Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, with about 6,700 undergraduate students and about 15,250 postgraduate students. Established in 1636 and named for its first benefactor, clergyman John Harvard, Harvard is the United States' oldest institution of higher learning, its history and wealth have made it one of the world's most prestigious universities; the Harvard Corporation is its first chartered corporation. Although never formally affiliated with any denomination, the early College trained Congregational and Unitarian clergy, its curriculum and student body were secularized during the 18th century, by the 19th century, Harvard had emerged as the central cultural establishment among Boston elites. Following the American Civil War, President Charles W. Eliot's long tenure transformed the college and affiliated professional schools into a modern research university. A. Lawrence Lowell, who followed Eliot, further reformed the undergraduate curriculum and undertook aggressive expansion of Harvard's land holdings and physical plant.
James Bryant Conant led the university through the Great Depression and World War II and began to reform the curriculum and liberalize admissions after the war. The undergraduate college became coeducational after its 1977 merger with Radcliffe College; the university is organized into eleven separate academic units—ten faculties and the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study—with campuses throughout the Boston metropolitan area: its 209-acre main campus is centered on Harvard Yard in Cambridge 3 miles northwest of Boston. Harvard's endowment is worth $39.2 billion, making it the largest of any academic institution. Harvard is a large residential research university; the nominal cost of attendance is high, but the university's large endowment allows it to offer generous financial aid packages. The Harvard Library is the world's largest academic and private library system, comprising 79 individual libraries holding over 18 million items; the University is cited as one of the world's top tertiary institutions by various organizations.
Harvard's alumni include eight U. S. presidents, more than thirty foreign heads of state, 62 living billionaires, 359 Rhodes Scholars, 242 Marshall Scholars. As of October 2018, 158 Nobel laureates, 18 Fields Medalists, 14 Turing Award winners have been affiliated as students, faculty, or researchers. In addition, Harvard students and alumni have won 10 Academy Awards, 48 Pulitzer Prizes and 108 Olympic medals, have founded a large number of companies worldwide. Harvard was established in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1638, it acquired British North America's first known printing press. In 1639, it was named Harvard College after deceased clergyman John Harvard, an alumnus of the University of Cambridge, who had left the school £779 and his scholar's library of some 400 volumes; the charter creating the Harvard Corporation was granted in 1650. A 1643 publication gave the school's purpose as "to advance learning and perpetuate it to posterity, dreading to leave an illiterate ministry to the churches when our present ministers shall lie in the dust".
It offered a classic curriculum on the English university model—many leaders in the colony had attended the University of Cambridge—but conformed to the tenets of Puritanism. It was never affiliated with any particular denomination, but many of its earliest graduates went on to become clergymen in Congregational and Unitarian churches; the leading Boston divine Increase Mather served as president from 1685 to 1701. In 1708, John Leverett became the first president, not a clergyman, marking a turning of the college from Puritanism and toward intellectual independence. Throughout the 18th century, Enlightenment ideas of the power of reason and free will became widespread among Congregational ministers, putting those ministers and their congregations in tension with more traditionalist, Calvinist parties; when the Hollis Professor of Divinity David Tappan died in 1803 and the president of Harvard Joseph Willard died a year in 1804, a struggle broke out over their replacements. Henry Ware was elected to the chair in 1805, the liberal Samuel Webber was appointed to the presidency of Harvard two years which signaled the changing of the tide from the dominance of traditional ideas at Harvard to the dominance of liberal, Arminian ideas.
