distilleries, coal, the "My Old Kentucky Home" historic state park, automobile manufacturing, bluegrass music, college basketball, Kentucky Fried Chicken.
In 1776, the counties of Virginia beyond the Appalachian Mountains became known as Kentucky County, named for the Kentucky River. The precise etymology of the name is uncertain, but based on an Iroquoian name meaning " the meadow" or " the prairie". Others have put forth the possibility of Kenta Aki, which would come from Algonquian language and, would have derived from the Shawnees. Folk etymology states that this translates as "Land of Our Fathers." The closest approximation in another Algonquian language, Ojibwe translates it more-so to "Land of Our In-Laws", thus making a fairer English translation "The Land of Those Who Became Our Fathers." In any case, the word aki comes out as land in all Algonquian languages. Kentucky is situated in the Upland South. A significant portion of eastern Kentucky is part of Appalachia. Kentucky borders seven states, from the Southeast. West Virginia lies to the east, Virginia to the southeast, Tennessee to the south, Missouri to the west and Indiana to the northwest, Ohio to the north and northeast.
Only Missouri and Tennessee, both of which border eight states, touch more. Kentucky's northern border is formed by the Ohio River and its western border by the Mississippi River. However, the official border is based on the courses of the rivers as they existed when Kentucky became a state in 1792. For instance, northbound travelers on U. S. 41 from Henderson, after crossing the Ohio River, will be in Kentucky for about two miles. Ellis Park, a thoroughbred racetrack, is located in this small piece of Kentucky. Waterworks Road is part of the only land border between Kentucky. Kentucky has a non-contiguous part known at the far west corner of the state, it exists as an exclave surrounded by Missouri and Tennessee, is included in the boundaries of Fulton County. Road access to this small part of Kentucky on the Mississippi River requires a trip through Tennessee; the epicenter of the powerful 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes was near this area causing the river to flow backwards in some places. Though the series of quakes did change the area geologically and affect the inhabitants of the area at the time, the Kentucky Bend was formed because of a surveying error, not the New Madrid earthquake.
Kentucky can be divided into five primary regions: the Cumberland Plateau in the east, the north-central Bluegrass region, the south-central and western Pennyroyal Plateau, the Western Coal Fields and the far-west Jackson Purchase. The Bluegrass region is divided into two regions, the Inner Bluegrass—the encircling 90 miles around Lexington—and the Outer Bluegrass—the region that contains most of the northern portion of the state, above the Knobs. Much of the outer Bluegrass is in the Eden Shale Hills area, made up of short and narrow hills; the Jackson Purchase and western Pennyrile are home to several bald cypress/tupelo swamps. Located within the southeastern interior portion of North America, Kentucky has a climate that can best be described as a humid subtropical climate, only small higher areas of the southeast of the state has an oceanic climate influenced by the Appalachians. Temperatures in Kentucky range from daytime summer highs of 87 °F to the winter low of 23 °F; the average precipitation is 46 inches a year.
Kentucky experiences four distinct seasons, with substantial variations in the severity of summer and winter. The highest recorded temperature was 114 °F at Greensburg on July 28, 1930 while the lowest recorded temperature was −37 °F at Shelbyville on January 19, 1994, it has four distinct seasons, but experiences the extreme cold as far northern states, nor the high heat of the states in the Deep South. Temperatures seldom drop below 0 degrees or rise above 100 degrees. Rain and snowfall totals about 45 inches per year. There are big variations in climate within the state; the northern parts tend to be about 5 degrees cooler than those in western parts of the state. Somerset in the south-central part receives 10 more inches of rain per year than, for instance, Covington to the north. Average temperatures for the entire Commonwe
Hall of Mirrors
The Hall of Mirrors is the central gallery of the Palace of Versailles in Versailles, France. Within the hall, the German Empire was declared in 1871 and the Treaty of Versailles signed by the victorious powers of World War I in 1919; as the principal and most remarkable feature of King Louis XIV of France's third building campaign of the Palace of Versailles, construction of the Hall of Mirrors began in 1678. To provide for the Hall of Mirrors as well as the salon de la guerre and the salon de la paix, which connect the grand appartement du roi with the grand appartement de la reine, architect Jules Hardouin Mansart appropriated three rooms from each apartment as well as the terrace that separated the two apartments; the principal feature of this hall is the seventeen mirror-clad arches that reflect the seventeen arcaded windows that overlook the gardens. Each arch contains twenty-one mirrors with a total complement of 357 used in the decoration of the galerie des glaces; the arches themselves are fixed between marble pilasters whose capitals depict the symbols of France.
