Florianus, known as Florian, was Roman Emperor for a few months in 276. Florian was reported be a maternal half-brother to the Emperor Marcus Claudius Tacitus, however he minted coins bearing the SC legend, thus showing some bonds to the Senate. Florian was fighting the Heruli when the army in the East elected Probus, Florian had the support of Italia, Hispania, Britain and Mauretania. The two rival emperors met in battle in Cilicia, Florianus had the army, but Probus was a more experienced general. Florians western army was not accustomed to the hot, dry eastern climate, Florian was assassinated by his own troops near Tarsus once their confidence was lost. He died in September 276, having been emperor for only eighty-eight days, the Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire, Vol. I, AD260-395, Cambridge University Press,1971 Southern, Pat. The Roman Empire from Severus to Constantine, Routledge,2001 Canduci, Triumph & Tragedy, The Rise and Fall of Romes Immortal Emperors, Pier 9, edward Decline & Fall of the Roman Empire Media related to Florianus at Wikimedia Commons britannica. com
The Quadi were a Suebian Germanic tribe who lived approximately in the area of modern Moravia in the time of the Roman empire. They associated the Quadi with their neighbours the Marcomanni, and described both groups as having entered the region after the Celtic Boii had left it deserted and it is said that the Quadi lived in the same general region, and were Suebian Germans, like the Marcomanni. They came to be part of the Marcomannic confederation that fought the future emperor Tiberius in 6 AD, there may be an earlier reference to the Quadi in the Geography of Strabo. In a parenthetical expression, often removed from the text, he mentions a branch of the Suevi called the Koldouoi. Part of their range is Bohemia, the domain of Maroboduus, the emendment of Coldui to Coadui is generally considered correct. Tacitus mentions the Quadi in the breath as the Marcomanni, alike in warlike spirit, alike governed by kings of their own noble stock. The royal powers of both tribes were alike, according to Tacitus, in being supported by Roman silver, in The Annals, Tacitus writes that Maroboduus was deposed by the exile Catualda around 18 AD.
Catualda was in turn defeated by the Hermunduri Vibilius, after which the realm was ruled by the Quadian Vannius, Vannius was himself deposed by Vibilius, in coordination with his nephews Vangio and Sido, who divided his realm between themselves as Roman client kings. Tacitus writes, Behind them the Marsigni, Osi, of these, the Marsigni and Buri, in their language and manner of life, resemble the Suevi. The Gotini and Osi are proved by their respective Gallic and Pannonian tongues, as well as by the fact of their enduring tribute, tribute is imposed on them as aliens, partly by the Sarmatæ, partly by the Quadi. The Gotini, to complete their degradation, actually work iron mines, all these nations occupy but little of the plain country, dwelling in forests and on mountain-tops. These Gotini, or Cotini, are mentioned in other Roman sources. In the 2nd century AD, Marcus Aurelius fought them in the Marcomannic Wars, the troubles began in late 166 when the Langobardi and Obii crossed the Danube into Roman Moesia.
They must have done so with the consent of the Quadi, the Quadi wished to avoid trouble themselves by allowing these tribes to pass through into Roman territory. After initial Roman losses, the Marcomanni were defeated in 171, but in 172, he launched a major attack into the territory of the Marcomanni, and turned on the Quadi, who had been aiding Marcomanni refugees. In a major battle in that year, his troops were almost defeated, the Quadi were ultimately eliminated as a direct threat in 174. Marcus planned counteroffensive across the Danube was prevented in 175, though Marcus Aurelius successfully suppressed the revolt, it was not until 178 that he was able to pursue the Quadi over the Danube into Bohemia. He executed a successful and decisive battle against them in 179 at Laugaricio Trenčín - Slovakia under the command of legate and he was planning to advance the Roman border east and north to the Carpathian Mountains and Bohemia when he became ill and died in 180
Damnatio memoriae is the Latin phrase literally meaning condemnation of memory, meaning that a person must not be remembered. It was a form of dishonor that could be passed by the Roman Senate on traitors or others who brought discredit to the Roman State, the intent was to erase the malefactor from history, a task somewhat easier in ancient times, when documentation was limited. Damnatio Memoriae was originally created by the Romans, who viewed it as a punishment worse than death itself, felons would literally be erased from history for the crimes they had committed. In a city that stressed social appearance and the pride of being a true Roman as a requirement of the citizen. In Latin, the term damnatio memoriae was not used by the ancient Romans, the first appearance of the phrase is in a dissertation written in Germany in 1689. The term is used in scholarship to cover a wide array of official and unofficial sanctions whereby the physical remnants of a deceased individual were destroyed to differing degrees.