In 1846, the natural history lectures of Louis Agassiz were acclaimed both in New York and on the campus at Harvard College. Agassiz's approach was distinctly idealist and posited Americans' "participation in the Divine Nature" and the possibility of understanding "intellectual existences". Agassiz's perspective on science combined observation with intuition and the assumption that a person can grasp the "divine plan" in all phenomena; when it came to explaining life-forms, Agassiz resorted to matters of shape based on a presumed archetype for his evidence. This dual view of knowledge was in concert with the teachings of Common Sense Realism derived from Scottish philosophers Thomas Reid and Dugald Stewart, whose works were part of the Harvard curriculum at the time; the popularity of Agassiz's efforts to "soar with Plato" also derived from other writings to which Harvard students
Trieste is a city and a seaport in northeastern Italy. It is situated towards the end of a narrow strip of Italian territory lying between the Adriatic Sea and Slovenia, which lies immediately south and east of the city, it is located near Croatia some further 30 kilometres south. Trieste is located at the head of the Gulf of Trieste and throughout history it has been influenced by its location at the crossroads of Latin and Germanic cultures. In 2018, it had a population of about 205,000 and it is the capital of the autonomous region Friuli-Venezia Giulia; the metropolitan population of Trieste is 410,000, with the city comprising about 240,000 inhabitants. Trieste was one of the oldest parts of the Habsburg Monarchy, belonging to it from 1382 until 1918. In the 19th century the monarchy was one of the Great Powers of Europe and Trieste was its most important seaport; as a prosperous seaport in the Mediterranean region, Trieste became the fourth largest city of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. In the fin de siècle period at the end of the 19th century it emerged as an important hub for literature and music.
Trieste underwent an economic revival during the 1930s, Trieste was an important spot in the struggle between the Eastern and Western blocs after the Second World War. The original pre-Roman name of the city, with the -est- suffix typical of Illyrian, is speculated to be derived from a hypothetical Venetic word *terg- "market", etymologically related to Old Church Slavonic tьrgъ "market". Roman authors transliterated the name as Tergestum. Modern names of the city include: Italian: Trieste, Slovene: Trst, German: Triest, Hungarian: Trieszt, Croatian: Trst, Serbian: Трст/Trst, Greek: Τεργέστη/Tergesti and Czech: Terst. Trieste lies in the northernmost part of the high Adriatic in northeastern Italy, near the border with Slovenia; the city lies on the Gulf of Trieste. Built on a hillside that becomes a mountain, Trieste's urban territory lies at the foot of an imposing escarpment that comes down abruptly from the Karst Plateau towards the sea; the karst landforms close to the city reach an elevation of 458 metres above sea level.
It lies on the borders of the Italian geographical region, the Balkan Peninsula, the Mitteleuropa. The territory of Trieste is composed of several different climate zones depending on the distance from the sea and elevation; the average temperatures are 24.1 °C in July. The climatic setting of the city is humid subtropical climate. On average, humidity levels are pleasantly low, while only two months receive less than 60 mm of precipitation. Trieste along with the Istrian peninsula has evenly distributed rainfall above 1,000 mm in total. Snow occurs on average 0 – 2 days per year. Temperatures are mild—lows below zero are somewhat rare and highs above 30 °C aren't as common as in other parts of Italy. Winter maxima are lower than with quite high minima. Two basic weather patterns interchange—sunny, sometimes windy but very cold days connected to an occurrence of northeast wind called Bora as well as rainy days with temperatures about 6 to 11 °C. Summer is warm with maxima about 28 °C and lows above 20 °C, with the hot nights being influenced by the warm sea water.
The absolute maximum of the last 30 years is 38.0 °C in 2003, whereas the absolute minimum is −7.9 °C in 1996. The Trieste area is divided into 8a–10a zones according to USDA hardiness zoning; the climate can be affected by the Bora, a dry and cool north-to-northeast katabatic wind that can last for some days and reach speeds of up to 140 km/h on the piers of the port, thus sometimes bringing subzero temperatures to the entire city. Trieste is administratively divided in seven districts: Altipiano Ovest: Borgo San Nazario · Contovello · Prosecco · Santa Croce Altipiano Est: Banne · Basovizza · Gropada · Opicina · Padriciano · Trebiciano Barcola · Cologna · Conconello · Gretta · Grignano · Guardiella · Miramare · Roiano · Scorcola Barriera Nuova · Borgo Giuseppino · Borgo Teresiano · Città Nuova · Città Vecchia · San Vito · San Giusto · Campi Elisi · Sant'Andrea · Cavana Barriera Vecchia · San Giacomo · Santa Maria Maddalena Superiore Cattinara · Chiadino · San Luigi · Guardiella · Longera · San Giovanni · Rozzol · Melara Chiarbola · Coloncovez · Santa Maria Maddalena Inferiore · Raute · Santa Maria Maddalena Superiore · Servola · Poggi Paese · Poggi Sant'Anna · Valmaura · Altura · Borgo San SergioThe iconic city center is Piazza Unità d'Italia, between the large 19th-century avenues and the old medieval city, composed of many narrow and crooked streets.
