Mangiafuoco is the fictional director and puppet master of the Great Marionette Theatre, who appears in Carlo Collodi's book The Adventures of Pinocchio. He is described as "... a large man so ugly, he evoked fear by being looked at. He had a beard as black as a smudge of ink and so long that it fell from his chin down to the ground: enough so that when he walked, he stepped on it, his mouth was as wide as an oven, his eyes were like two red tinted lanterns with the light turned on at the back, with his hands, he sported a large whip made of snakes and fox tails knotted together." Though imposing, Mangiafuoco is portrayed as moved to compassion, which he expresses by sneezing. Mangiafuoco is first encountered in Chapter X, after Pinocchio ruins one of his puppet shows by distracting the other puppets, demands that Pinocchio be burned as firewood for his roasting mutton. Moved by Pinocchio's lamentations, Mangiafuoco decides to burn one of his own puppets, instead; when Pinocchio begs for Harlequin's life and offers to sacrifice himself in Harlequin's stead, he is refused by Mangiafuoco, who upon hearing that he is poor, gives Pinocchio five gold coins which are seized by The Fox and the Cat.
In the 1940 animated Disney film Pinocchio, Mangiafuoco is renamed Stromboli. The character is voiced by Charles Judels, animated by Bill Tytla. Unlike Mangiafuoco, who meets Pinocchio by chance, Stromboli buys Pinocchio from Honest John and Gideon and earns a great deal of money by showing Pinocchio on stage. Stromboli is at first portrayed as gruff but kind-hearted, but locks Pinocchio in a cage, stating that once he is too old to work, he will be used as firewood, revealing his true nature as brutal and vicious. Pinocchio escapes with the help of the Blue Fairy and Jiminy Cricket, but is scolded for lying to her and ignoring Jiminy's advice. Like all the villains in the film, the final fate of Stromboli is never stated, revealed, or implied; the trait is shared with The Coachman. He is the first Disney villain to not be evil at first. Despite his limited screen time, Stromboli is one of Disney's most acclaimed villains; the character has been praised by critics for possessing the ability to instill in audiences both laughter and fear.
Art critic Pierre Lambert has stated that "Tytla's innate sense of force is revealed in all its magnitude in the creation of the character of Stromboli," and animation historian Charles Solomon refers to the puppet master as "the grandest of all Disney heavies", while John Canemaker describes Stromboli as "an overweight monster of mercurial moods, capable of wine-soaked, garlic-breathed Old World charm one second, knife-wielding, chop-you-up-for-firewood threats the next". William Paul drew some parallelism that "It is not too difficult to regard Stromboli as burlesque of a Hollywood studio boss, complete with foreign accent. Disney's own relationship to the Hollywood power structure was always a difficult one, his distrust of the moguls was well justified by his earliest experiences in the industry". During the premiere of Pinocchio, Frank Thomas sat in front of W. C. Fields, upon Stromboli's entrance, muttered to whoever was with him that the puppet master "moves too much". Michael Barrier agrees with Fields' criticism, considering Stromboli a "poorly conceived character" whose "passion has no roots...
There is nothing in Stromboli of what could have made him terrifying". Leonard Maltin disagrees, considering Pinocchio's encounter with the showman to be the wooden boy's "first taste of the seamy side of life... tosses his hatchet into the remnants of another ragged marionette, now a pile of splinters and sawdust, a meekly smiling face the only reminder of its former'life'." Though the character is Italian, characteristics such as Stromboli's facial expressions, obsession with wealth, long black'goat's beard' have led some to make comparisons with Jewish stereotypes. In Giuliano Cenci's 1972 adaptation Pinocchio, Mangiafuoco's portrayal is true to the book in design and personality, he is voiced by Bob Holt in the English dub. He appears in the 1972 miniseries The Adventures of Pinocchio, portrayed by Lionel Stander. Filmation's "Pinocchio and the Emperor of the Night" features a puppet master named Puppetino voiced by William Windom; when Pinocchio runs away to a carnival with the idea of finding work, Puppetino recognises him from when he was a puppet.
