Carleton University is a public comprehensive university in Ottawa, Canada. Founded in 1942 as Carleton College, a private, non-denominational evening college to serve veterans returning from World War II, the institution was chartered as a university by the provincial government in 1952 through The Carleton University Act; the legislation was subsequently amended in 1957 to give the institution its current name. The university moved to its current campus in 1959, expanding throughout the 1960s amid broader efforts by the provincial government to increase support to post-secondary institutions and enhance access to higher education; the university is named for the now-dissolved Carleton County, which included the city of Ottawa at the time the university was founded. Carleton County, in turn, was named in honour of Guy Carleton, 1st Baron Dorchester, who served as Governor General of The Canadas from 1786 to 1796. Carleton, which has more than 159,000 alumni worldwide, is reputed for its strength in many disciplines including the humanities, international business, aerospace engineering, computer science, international affairs, political science, political management, public policy and administration, legal studies.
Carleton has produced 6 Rhodes Scholars, 29 Royal Society Fellows, 20 recipients of the Order of Canada, 8 Banting Postdoctoral Fellowship awardees, 3 National Killam Award recipients. As of 2019, Carleton has an enrolment of more than 27,000 undergraduate and more than 4,000 graduate students, its campus is located west of Old Ottawa South, in close proximity to The Glebe and Confederation Heights, is bounded to the north by the Rideau Canal and Dow's Lake and to the south by the Rideau River. Carleton competes in the U Sports league as the Carleton Ravens; the Carleton Ravens are recognized for the strong performance of its men's basketball team, which has won seven consecutive Canadian national championships between 2006 and 2017, in addition to 14 of the 16 championships since 2003. I learned early the life lesson that it is people, not buildings, that make up an institution, and if we put our hearts to it we can do something worthwhile. – Henry Marshall Tory Initial discussions on establishing a second institution of higher learning in Ottawa began in the fall of 1938 among a committee of members from the local YMCA chapter, intent on creating facilities to serve the educational needs of Ottawa's sizeable non-Catholic population.
While the outbreak of the Second World War disrupted the committee's activities, a new committee, under the leadership of Henry Marshall Tory, was reorganized into the Ottawa Association for the Advancement of Learning through a meeting held in December 1941, formalized in June 1942. Established in 1942 as Carleton College, a non-denominational institution, the school began offering evening courses in rented classrooms at the High School of Commerce, now part of the Glebe Collegiate Institute. Classes offered during the first academic year included English, history, trigonometry, chemistry and biology. With the end of the war in 1945, return of veterans from the frontlines, the College experienced an unexpected upsurge in student enrolment during the 1945–46 academic year, totalling 2,200 students. To accommodate the increased number of students, the school rented facilities in various locations through the city, including classrooms at the Lisgar Collegiate Institute, Ottawa Technical High School, the basements of several local churches.
Higher enrolment gave way to an expansion of the College's academic offerings with the establishment of the Faculty of Arts and Science encompassing coursework in journalism and first-year engineering. In 1946, the College gained possession of its first property, situated at the corner of Lyon Street and First Avenue in The Glebe neighbourhood; the four-story building was the former location of the Ottawa Ladies' College, purchased during the Second World War for use as barracks for the Canadian Women's Army Corps. Its first degrees were conferred in 1946 to graduates of its Journalism and Public Administration programs. For nearly a decade, the college operated on a shoestring budget, with funds raised through community initiatives and modest student fees. Student fees during the school's first academic year from 1942-43 were about $10.00 per course for first-year students, equivalent to $153.71 as of 2019. Fundraising efforts spearheaded by the College's President, Henry Marshall Tory, sought to raise $1 million for the institution from donors throughout the Ottawa area, with half of the proceeds going towards the debt incurred by the purchase of the new building, the other to endow the College.
The faculty was composed of part-time professors who worked full-time in the public service, some of whom were convinced to leave government for full-time tenure positions. However, full-time teaching staff were still young scholars at the beginning of their careers. In 1950, Carleton began the process of developing a crest and motto, as was tradition with other institutions of higher learning. James Gibson, chair of the Committee on Symbols and Ceremonials proposed a Latin motto, "Opera nobis aeterna" derived from the Walt Whitman poem Pioneers! O Pioneers!, a translation of the phrase "We take up the task eternal". The Board of Governors rejected the Latin motto as it was perceived as too pretentious for an institution focused on egalitarianism, leading to Carleton's current motto, "Ours the task eternal". In October 1951, the Board of Governors formally adopted the new motto. In 1952, the Carleton College Act was passed by the Ontario Legislature, changing its corporate name to Carleton College and conferring upon it the power to grant university degre
Morris v. United States, 174 U. S. 196, is a 5-to-2 ruling by the United States Supreme Court which held that the bed under the Potomac River between the District of Columbia and the Commonwealth of Virginia belonged to the United States government rather than nearby private landowners on the District of Columbia side. On June 20, 1632, Charles I, King of England, made a land grant in North America to Cecil Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore which became the Province of Maryland; this grant set the boundary of Maryland at the low-water mark of the southern bank of the Potomac River. On September 27, 1688, King James II made a land grant in North American to Thomas Colepeper, 2nd Baron Colepeper which became the Colony of Virginia; this grant designated "the Potomac River" as the boundary of Virginia. The conflicting grants led to a long-running border dispute between Virginia; the two states settled navigational and riparian water rights in a compact in 1785, but the boundary dispute continued. In 1788, the United States Constitution was ratified.