Since the second millennium BC, the location was an inhabited site. An Illy
Phyllis McAlpin Schlafly was an American constitutional lawyer, movement conservative, conservative. She held staunchly conservative social and political views, supported antifeminism, opposed abortion, campaigned against ratification of the Equal Rights Amendment to the U. S. Constitution, her book, A Choice Not an Echo, a polemic against Republican leader Nelson Rockefeller, sold more than three million copies. Schlafly co-authored books on national defense and was critical of arms control agreements with the Soviet Union. In 1972, Schlafly founded the Eagle Forum, a conservative political interest group, remained its chairwoman and CEO until her death in 2016. Schlafly was born Phyllis McAlpin Stewart, born and raised in St. Louis. During the Great Depression, Schlafly's father faced long-term unemployment, her mother entered the labor market. Mrs. Stewart maintained Phyllis in a Catholic girls' school. Schlafly's mother, Odile Stewart, was the daughter of attorney Ernest C. Dodge. Phyllis's sole sibling was Odile Stewart.
Phyllis attended graduate school. Before her marriage, she worked as a teacher at a private girls' school in St. Louis. During the Depression, Schlafly's mother went back to work as a librarian and a school teacher to support her family. Schlafly's great-grandfather Stewart, a Presbyterian, emigrated from Scotland to New York in 1851 and moved westward through Canada before settling in Michigan, her grandfather, Andrew F. Stewart, was a master mechanic with the Ohio Railway. Schlafly's father, John Bruce Stewart, was a machinist and salesman of industrial equipment, principally for Westinghouse, he became unemployed in 1932 during the Great Depression and could not find permanent work until World War II. He was granted a patent in 1944 for a rotary engine. Schlafly worked as a model for a time. In 1944, she graduated Phi Beta Kappa with a Bachelor of Arts degree from Washington University in St. Louis. In 1945, she received a Master of Arts degree in government from Radcliffe College. In Strike From Space, Schlafly notes that during World War II, she worked as "a ballistics gunner and technician at the largest ammunition plant in the world".
She earned a Juris Doctor degree from the Washington University in St. Louis School of Law in 1978. In 1946, Schlafly became a researcher for the American Enterprise Institute and worked in the successful United States House of Representatives campaign of Republican Claude I. Bakewell, she played a major role with her husband in 1957 in writing a influential report, the "American Bar Association's Report on Communist Tactics and Objectives." Critchlow says it, "became not only one of the most read documents produced by the ABA, it was the single most read publication of the grassroots anticommunist movement."In 1952, Schlafly ran for Congress as a Republican in the majority Democratic 24th congressional district of Illinois and lost to Charles Melvin Price. Schlafly's campaign was low-budget and promoted through the local print media, local entrepreneurs John M. Olin, Spencer Olin, Texas oil billionaire H. L. Hunt, she attended her first Republican National Convention in 1952, continued to attend each following convention.
As part of the Illinois delegation of the 1952 Republican convention, Schlafly endorsed U. S. Senator Robert A. Taft to be the party nominee for the presidential election. At the 1960 Republican National Convention, Schlafly helped lead a revolt of "moral conservatives" who opposed Richard Nixon's stance "against segregation and discrimination."She came to national attention when millions of copies of her self-published book, A Choice Not an Echo, were distributed in support of Barry Goldwater's 1964 presidential campaign in California's hotly fought winner-take-all-delegates GOP primary. In it, Schlafly denounced the Rockefeller Republicans in the Northeast, accusing them of corruption and globalism. Critics called the book a conspiracy theory about "secret kingmakers" controlling the Republican Party. In 1967, Schlafly lost a bid for the presidency of the National Federation of Republican Women against the more moderate candidate Gladys O'Donnell of California. Outgoing NFRW president and future United States Treasurer Dorothy Elston of Delaware worked against Schlafly in the campaign.