In ancient Rome, the practice of damnatio memoriae was the condemnation of Roman elites, if the senate or a emperor did not like the acts of an individual, they could have his property seized, his name erased and his statues reworked. Historians sometimes use the de facto damnatio memoriae when the condemnation is not official. Among those few who suffered damnatio memoriae were Sejanus, who had conspired against emperor Tiberius in 31 CE, and Livilla. Elagabalus, a Third Century C. E. emperor who was deposed, is another. It was difficult, however, to implement the practice completely, for instance, the senate wanted to condemn the memory of Caligula, but Claudius prevented this. Nero was declared an enemy of the state by the senate, while statues of some emperors were destroyed or reworked after their death, others were erected. Also, historians often wrote about the deposed emperors, many coins with the images of the discredited person continued to circulate. A particularly large number exist with Getas image, according to the biblical story, when the ancient Israelites entered the land of Canaan, they were ordered to destroy several pagan tribes and their property.
The tribe of Amalek was specifically singled out for destruction, yahweh would completely blot out the name of Amalek from under heaven. To this day, the Hebrew Bible is the ancient source that attests the existence of the Amalekites. In ancient Greece, Herostratus set fire to the Temple of Artemis in Ephesus to become famous, to discourage such acts, Ephesus leaders decided that his name should never be repeated again, under penalty of death. This attempt was unsuccessful, however, as illustrated by the fact that his name is still known today
Marcus Aurelius Sabinus Julianus was a Roman usurper against Emperor Carinus or Maximian. It is possible that up to four usurpers with a similar name rebelled in a time-frame of a decade, Julianus was a corrector in northern Italy, in 283/284. Soon after the news of the death of Emperor Carus or Numerian arrived in the western provinces and he issued coins from Siscia, some of them bearing a legend celebrating Pannonia. Emperor Carinus, brother of Numerian, who had marched from Roman Britain to deal with the usurpation, defeated, another usurper, simply named Julianus, raised some turmoil in Africa Province, against Carinus, with the support of the Quinquegentani tribe. A third Julianus is mentioned revolting between the time Maximian had been raised to the rank of Augustus and the time Constantius Chlorus and Galerius became Caesar. The revolt of this Julianus took place in Italy, but ended when, during a siege, a breach was opened in the walls of his city, and he threw himself in the fire.
Aurelius Victor, Epitome de Caesaribus,38.6,39. 3-4 Aurelius Victor, the prosopography of the Roman Empire
Pannonia was an ancient province of the Roman Empire bounded north and east by the Danube, coterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia. Julius Pokorny believes the name Pannonia is derived from Illyrian, from the Proto-Indo-European root *pen-, water, the Ionian Danube fleet reached as far as Boio-Aria, populated until the late 8th century CE by Celts and Slavs under Aryan rulers. Pliny the Elder, in Natural History, places the eastern regions of the Hercynium jugum and he gives us some dramaticised description of its composition, in which the close proximity of the forest trees causes competitive struggle among them. But even he—if the passage in question is not an interpolated marginal gloss—is subject to the legends of the gloomy forest and he mentions unusual birds, which have feathers that shine like fires at night. Medieval bestiaries named these birds the Ercinee, the first inhabitants of this area known to history were the Pannonii, a group of Indo-European tribes akin to Illyrians.