These gilded bronze capitals include the Gallic cockerel or rooster. Many of the other attributes of the Hall of Mirrors were lost to war for financial purposes, such as the silver table pieces and guéridons, which were melted by order of Louis XIV in 1689 to finance the War of the League of Augsburg. In the 17th century, mirrors were among the most expensive items to possess at the time. In order to maintain the integrity of his philosophy of mercantilism, which required that all items used in the decoration of Versailles be made in France, Jean-Baptiste Colbert enticed several workers from Venice to make mirrors at the Manufacture royale de glaces de miroirs. According to legend, in order to keep its monopoly, the government of the Venetian Republic sent agents to France to poison the workers whom Colbert had brought to France; the Hall of Mirrors' dimensions are 73.0 m × 10.5 m × 12.3 m and is flanked by the salon de la guerre and the salon de la paix. Construction on the galerie and its two salons continued until 1684, at which time it was pressed into use for court and state functions.
The ceiling decoration is dedicated to the political policies and military victories of Louis XIV. The central panel of the ceiling, Le roi gouverne par lui-même, alludes to the establishment of the personal reign of Louis XIV in 1661; the present decorative schema represents the last of three that were presented to Louis XIV. The original decorative plan was to have depicted the exploits of Apollo, being consistent with the imagery associated with the Sun-King, Louis XIV. However, when the king learned that his brother, Philippe I, Duke of Orléans, had commissioned Pierre Mignard to decorate the ceiling of the grande galerie of his brother's residence at Château de Saint-Cloud, Louis XIV rejected the plan; the next decorative plan was one in which the exploits of Hercules — as allegories to the actions of Louis XIV — were to be depicted. Again, as with the first plan, the Hercules theme was rejected by the king; the final plan represents military victories of Louis XIV starting with the Treaty of the Pyrenees to the Treaty of Nijmegen.
In a departure from the decoration of the ceilings in the grand appartement du roi, Le Brun has depicted Louis XIV directly, has ceased to refer to the king in allegorical guises. In this way, themes such as good governance and military prowess are rendered with Louis XIV himself as the key figure. During the 17th century, the Hall of Mirrors was used daily by Louis XIV when he walked from his private apartment to the chapel. At this time, courtiers assembled to watch the king and members of the royal family pass, might make a particular request by intoning: "Sire, Marly?". This was the manner in which one was able to obtain a much sought-after invitation to one of the king's house parties at Marly-le-Roi, the villa Louis XIV built north of Versailles on the route to Saint-Germain-en-Laye. However, of all the events that transpired in this room during the reign of Louis XIV, the Siamese Embassy of 1685–1686 must be cited as the most opulent. At this time, the galerie des glaces and the grands appartements were still appointed with silver furniture.
In its heyday, over 3,000 candles were used to light the Hall of Mirrors. In February 1715, Louis XIV held his last embassy in the galerie des glaces, one in which he received Mehemet Reza Bey, ambassador of the Shah of Persia. In the successive reigns of Louis XV and Louis XVI, the Hall of Mirrors continued to serve for family and court functions. Embassies and marriages were fêted in this room, it was during this costume ball that Louis XV, dressed as a yew tree, met Jeanne-Antoinette Poisson d'Étiolles, costumed as Diana, goddess of the hunt. Jeanne-Antoinette, who became Louis XV's mistress, is better known to history as the Marquise de Pompadour. In the 19th century, at the conclusion of the Franco-Prussian War, the Prussian king, William I, was declared German emperor — thus establishing the German Empire — on 18 January 1871 in the Hall of Mirrors by Bismarck and the victorious German princes and lords; this was seen as a victory with heavy symbolism for the Germans and a stinging insult for the defeated French.
French Prime Minister Clemenceau chose the Hall of Mirrors as the location wherein was signed the Treaty of Versailles that ended World War I on 28 June 1919. The Hall of Mirror
Vine Street, Cincinnati
Vine Street functions as Cincinnati's central thoroughfare. It bisects the downtown neighborhood, as well as the adjacent Over-the-Rhine neighborhood; the street serves as the dividing line for the "east" and "west" sides of the city. All east-west addresses in the city start at zero at Vine Street, it heads north-northeast from the riverfront area through the Over-the-Rhine neighborhood, ascending between Fairview and Mount Auburn until it courses the uptown plateau past the University of Cincinnati. As the eastern perimeter of the campus and the Environmental Protection Agency's regional offices, Vine is called Jefferson Avenue, though it directly connects with Vine Street on its north and south ends. An adjunct, known as Short Vine parallels Jefferson Avenue and functions as a central artery of the neighborhood of Corryville, an off-campus business district with a number of shops, music venues, restaurants. Vine Street and Jefferson Avenue were both realigned in the 1970s to provide a bypass around the Corryville Neighborhood Business District.