Schlafly joined the John Birch Society, but quit because she thought that the main communist threats to the nation were external rather than internal. In 1970, she ran unsuccessfully for a House of Representatives seat in Illinois against Democratic incumbent George E. Shipley. American Feminists made their greatest bid for national attention at the 1977 National Women's Conference in Houston. At their rally they announced the beginning of a pro-family movement, to fight against politicians, supporting feminism and liberalism, to promote "family values" in American politics, so moved the Republican Party to the right and defeated the ratification of the ERA. Schlafly became an outspoken opponent of the Equal Rights Amendment during the 1970s as the organizer of the "STOP ERA" campaign. STOP was an acronym for "Stop Taking Our Privileges", she argued that the ERA would take away gender-specific privileges e
First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague
The First Faculty of Medicine of Charles University is one of five medical faculties of Charles University, Czech Republic. Founded in 1348 at the same time as the university itself, it is the oldest medical faculty in Central Europe and the 11th oldest medical institution in the world. Situated in the centre of Prague, the faculty provides education in all fields of general medicine, it is ranked in the top 1% of medical faculties globally. It is one of the five medical faculties of Charles University, alongside the Second and Third Faculties, both in Prague, faculties in Plzen and Hradec Kralove. Charles University was established in 1348 and a medieval faculty of medicine was one of the four founding faculties. In 1882, as part of the division of the university during the Austro-Hungarian Empire, a separate German faculty was founded; the two parallel faculties, one German and one Czech, remained until the foundation of the independent state of Czechoslovakia in 1918, when the German faculty was disbanded.
In 1953 the former Faculty of Medicine in Prague was divided into three medical faculties: the Faculty of General Medicine, the Faculty of Pediatric Medicine, the Faculty of Hygiene. Following the Velvet Revolution, these three faculties evolved into the First and Third Faculty of Medicine, respectively. Admission to the faculty is based on performance in high school, English proficiency and performance in entrance exams. Entrance examinations are conducted at the university and by some representative offices abroad, are considered to be among the hardest university entrance exams in Europe. After the entrance exams, interviews are conducted with successful candidates. Most of the international students studying medicine at the institute originate from USA, Canada, UK, Sweden, Israel, Malaysia and the Middle East. Around 3400 students are enrolled in the First Faculty of Medicine. Most teaching facilities are located in the centre of Prague, near Charles Square, I. P. Pavlova and Albertov; the majority of clinical instruction takes place at the General University Hospital in Prague, other teaching hospitals include the Military University Hospital in Prague, Thomayer Teaching Hospital, Bulovka Hospital and Motol University Hospital.
The faculty runs bachelor's and master's degree programmes, several Ph. D. study programmes. The two main study programmes at the faculty are General Medicine and Dentistry, taught either in English or Czech; the Medicine program lasts for 6 years, Dentistry for 5 years. The teaching staff consists of around 110 professors, 150 associate professors and around 700 assistant professors. Alongside teaching, the faculty is a research institution; the faculty is ranked in the top 250, out of 17000 institutions in the world. It is ranked #219 in the world. List of medical schools in Europe Medical school#Czech Republic
Most (Most District)
Most is the capital city of the Most District, situated between the Central Bohemian Uplands and the Ore Mountains 77 km northwest of Prague along the Bílina River and southwest of Ústí nad Labem. The name Most means "bridge" in Czech; the town, named after the system of bridges that crossed the swamps in this area in the 10th century, is now known for its heavy industry. The German name for Most is Brüx. Most lies at the heart of the northern Bohemian lignite-mining region and serves as an important industrial railway junction. During the latter half of the 20th century, Most was considered to be one of the most polluted Coal mining towns in communist Czechoslovakia. Most's other industries includes textile, ceramics and chemicals. Foreign mining operations continue to operate in the area in the 21st century; some surrounding villages are planned to be abandoned due to surface mining. However environmental conditions have improved in recent years around Most, in particular the growing of apples and grape vines has developed.