From the 4th century BC, it was invaded by various Celtic tribes, little is heard of Pannonia until 35 BC, when its inhabitants, allies of the Dalmatians, were attacked by Augustus, who conquered and occupied Siscia. The country was not, definitively subdued by the Romans until 9 BC, when it was incorporated into Illyricum, the frontier of which was thus extended as far as the Danube. After the rebellion was crushed in AD9, the province of Illyricum was dissolved, the date of the division is unknown, most certainly after AD20 but before AD50. The proximity of dangerous barbarian tribes necessitated the presence of a number of troops. Some time between the years 102 and 107, between the first and second Dacian wars, Trajan divided the province into Pannonia Superior, and Pannonia Inferior. According to Ptolemy, these divisions were separated by a line drawn from Arrabona in the north to Servitium in the south, the whole country was sometimes called the Pannonias. Pannonia Superior was under the legate, who had formerly administered the single province.
Pannonia Inferior was at first under a praetorian legate with a single legion as the garrison, after Marcus Aurelius, it was under a consular legate, the frontier on the Danube was protected by the establishment of the two colonies Aelia Mursia and Aelia Aquincum by Hadrian. In the 4th-5th century, one of the dioceses of the Roman Empire was known as the Diocese of Pannonia. It had its capital in Sirmium and included all four provinces that were formed from historical Pannonia, as well as the provinces of Dalmatia, following the Migrations Period in the middle of the 5th century, Pannonia was ceded to the Huns by Theodosius II. After the collapse of the Hunnic empire in 454, large numbers of Ostrogoths were settled by Emperor Marcian in the province as foederati, afterwards, it was again invaded by the Avars in the 560s, the Slavs, who first settled c. This language and the culture became extinct with the arrival of the Magyars. The native settlements consisted of pagi containing a number of vici, the cities and towns in Pannonia were, The country was fairly productive, especially after the great forests had been cleared by Probus and Galerius
Classical Latin is the modern term used to describe the form of the Latin language recognized as standard by writers of the late Roman Republic and the Roman Empire. In some periods, it was regarded as good Latin, the word Latin is now taken by default as meaning Classical Latin, so that, for example, modern Latin textbooks describe classical Latin. Latinitas was spoken as well as written, moreover, it was the language taught by the schools. Prescriptive rules therefore applied to it, and where a subject was concerned, such as poetry or rhetoric. No authors are noted for the type of rigidity evidenced by stylized art, except possibly the repetitious abbreviations, good Latin in philology is classical Latin literature. The term classicus was devised by the Romans themselves to translate Greek ἐγκριθέντες, before then, classis, in addition to being a naval fleet, was a social class in one of the diachronic divisions of Roman society according to property ownership by the Roman constitution. The word is a transliteration of Greek κλῆσις calling, used to rank army draftees by property from first to fifth class, classicus is anything primae classis, first class, such as the authors of the polished works of Latinitas, or sermo urbanus.
It had nuances of the certified and the authentic, testis classicus and it was in this sense that Marcus Cornelius Fronto in the 2nd century AD used scriptores classici, first-class or reliable authors whose works could be relied upon as model of good Latin. This is the first known reference, possibly innovated at this time, aulus Gellius includes many authors, such as Plautus, who are currently considered writers of Old Latin and not strictly in the period of classical Latin. The classical Romans distinguished Old Latin as prisca Latinitas and not sermo vulgaris, each author in the Roman lists was considered equivalent to one in the Greek, for example Ennius was the Latin Homer, the Aeneid was a new Iliad, and so on. The lists of authors were as far as the Roman grammarians went in developing a philology. The Renaissance brought a revival of interest in restoring as much of Roman culture as could be restored and with it the return of the concept of classic, the best. Thomas Sébillet in 1548 referred to les bons et classiques poètes françois, meaning Jean de Meun and Alain Chartier, according to Merriam Websters Collegiate Dictionary, the term classical, from classicus, entered modern English in 1599, some 50 years after its re-introduction on the continent.