Vine St and Short Vine formed a five-leg intersection with Auburn Avenue and East and West Corry Streets. The south legs of Vine and North leg of Auburn were removed to make room for a commercial shopping center. However, Vine St and Short Vine still divide the west sides of Cincinnati; the Jefferson Avenue "bypass" is still on the west side of the city. The north end of Short Vine connects to Vine Street at Jr.. Drive intersection. Vine Street descends past the Vine Street Hill Cemetery. Near the bottom of Vine Street Hill, the street leaves the City of Cincinnati and takes a northwestern heading through the independent entities of Saint Bernard, home of Ivorydale. In Saint Bernard, it passes beneath the Mill Creek Expressway, as this segment of Interstate 75 is known. After a railroad crossing near Ivorydale, it meets Spring Grove Avenue. Vine Street enters Elmwood Place and serves as the municipality's central boulevard. Vine continues in a northerly direction through the Cincinnati city neighborhood of Carthage, where it merges with Ohio State Route 4 at the terminus of Paddock Road.
The Ronald Reagan Cross County Highway crosses over Vine Street. Passing on through the Cincinnati neighborhood of Hartwell, Vine Street becomes Springfield Pike when it enters Wyoming, Ohio. Springfield Pike continues through Ohio. At the north end of Woodlawn, entering Glendale, there is a fork in the road. Ohio State Route 4 and Springfield Pike veer off to the left towards downtown Springdale, while Ohio State Route 747 continues straight north as Congress Avenue through Glendale, as Princeton Pike into Springdale near Tri-County Mall. Most of the buildings on Vine Street are commercial, represent the city's historic business district. Vine Street is known for its large amount of pedestrian traffic around Fountain Square. Fountain Square Cincinnati Zoo University of Cincinnati Corporate Headquarters of Kroger Over-the-Rhine Neighborhood Bogart's Marquee Vine Street Hill Cemetery Main Branch of Cincinnati Public Libraries Politico Magazine: "The Street That Riots Couldn’t Kill" by MARK PETERSON and NICOLE NAREA June 16, 2016
Empire State Building
The Empire State Building is a 102-story Art Deco skyscraper in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. Designed by Shreve, Lamb & Harmon and completed in 1931, the building has a roof height of 1,250 feet and stands a total of 1,454 feet tall, including its antenna, its name is derived from "Empire State", the nickname of New York, of unknown origin. As of 2019 the building is the 5th-tallest completed skyscraper in the United States and the 28th-tallest in the world, it is the 6th-tallest freestanding structure in the Americas. The Empire State Building stood as the world's tallest building for nearly 40 years until the completion of the World Trade Center's North Tower in Lower Manhattan in late 1970. Following the September 11 attacks in 2001, it was again the tallest building in New York until the new One World Trade Center was completed in April 2012; the site of the Empire State Building, located in Midtown South on the west side of Fifth Avenue between West 33rd and 34th Streets, was part of an early 18th-century farm.
It was purchased by the Astor family, who built the Waldorf–Astoria Hotel on the site in the 1890s. The hotel remained in operation until the late 1920s, when it was sold to the Bethlehem Engineering Corporation to Empire State Inc. a business venture that included famous businessman and former General Motors executive, John J. Raskob, members of the du Pont family, former New York governor Al Smith; the original design of the Empire State Building was for a 50-story office building. However, after fifteen revisions, the final design was for an 86-story 1,250-foot building, with an airship mast on top; this ensured it would be the world's tallest building, beating the Chrysler Building and 40 Wall Street, two other Manhattan skyscrapers under construction at the time that were vying for that distinction. Demolition of the Waldorf–Astoria began in October 1929, the foundation of the Empire State Building was excavated before demolition was complete. Construction on the building itself started on March 17, 1930, with an average construction rate of four and a half floors per week.
