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Gerty Cori

Gerty Theresa Cori was a Jewish Austro-Hungarian-American biochemist who in 1947 was the third woman—and first American woman—to win a Nobel Prize in science, the first woman to be awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, for her role in the discovery of glycogen metabolism. Cori was born in Prague. Gerty was not a nickname. Growing up at a time when women were marginalized in science and allowed few educational opportunities, she gained admittance to medical school, where she met her future husband Carl Ferdinand Cori in an anatomy class; because of deteriorating conditions in Europe, the couple emigrated to the United States in 1922. Gerty Cori continued her early interest in medical research, collaborating in the laboratory with Carl, she published research findings coauthored with her husband, as well as publishing singly. Unlike her husband, she had difficulty securing research positions, the ones she obtained provided meager pay, her husband insisted on continuing their collaboration, though he was discouraged from doing so by the institutions that employed him.

With her husband Carl and Argentine physiologist Bernardo Houssay, Gerty Cori received the Nobel Prize in 1947 for the discovery of the mechanism by which glycogen—a derivative of glucose—is broken down in muscle tissue into lactic acid and resynthesized in the body and stored as a source of energy. They identified the important catalyzing compound, the Cori ester. In 2004, both Gerty and Carl Cori were designated a National Historic Chemical Landmark in recognition of their work in clarifying carbohydrate metabolism. In 1957, Gerty Cori died after a ten-year struggle with myelosclerosis, she remained active in the research laboratory until the end of her life. She received recognition for her achievements through multiple honors. Gerty Cori was born Gerty Theresa Radnitz into a Jewish family in Prague in 1896, her father, Otto Radnitz, was a chemist who became manager of sugar refineries after inventing a successful method for refining sugar. Her mother, Martha, a friend of Franz Kafka, was a culturally sophisticated woman.

Gerty was tutored at home before enrolling in a lyceum for girls, at the age of 16 she decided she wanted to be a medical doctor. Pursuing the study of science, Gerty learned that she lacked the prerequisites in Latin, physics and mathematics. Over the course of a year, she managed to study the equivalent of eight years of Latin, five years of science, five years of mathematics, her uncle, a professor of pediatrics, encouraged her to attend medical school, so she studied for and passed the university entrance examination. She was admitted to the medical school of the Karl-Ferdinands-Universität in Prague in 1914, an unusual achievement for women at that time. While studying, she met Carl Cori, attracted to her charm, sense of humor, her love of the outdoors and mountain climbing. Gerty and Carl had both entered medical school at eighteen and both graduated in 1920, they married that same year. Gerty converted to Catholicism, they moved to Vienna, capital of Austria, where Gerty spent the next two years at the Carolinen Children's Hospital, her husband worked in a laboratory.

While at the hospital, Gerty Cori worked on the pediatrics unit and conducted experiments in temperature regulation, comparing temperatures before and after thyroid treatment, published papers on blood disorders. Carl was drafted into the Austrian army and served during World War I. Life was difficult after the war, Gerty suffered from xerophthalmia caused by severe malnutrition due to food shortages; these problems, in conjunction with the increasing anti-Semitism, contributed to the Coris' decision to leave Europe. In 1922, the Coris both immigrated to the United States to pursue medical research at the State Institute for the Study of Malignant Diseases in Buffalo, New York. In 1928, they became naturalized citizens; the director for the Institute threatened to dismiss Gerty if she did not cease collaborative research with her husband. She continued to work with Carl and was kept on at the Institute. Although the Coris were discouraged from working together at Roswell, they continued to do so, specializing in investigating carbohydrate metabolism.

They were interested in how glucose is metabolized in the human body and the hormones that regulate this process. They published fifty papers while at Roswell, with first author status going to the one who had done most of the research for a given paper. Gerty Cori published eleven articles as the sole author. In 1929, they proposed the theoretical cycle that won them the Nobel Prize, the Cori cycle; the cycle describes how the human body uses chemical reactions to break some carbohydrates such as glycogen in muscle tissue into lactic acid, while synthesizing others. The Coris left Roswell in 1931 after publishing their work on carbohydrate metabolism. A number of universities refused to hire Gerty. Gerty was informed during one university interview that it was considered "unamerican" for a married couple to work together. Carl refused a position at the University of Buffalo because the school would not allow him to work with his wife. In 1931, they moved to St. Louis, Missouri, as Washington University offered both Carl and Gerty positions, although Gerty's rank and salary were much lower than her husband's.

Despite her research ba

Irma S. Rombauer

Irma S. Rombauer was an American cookbook author, best known for The Joy of Cooking, one of the world's most read cookbooks. Following Irma Rombauer's death, periodic revisions of the book were carried out by her daughter, Marion Rombauer Becker, subsequently by Marion's son Ethan Becker; the Joy of Cooking remains in print, edited by members of the Rombauer–Becker family, more than 18 million copies have been sold. Irma Starkloff was born on October 30, 1877, in St. Louis, the younger of two daughters born to Max von Starkloff, a German-born physician, his second wife, Emma Kuhlmann von Starkloff, a teacher who hailed from Germany. Irma's father was active in political affairs. Upon returning to the United States, she took classes in fine arts at Washington University in St. Louis in 1897, she traveled to visit relatives in Indianapolis, where she met and was courted by the young Booth Tarkington. The family opposed the match, in 1899 Irma married Edgar Rombauer, a lawyer whose father was a St. Louis judge who had clerked for Supreme Court Justice John Harlan.