In 1715 Laurence Echards Classical Geographical Dictionary was published, in 1736 Robert Ainsworths Thesaurus Linguae Latinae Compendarius turned English words and expressions into proper and classical Latin. In 1768 David Ruhnken recast the mold of the view of the classical by applying the word canon to the pinakes of orators, Ruhnken had a kind of secular catechism in mind. The practice and Teuffels classification, with modifications, are still in use and his work was translated into English as soon as published in German by Wilhelm Wagner, who corresponded with Teuffel. Wagner published the English translation in 1873, Teuffel divides the chronology of classical Latin authors into several periods according to political events, rather than by style. Regarding the style of the literary Latin of those periods he had, Teuffel was to go on with other editions of his history, but meanwhile it had come out in English almost as soon as it did in German and found immediate favorable reception
Praetorian prefect was the title of a high office in the Roman Empire. Originating as the commander of the Praetorian Guard, the office gradually acquired extensive legal and administrative functions, the prefects again functioned as the chief ministers of the state, with many laws addressed to them by name. The last traces of the disappeared in the Byzantine Empire by the 840s. The term praefectus praetorio was often abbreviated in inscriptions as PR PR or PPO, under the empire the praetorians or imperial guards were commanded by one, two, or even three praefects, who were chosen by the emperor from among the equites and held office at his pleasure. From the time of Alexander Severus the post was open to senators also, in course of time the command seems to have been enlarged so as to include all the troops in Italy except the corps commanded by the city praefect. The special position of the praetorians made them a power in their own right in the Roman state, and their prefect, the emperors tried to flatter and control the praetorians, but they staged many coups détat and contributed to a rapid rate of turnover in the imperial succession.
The praetorians thus came to destabilize the Roman state, contrary to their purpose, Diocletian greatly reduced the power of these prefects as part of his sweeping reform of the empires administrative and military structures. In addition to his functions, the praetorian prefect came to acquire jurisdiction over criminal affairs. It was decreed by Constantine in 331 that from the sentence of the praetorian praefect there should be no appeal, a similar jurisdiction in civil cases was acquired by him not than the time of Septimius Severus. Each praetorian prefect oversaw one of the four created by Diocletian. Under Constantine I, the institution of the magister militum deprived the praetorian prefecture altogether of its military character but left it the highest civil office of the empire. The following is a list of all prefects of the Praetorian Guard. The list is presumed to be due to the lack of sources documenting the exact number of persons who held the post, what their names were. Overlapping terms on the list indicate dual command, the praetorian guard in the political and social life of Julio-Claudian Rome.
The Pretorian Prefect from Commodus to Diocletian, Illinois, University of Chicago Press. Miller, M. C. J. Abbreviations in Latin, Guard Prefects of Trajan and Hadrian. The Journal of Roman Studies, Vol.70
Western Roman Empire
Theodosius I divided the Empire upon his death between his two sons. As the Roman Republic expanded, it reached a point where the government in Rome could not effectively rule the distant provinces. Communications and transportation were especially problematic given the vast extent of the Empire, for this reason, provincial governors had de facto rule in the name of the Roman Republic. Antony received the provinces in the East, Achaea and Epirus, Bithynia and Asia, Syria and these lands had previously been conquered by Alexander the Great, much of the aristocracy was of Greek origin. The whole region, especially the cities, had been largely assimilated into Greek culture. Octavian obtained the Roman provinces of the West, Gaul, Gallia Belgica and these lands included Greek and Carthaginian colonies in the coastal areas, though Celtic tribes such as Gauls and Celtiberians were culturally dominant. Lepidus received the province of Africa. Octavian soon took Africa from Lepidus, while adding Sicilia to his holdings, upon the defeat of Mark Antony, a victorious Octavian controlled a united Roman Empire.