The Latin Chronica Boemorum mentions a Slavic settlement below the Gnevin Castle called Gnevin Pons in 1040. Through the swamps there led a merchant route from Prague to Freiberg; the network of wooden bridges was built to provide comfortable passages through this territory. Hneva from the Hrabišic dynasty established a military stronghold to protect caravans. Under this stronghold, the village that would become Most developed. In 1227 Kojata, the last of the Hrabisics, passed his property to the cloister of the Knights of the Cross. Between 1238 - 1306 the town was part of the territory possessed by the Přemyslids and it became rich with many churches; the mid-13th century saw the beginning of substantial German immigration as King Ottokar II sought to replace losses from the Mongol invasion of eastern Europe in 1241. Germans settled throughout and along the northern and southern borders of Bohemia, although many lived in towns like Brüx, where they were the majority population, throughout the kingdom.
The Bohemian kings Otakar II, John of Luxemburg, Charles IV all granted city rights to Brüx. In 1526 Bohemia became part of the Austrian Habsburg monarchy, designated as Crown Lands and the city became head of the BRÜX district, one of the 94 Bezirkshauptmannschaften in Bohemia. Following the Austria-Hungary compromise of 1867 it remained part of Austrian Bohemia. During the 15th and 16th centuries, the city was hit by several fires. In circa 1530, city reconstruction began with the foundations of several significant facilities, including the new dean's church and the Renaissance city hall. During the Thirty Years' War, the city was occupied by Swedish troops. Both in the early years and in the last years of the war, it was captured by stratagem. In a similar manner the castle Hněvín was captured. After the Thirty Years' War, the city lost much of its political significance. In the second half of the 19th century and mining emerged, in 1870, a railway line was built. Construction included sugar works, porcelain factory, steel works and the founding of a city museum.
In 1895 the city was affected by quicksand that swallowed several houses, including some of their occupants. In 1900 the RICO plant for dressing material was constructed. In 1901, an electric tramline linked Brüx with Kopitz up to Johnsdorf; the construction 1911-1914 of a new unique dam at Kreuzweg solved the city's supply of drinking water. In 1905 Brüx had a population of 21,500 people and the most modern theatre of its time within Austria-Hungary, built in 1910 and designed by Viennese architect Alexander Graf, was opened in Brüx in 1911; the 1919 Peace Treaties that ended [ created a new State from the territories of the Czech Lands and of Slovakia. This new confederation was called Czechoslovakia, Brüx was within the borders of the new state. Under the Munich Agreement in 1938, using the census-based Volkerkarte Mitteleuropas ethnicities map of 1937, it was found that Brüx fell within the ethnic German-speaking zone which would become part of the Südetenland districts to be separated from Czechoslovakia.
On December 15, 1942, Brüx began output of Ersatz fuel synthesized from brown coal at the Sudetenländische Treibstoffwerke AG Maltheuren plant, a subcamp of Sachsenhausen provided forced labor. Stalag IV-C was at the "Sudentenland Treibstoff Werke", Brüx was bombed during the Oil Campaign of World War II. In May 1945 Brüx was restored to a reconstituted Communist Czechoslovakia. At that time and vigilante gangs proceeded to terrorise and expel the ethnic German civilian population as revenge for the atrocities of the Nazis; the city was renamed to its Czech language name of Most, a degree of resettlement by Czechs took place. In 1964, the Most Coal Company began the demolition of the historical old town of Most in order to make room for the expanding lignite mines in the area. Financed and led by the Communist government of Czechoslovakia, the company pulled down the town's historic buildings including a brewery dating from the 15th century and the 1910 theatre. New low-cost, multifamily housing projects were built.