The couple's first child, was born in 1900 but died before his first birthday. The two children who followed lived to adulthood: Marion was born in 1903, Edgar Jr. was born in 1907. During the first 30 years of her marriage, Irma Rombauer busied herself with the activities of civic and cultural organizations, she took pleasure in entertaining, from simple luncheons for members of the women's associations to which she belonged to more formal dinners for civic leaders and political associates of her husband, who became Speaker of the St. Louis House of Delegates, she possessed a sparkling personality. Her biographer wrote, "No one could be long in her diminutive presence without sensing an air of concentrated intelligence, self-possession and dignity that seemed to sweep all before it—except that she knew how to soften it with disarming feminine self-deprecation and sheer fun." As a cook, she was competent, but not extraordinary, although she showed considerable skill at making and decorating cakes.

Her daughter Marion described her priorities:Mother's early housekeeping days...gave little evidence of culinary prowess... Indeed, it is an open secret that Mother, to the end of her life, regarded social intercourse as more important than food; the dinner table, in our childhood suggested a lectern rather than a buffet. What I remember better than the dishes it upheld—which, I must admit improved in quality—was the talk which went'round it, talk which burst forth out of our richly multiple interests. Through much of his adult life, Edgar Rombauer suffered periodic bouts of severe depression, he experienced one of these attacks in the winter of 1929-30 and had seemed to be recovering, but on February 3, 1930, he committed suicide, leaving his wife shattered and in dire financial straits. The Great Depression had been triggered by the stock market crash just three months earlier, Irma was 52 years old, had no job, had savings amounting only to $6,000, her son Put had moved to Florida, Marion was planning to be married and would soon leave home.

It was clear that Irma would need to find something to provide an income. Her solution was characteristically bold. To the bewilderment of many who knew her, she announced; the earliest origins of the material in The Joy of Cooking are unclear. Marion considered that it evolved from a collection of recipes used by her mother as part of a cooking course for the First Unitarian Women's Alliance but research raises questions about Marion's recollection, with no indication that the mimeographs of the Women's Alliance recipes pre-dated the first edition of Joy, it is certain that Irma solicited from numerous friends and family members many of the recipes that she assembled under the title The Joy of Cooking: A Compilation of Reliable Recipes, with a Casual Culinary Chat. Marion designed a cover and provided silhouette chapter headings, 3000 copies of the book were printed by the A. C. Clayton Company, a commercial printer of labels and packaging materials which had never before printed a book; the Saint Louis Post Dispatch covered the book's 1931 launch with an enthusiastic feature article in which the reviewer remarked, "It does not insult my intelligence."

With help from Marion, Irma sold copies and had copies placed in bookstores and gift shops throughout St. Louis and as far away as Michigan and Chicago, by the summer of 1932 two-thirds of the original 3000 copies had been sold, it was the "casual culinary chat". Irma added to the basic recipes bits of humor, friendly advice and homely anecdotes, projecting into the pages the same effervescent personality that had made her so successful as a hostess. A cookbook author, Molly Finn, summed it up in these words:The best thing about The Joy of Cooking, however, is the voice of its author, Irma Rombauer, she engages in a constant dialogue with her readers, telling stories about herself and her family, sprinkling the text with genuine witticisms and excruciatingly corny puns, making sure everybody knows that cooking is not an occult science or esoteric art, but part of the everyday work of the vast majority of women that can be turned into fun with her help. The success of the initial Joy encouraged Irma to seek an established publisher for an expanded e

Conformal antenna

In radio communication and avionics a conformal antenna or conformal array is a flat radio antenna, designed to conform or follow some prescribed shape, for example a flat curving antenna, mounted on or embedded in a curved surface. Conformal antennas were developed in the 1980s as avionics antennas integrated into the curving skin of military aircraft to reduce aerodynamic drag, replacing conventional antenna designs which project from the aircraft surface. Military aircraft and missiles are the largest application of conformal antennas, but they are used in some civilian aircraft, military ships and land vehicles; as the cost of the required processing technology comes down, they are being considered for use in civilian applications such as train antennas, car radio antennas, cellular base station antennas, to save space and to make the antenna less visually intrusive by integrating it into existing objects. Conformal antennas are a form of phased array antenna, they are composed of an array of many identical small flat antenna elements, such as dipole, horn, or patch antennas, covering the surface.

At each antenna the current from the transmitter passes through a phase shifter device which are all controlled by a microprocessor. By controlling the phase of the feed current, the nondirectional radio waves emitted by the individual antennas can be made to combine in front of the antenna by the process of interference, forming a strong beam of radio waves pointed in any desired direction. In a receiving antenna the weak individual radio signals received by each antenna element are combined in the correct phase to enhance signals coming from a particular direction, so the antenna can be made sensitive to the signal from a particular station and reject interfering signals from other directions. In a conventional phased array the individual antenna elements are mounted on a flat surface. In a conformal antenna, they are mounted on a curved surface, the phase shifters compensate for the different phase shifts caused by the varying path lengths of the radio waves due to the location of the individual antennas on the curved surface.

Because the individual antenna elements must be small, conformal arrays are limited to high frequencies in the UHF or microwave range, where the wavelength of the waves is small enough that small antennas can be used