While the Roman Empire featured many distinct cultures, all were often said to experience gradual Romanization, minor rebellions and uprisings were fairly common events throughout the Empire. Conquered tribes or cities would revolt, and the legions would be detached to crush the rebellion, while this process was simple in peacetime, it could be considerably more complicated in wartime, as for example in the Great Jewish Revolt. In a full-blown military campaign, the legions, under such as Vespasian, were far more numerous. To ensure a commanders loyalty, an emperor might hold some members of the generals family hostage. To this end, Nero effectively held Domitian and Quintus Petillius Cerialis, governor of Ostia, the rule of Nero ended only with the revolt of the Praetorian Guard, who had been bribed in the name of Galba. The Praetorian Guard, a sword of Damocles, were often perceived as being of dubious loyalty. Following their example, the legions at the increased participation in the civil wars.
The main enemy in the West was arguably the Germanic tribes behind the rivers Rhine, Augustus had tried to conquer them but ultimately pulled back after the Teutoburg reversal. The Parthian Empire, in the East, on the hand, was too remote. Those distant territories were forsaken to prevent unrest and to ensure a more healthy, the Parthians were followed by the Sasanian Empire, which continued hostilities with the Roman Empire
It covered an area of 190,800 sq mi. According to the testimony of Julius Caesar, Gaul was divided into three parts, Gallia Celtica and Aquitania, during the 2nd and 1st centuries BC, Gaul fell under Roman rule, Gallia Cisalpina was conquered in 203 BC and Gallia Narbonensis in 123 BC. Gaul was invaded after 120 BC by the Cimbri and the Teutons, Gallia remains a name of France in modern Greek and modern Latin. The Greek and Latin names Galatia, and Gallia are ultimately derived from a Celtic ethnic term or clan Gal-to-. Galli of Gallia Celtica were reported to refer to themselves as Celtae by Caesar. Hellenistic folk etymology connected the name of the Galatians to the supposedly milk-white skin of the Gauls, modern researchers say it is related to Welsh gallu, Cornish galloes, power, thus meaning powerful people. The English Gaul is from French Gaule and is unrelated to Latin Gallia, as adjectives, English has the two variants and Gallic. The two adjectives are used synonymously, as pertaining to Gaul or the Gauls, although the Celtic language or languages spoken in Gaul is predominantly known as Gaulish.
The Germanic w- is regularly rendered as gu- / g- in French, unrelated in spite of superficial similarity is the name Gael. The Irish word gall did originally mean a Gaul, i. e. an inhabitant of Gaul, but its meaning was widened to foreigner, to describe the Vikings, and still the Normans. The dichotomic words gael and gall are sometimes used together for contrast, by 500 BC, there is strong Hallstatt influence throughout most of France. By the late 5th century BC, La Tène influence spreads rapidly across the territory of Gaul. The La Tène culture developed and flourished during the late Iron Age in France, Italy, southwest Germany, Moravia, farther north extended the contemporary pre-Roman Iron Age culture of northern Germany and Scandinavia. By the 2nd century BC, the Romans described Gallia Transalpina as distinct from Gallia Cisalpina, while some scholars believe the Belgae south of the Somme were a mixture of Celtic and Germanic elements, their ethnic affiliations have not been definitively resolved.
One of the reasons is political interference upon the French historical interpretation during the 19th century, in addition to the Gauls, there were other peoples living in Gaul, such as the Greeks and Phoenicians who had established outposts such as Massilia along the Mediterranean coast. Also, along the southeastern Mediterranean coast, the Ligures had merged with the Celts to form a Celto-Ligurian culture, the prosperity of Mediterranean Gaul encouraged Rome to respond to pleas for assistance from the inhabitants of Massilia, who were under attack by a coalition of Ligures and Gauls. The Romans intervened in Gaul in 154 BC and again in 125 BC, whereas on the first occasion they came and went, on the second they stayed. Massilia was allowed to keep its lands, but Rome added to its territories the lands of the conquered tribes. The direct result of conquests was that by now, Rome controlled an area extending from the Pyrenees to the lower Rhône river