In the summer of 1968, an American film company shot scenes for the war film The Bridge at Remagen in the town. The demolition work ended in 1970. Although the old town was flattened, the Communist authorities decided to preserve the Gothic Church of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary; the e
Bernardo Alberto Houssay was an Argentine physiologist who, in 1947, was a co-recipient of a Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of the role played by pituitary hormones in regulating the amount of blood sugar in animals. He was the first Latin American Nobel laureate in the sciences, he shared the prize with Carl Ferdinand Cori and Gerty Cori, who won for their discoveries regarding the role of glucose in carbohydrate metabolism). Bernardo Alberto Houssay was born in Buenos Aires, to émigrés from France and Clara Houssay. A precocious youngster, he was admitted to the Pharmacy School at the University of Buenos Aires at 14 years of age and subsequently to the Medical School of the same University from 1904 to 1910, beginning when he was only 17 years old. While a third year medical student, Houssay took up a post as a research and teaching assistant in the Chair of Physiology. After graduating, he developed and presented his M. D. thesis on the physiological activities of pituitary extracts, published in 1911, a theme he would pursue for the rest of his scientific career.
Since 1908 he was an assistant lecturer in the same department, after his doctorate he took up the post of Professor of Physiology in the University's School of Veterinary Medicine. He started a private practice and as assistant physician at the municipal hospital of Buenos Aires. In 1913 he became Chief Physician at the Alvear Hospital, and, in 1915, Chief of the Section of Experimental Pathology at the National Public Health Laboratories in Buenos Aires. In 1919 Houssay was appointed to the chair of physiology at the University of Buenos Aires Medicine School, until 1943, he transformed and directed it into a respected research department in experimental physiology and medicine of international class. In that year, the military dictatorship deprived him of his university posts, due to his liberal political ideas and Houssay was forced to re-establish his research lines and staff at a funded Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental; this situation, reinforced by a second dismissal by the Peronist government in 1945, was prolonged until 1955, when Peron was ousted from power and Houssay was reinstated in the University of Buenos Aires, where he remained until he died.
After this he was director of the National Scientific and Technical Research Council, from 1957 on. Houssay's worked in many fields of physiology, such as the nervous, digestive and circulatory systems, but his main contribution, recognized by the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine of 1947, was on the experimental investigation of the role of the anterior hypophysis gland in the metabolism of carbohydrates in diabetes mellitus. Houssay demonstrated in the 1930s the diabetogenic effect anterior hypophysis extracts and the decrease in diabetes severity with anterior hypophysectomy; these discoveries stimulated the study of hormonal feedback control mechanisms which are central to all aspects of modern endocrinology. Houssay's many disciples along his years of activity became influential by themselves as they spread around the world. Houssay wrote with them the most influential textbook of Human Physiology in Latin America, in Spanish and Portuguese, since 1950 has been published in successive editions and used in all medical schools of the continent.
Houssay published several specialized books. Besides the Nobel, Houssay won many distinctions and awards from the Universities of Harvard, Cambridge and Paris and 15 other universities, as well as the Dale Medal of the Society for Endocrinology in 1960. Houssay was very active as a scientific leader and promoter of the advancement of scientific research and medical education, in Argentina as well as in Latin America. Houssay was elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society in 1943. Functions of the Pituitary Gland. Boston, 1936; the Hypophysis and Secretion of Insulin. Journal of Experimental Medicine, New York, 1942, 75: 547-566. Houssay, B. A.. B.. "The Hypophysis and Secretion of Insulin". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 75: 547–66. Doi:10.1084/jem.75.5.547. PMC 2135268. PMID 19871205. Escritos y Discursos. Buenos Aires, 1942; the Role of the Hypophysis in Carbohydrate Metabolism and in Diabetes. Nobel Prize lecture, 1947. Fisiologia Humana. Buenos Aires, 1950. Official site of his life and works Bernardo Alberto Houssay.
WhoNamedIt. Bernardo Alberto Houssay Biography. Nobel Foundation. Newspaper clippings about Bernardo Houssay in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
Massachusetts General Hospital
Massachusetts General Hospital is the original and largest teaching hospital of Harvard Medical School and a biomedical research facility located in the West End neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts. It is the third oldest general hospital in the United States. With Brigham and Women's Hospital, it is one of the two founding members of Partners HealthCare, the largest healthcare provider in Massachusetts. Massachusetts General Hospital conducts the largest hospital-based research program in the world, with an annual research budget of more than $900 million, it is ranked as the #4 hospital in the United States by U. S. News & World Report. In November 2017, The Boston Globe ranked MGH 5th place of top workplaces, of Massachusetts companies with over 1,000 employees, this was up from 6th place in 2016. Founded in 1811, the original hospital was designed by the famous American architect Charles Bulfinch, it is the third-oldest general hospital in the United States. John Warren, Professor of Anatomy and Surgery at Harvard Medical School, spearheaded the move of the medical school to Boston.