The Constitution established an independent zone known as the District of Columbia for the seat of the new government. The Residence Act of 1790 provided for the new capital to be located on the Potomac River, President George Washington was authorized by the United States Congress to determine the exact location; the District of Columbia Organic Act of 1801 formally established Congressional jurisdiction over the new District. The Virginia retrocession of 1846-1847 returned that portion of the District of Columbia on the Virginia site of the Potomac River to the state of Virginia; this left in doubt the exact position of the District's border with Virginia. Shortly after the creation of the District of Columbia, the United States government sold certain plots of land to James M. Marshall. Maryland and Virginia agreed to arbitrate their dispute, in 1877 the Black-Jenkins Award placed Virginia's boundary with Maryland at the low-water mark on the Virginia side of the Potomac River. In 1882, Congress passed legislation providing for the dredging of the Potomac River, for the dredged material to be used to fill in various tidal basins and shores.
This created extensive new land along the northern shore of the Potomac River—land which adjoined that of the heirs of James Marshall, John Marshall, John Kidwell, the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Company. Congress passed legislation in August 1886 directing the Attorney General of the United States to protect the interests of the United States to the new land, giving the courts jurisdiction over these claims; the heirs and other claimants sued to win title to the lands. Associate Justice George Shiras, Jr. wrote the majority opinion for the Court, joined by Chief Justice Melville Fuller and Justices John Marshall Harlan, David Josiah Brewer, Henry Billings Brown. Justice Shiras first laid out the facts of the case in a lengthy syllabus, established various classes of claimants; the first issue Justice Shiras confronted was whether any of the parties could lay claim to the bed of the Potomac River. Shiras held that none of the heirs on the Virginia side of the river could make any claim to the riverbed.
Neither Lord Colepeper, his heir Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron, nor any of Fairfax's heirs had seriously asserted title to the riverbed, the Black-Jenkins Award re-established that the boundary of Virginia ended at the low-water mark and did not extend to the riverbed. Relying on the Supreme Court's previous decision in Martin v. Waddell, 41 U. S. 367, Justice Shiras argued that none of the Maryland landholders could claim title to the riverbed, either. The majority held the original landholders were to hold the river and its bed in trust for the public, that after the American Revolution these public trusts passed into the possession of the state. Shiras distinguished Fairfax's Devisee v. Hunter's Lessee, 11 U. S. 603 by noting that Fairfax's Devisee did not involve any Marylander claimant. If the riverbed had been assigned to Lord Fairfax and his heirs, Shiras concluded, the logic of Martin v. Waddell still held and delivered the lands into the control of the federal government.
The majority dismissed the Kidwell heirs' claim to the newly created land under the same reasoning applied to the Marshall heirs. However, Kidwell's heirs noted that Congress had conveyed the property to Kidwell under a resolution adopted on February 16, 1839; the majority held, that Congress did not intend by that resolution to convey the riverbed. The majority relied on the discussion in Illinois Central Railroad v. Illinois, 146 U. S. 387, Shively v. Bowlby, 152 U. S. 1, Mann v. Tacoma Land Company, 153 U. S. 273, from the express language of the resolution. Shiras produced a detailed history of the establishment of the boundaries of the District of Columbia, the plots within its boundaries, how these plots were conveyed to the private landowners, he concluded. Shiras noted that in Potomac Steam-Boat Co. v. Upper Potomac Steam-Boat Co. 109 U. S. 672, the Supreme Court had held that public streets were not part of any plot, that Water Street (which bounded the Kid
Mark James Philip Wilkinson is an English former professional rugby union player. He spent his three-year professional career at Newcastle Falcons, alongside his brother, Jonny Wilkinson, predominantly playing as a Centre. Born in Wokingham, Wilkinson played for National League 3 North side Darlington Mowden Park during the 2001/02 season, making 20 appearances and scoring 3 tries. In August 2002, Wilkinson signed for the Newcastle Falcons, where his brother, was captain, he made his professional debut against Leeds Carnegie, playing as centre, but unusually, for that position, wearing the 15 shirt. His performance drew praise from then-manager Rob Andrew, whom stated "It was a pretty big debut for someone who hasn't played higher than Third Division North before." He made his European Challenge Cup debut in a 27–8 defeat to Treviso, His first appearance at fly-half, would not prove successful, as Newcastle lost 20–0 against London Irish. At the end of the season, he had made six appearances in the league, five in the European Challenge Cup.
He would feature far less the following season, making just four league appearances, two Challenge Cup appearances, although he did score his first professional tries against Valladolid RAC in a 71–10 victory for the Falcons. He made five Premiership appearances in the 2004/05 season, with his Heineken Cup debut coming against Newport Gwent Dragons, playing at fly half in a 25–17 victory. 2005/06 would see him make just one appearance, a brief appearance from the substitute's bench in a 27–18 defeat against Saracens. In 2006, Wilkinson retired from professional rugby, aged 28, to become the academy fitness and conditioning coach at Newcastle, at the same time Rob Bowen joined the club's academy, he remained in the post for three years, before departing the club in 2009. Two years after his departure, he started the Fineside clothing range alongside his brother