A well-coordinated schedule meant that the 86 stories were topped out on September 19. Despite the publicity surrounding the building's construction, its owners failed to make a profit until the early 1950s. However, since its opening, the building's Art Deco architecture and open-air observation deck has made it a popular tourist attraction, with around 4 million visitors from around the world visiting the building's 86th and 102nd floor observatories every year. Since the mid-2010s, the Empire State Building has been undergoing improvements to improve access to its observation decks; the building stands within a mile of other major Midtown tourist attractions including Grand Central Terminal, Pennsylvania Station, Madison Square Garden and Macy's Herald Square. The Empire State Building is an American cultural icon and has been featured in more than 250 TV shows and movies since the film King Kong was released in 1933. A symbol of New York City, the tower has been named as one of the Seven Wonders of the Modern World by the American Society of Civil Engineers.
The Empire State Building and its ground-floor interior have been designated as a city landmark by the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission, were confirmed as such by the New York City Board of Estimate. It was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1986, was ranked number one on the American Institute of Architects' List of America's Favorite Architecture in 2007; the Empire State Building is located on the west side of Fifth Avenue in Manhattan, between 33rd and 34th Streets. Tenants enter the building through the Art Deco lobby located at 350 Fifth Avenue. Since August 2018, visitors to the Empire State Building Observatory use an entrance at 20 West 34th Street, replacing the previous Observatory entrance inside the Fifth Avenue lobby. Although physically located in South Midtown, a mixed residential and commercial area, the building is so large that it was assigned its own ZIP Code, 10118; the areas surrounding the Empire State Building are home to other major Manhattan landmarks as well, including Macy's at Herald Square on Sixth Avenue and 34th Street, Koreatown on 32nd Street between Fifth and Sixth Avenues, Penn Station and Madison Square Garden on Seventh Avenue between 32nd and 34th Streets, the Flower District on 28th Street between Sixth and Seventh Avenues.
The nearest New York City Subway stations are 34th Street–Penn Station at Seventh Avenue, two blocks west. There is a PATH station at 33rd Street and Sixth Avenue. To the east of the Empire State Building is Murray Hill, a neighborhood with a mix of residential and entertainment activity. One block east of the Empire State Building, on Madison Avenue at 34th Street, is the New York Public Library's Science and Business Library, located on the same block as the City University of New York's Graduate Center. Bryant Park and the New York Public Library Main Branch are located six blocks north of the Empire State Building, on the block bounded by Fifth Avenue, Sixth Avenue, 40th Street, 42nd Street. Grand Central Terminal is located two blocks east of the library's Main Branch, at Park Avenue and 42nd Street; the tract was part of Mary and John Murray's farm on Murray Hill. The earliest recorded major action on the site was during the American Revolutionary War, when General George Washington'
The Chanin Building is a brick and terra-cotta skyscraper located at 122 East 42nd Street, at the corner of Lexington Avenue, in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. Built by Irwin S. Chanin in 1927–1929, it is 56 stories high, reaching 197.8 metres excluding the spire and 207.3 metres including it. It was designed by Sloan & Robertson in the Art Deco style, with the assistance of Chanin's own architect Jacques Delamarre, it incorporates architectural sculpture by Rene Paul Chambellan, it is the 93rd tallest building in New York. The building was designated a New York City landmark in 1978, was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1980; the base of the building boasts black Belgian marble around the store fronts with a bronze frieze directly above depicting scenes of evolution. A second terra-cotta frieze runs the whole length of the lower facade, presenting a dramatic collection of angular zigzags and curvy leaves; the tower rises 22 stories and thins into a series of setbacks, reaching a total of 56 floors.
The top of the building is a series of buttresses that are illuminated from the inside at night, lighting up the recesses in the crown. In the lobbies, which served as a "palatial" bus terminal and which still connect to the Grand Central subway station, eight bronze reliefs designed by Rene Paul Chambellan perch above ornate bronze radiator grilles; the bronze ornamentation continues in the waves on the floor and elevator doors extending the general Art Deco style from the outside in. When completed, the 50th floor had a silver-and-black high-brow movie theater; this floor and the 51st are now offices joined by a stairwell instead. A dominant landmark in the midtown skyline, the building had an open-air observatory on the 54th floor. Having been surpassed in height by a number of buildings, most notably the Chrysler Building located across the street, the observatory has been long closed; the self-supporting tower atop the building was the original transmission site for WQXR-FM from 1941 to 1965, when it moved to the Empire State Building.
Apple Bank for Savings International Rescue Committee List of tallest buildings in New York City List of New York City Designated Landmarks in Manhattan from 14th to 59th Streets Carew Tower Notes in-Arch.net: The Chanin Building