Warren's son, John Collins Warren, a graduate of the University of Edinburgh Medical School, along with James Jackson, led the efforts to start the Massachusetts General Hospital, proposed in 1810 by Rev. John Bartlett, the Chaplain of the Almshouse in Boston; because all those who had sufficient money were cared for at home, Massachusetts General Hospital, like most hospitals that were founded in the 19th century, was intended to care for the poor. During the mid-to-late 19th century, Harvard Medical School was located adjacent to Massachusetts General Hospital. Walter J. Dodd established the radiology department at the hospital. From just after the discovery of x-rays in 1895, until his early death in 1916 from metastatic cancer caused by multiple radiation cancers he oversaw the radiology department, he underwent over 50 surgical procedures at the hospital to treat his radiation injuries, from skin grafts to amputations. The first American hospital social workers were based in the hospital.
The hospital's work with developing specialized computer software systems for medical use in the 1960s led to the development of the MUMPS programming language, which stands for "Massachusetts General Hospital Utility Multi-Programming System," an important programming language and data-base system used in medical applications such as patient records and billing. A major patient database system called File Manager, developed by the Veterans Administration, was created using this language. Patients, hospital staff, members of the public can learn more about the accomplishments MGH is most proud of at the Paul S. Russell, MD Museum of Medical History and Innovation, located at the front of the hospital's main campus on Cambridge Street, it was in the Ether Dome of MGH in October 1846, that a local dentist, William Thomas Green Morton, was invited to perform a public demonstration of the administration of inhaled ether to produce insensibility to pain during surgery. Several years prior, Dr. Crawford Long of Danielsville, Georgia had given ether for surgery, but his work was unknown outside Georgia until he published his experience in 1849.
On 16 October 1846, after administration of ether by Morton, MGH Chief of Surgery, John Collins Warren, painlessly removed a tumor from the neck of a local printer, Edward Gilbert Abbott. Upon completion of the procedure, without screaming or restraint, the skeptical Warren quipped, "Gentlemen, this is no humbug." News of this "anesthesia" invention traveled within months around the world. A reenactment of the Ether Dome event was painted in 2000 by Lucia Prosperi, they used the then-MGH staff to pose as their counterparts from 1846. The Ether Dome still is open to the public. An anesthesia department was established at the MGH in 1936 under the leadership of Henry Knowles Beecher. On May, 1962, under the direction of Ronald A. Malt, a team of surgeons accomplished the first replantation of severed limb. While attempting to hitch a ride on the back of a freight train, Everett Knowles hit an abutment when the train lurched, severing his arm at the shoulder, he and his arm were rushed to MGH. Some doctors prepared Everett for surgery.
First they rejoined the "chaotically mangled blood vessels the bone and the skin." In the time since the accident, the arm had grown a "deathly gray," but grew pink as the surgery progressed and blood vessels were reattached. The nerves would be reconnected in a surgery.“All we did,” said the modest Dr. Malt, “was apply techniques we’ve known about for a long time and never had occasion to correlate before…The astonishing thing was not the newness of the operation but the teamwork—the way 12 doctors with expert skills, distinguished a collection of authorities as you could find anywhere, were willing to stand by and feed the incomparable extent of their knowledge to me, for no gain other than to know they had contributed.” The main MGH campus is located at 55 Fruit Street in Massachusetts. It has expanded into an area known as the West End, adjacent to the Charles River and Beacon Hill; the hospital handles around 1.5 million outpatient visits each year at its main campus, as well as its seven satellite facilities in Boston at Back Bay, Chelsea, Revere and Danvers.
With more than 25,000 employees, the hospital is the largest non