In a nightmarish sequence, Puppetino turns Pinocchio back into a lifeless, wooden puppet through an unexplained, magical process. It is implied that he has done this to other children also. Puppetino speaks in a cockney accent and is a gaunt, pale-skinned man with a red moustache and hair, thick lips and a cloak, he is a henchman and servant of the titular Emperor, who turns on Puppetino for cowardice and turns him into a puppet before he is set in fire. In the 1993 direct to video adaptation entitled Pinocchio from GoodTimes Entertainment, Mangiafuoco is not identified by name, but resembles the original character. In Steve Barron's 1996 live action film The Adventures of Pinocchio, Mangiafuoco is renamed Lorenzini and is portrayed as the main antagonist of the film, encompassing 3 Different Villains: the Puppet Master, The Coachman, the Sea Monster, he adopts Pinocchio into his puppet troupe when he enlists Volpe and Felinet t
Florence is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany. It is the most populous city in Tuscany, with 383,084 inhabitants in 2013, over 1,520,000 in its metropolitan area. Florence was a centre of medieval European trade and finance and one of the wealthiest cities of that era, it is considered the birthplace of the Renaissance, has been called "the Athens of the Middle Ages". A turbulent political history includes periods of rule by the powerful Medici family and numerous religious and republican revolutions. From 1865 to 1871 the city was the capital of the established Kingdom of Italy; the Florentine dialect forms the base of Standard Italian and it became the language of culture throughout Italy due to the prestige of the masterpieces by Dante Alighieri, Giovanni Boccaccio, Niccolò Machiavelli and Francesco Guicciardini. The city attracts millions of tourists each year, the Historic Centre of Florence was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1982; the city is noted for Renaissance art and architecture and monuments.
The city contains numerous museums and art galleries, such as the Uffizi Gallery and the Palazzo Pitti, still exerts an influence in the fields of art and politics. Due to Florence's artistic and architectural heritage, it has been ranked by Forbes as one of the most beautiful cities in the world. Florence is an important city in Italian fashion, being ranked in the top 15 fashion capitals of the world. In 2008, the city had the 17th highest average income in Italy. Florence originated as a Roman city, after a long period as a flourishing trading and banking medieval commune, it was the birthplace of the Italian Renaissance. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, it was politically and culturally one of the most important cities in Europe and the world from the 14th to 16th centuries; the language spoken in the city during the 14th century was, still is, accepted as the Italian language. All the writers and poets in Italian literature of the golden age are in some way connected with Florence, leading to the adoption of the Florentine dialect, above all the local dialects, as a literary language of choice.
Starting from the late Middle Ages, Florentine money—in the form of the gold florin—financed the development of industry all over Europe, from Britain to Bruges, to Lyon and Hungary. Florentine bankers financed the English kings during the Hundred Years War, they financed the papacy, including the construction of their provisional capital of Avignon and, after their return to Rome, the reconstruction and Renaissance embellishment of Rome. Florence was home to the Medici, one of European history's most important noble families. Lorenzo de' Medici was considered a political and cultural mastermind of Italy in the late 15th century. Two members of the family were popes in the early 16th century: Leo X and Clement VII. Catherine de Medici married King Henry II of France and, after his death in, reigned as regent in France. Marie de' Medici married Henry IV of France and gave birth to the future King Louis XIII; the Medici reigned as Grand Dukes of Tuscany, starting with Cosimo I de' Medici in 1569 and ending with the death of Gian Gastone de' Medici in 1737.
The Etruscans formed in 200 BC the small settlement of Fiesole, destroyed by Lucius Cornelius Sulla in 80 BC in reprisal for supporting the populares faction in Rome. The present city of Florence was established by Julius Caesar in 59 BC as a settlement for his veteran soldiers and was named Fluentia, owing to the fact that it was built between two rivers, changed to Florentia, it was built in the style of an army camp with the main streets, the cardo and the decumanus, intersecting at the present Piazza della Repubblica. Situated along the Via Cassia, the main route between Rome and the north, within the fertile valley of the Arno, the settlement became an important commercial centre. In centuries to come, the city experienced turbulent periods of Ostrogothic rule, during which the city was troubled by warfare between the Ostrogoths and the Byzantines, which may have caused the population to fall to as few as 1,000 people. Peace returned under Lombard rule in the 6th century. Florence was conquered by Charlemagne in 774 and became part of the Duchy of Tuscany, with Lucca as capital.
The population began to grow again and commerce prospered. In 854, Florence and Fiesole were united in one county. Margrave Hugo chose Florence as his residency instead of Lucca at about 1000 AD; the Golden Age of Florentine art began around this time. In 1013, construction began on the Basilica di San Miniato al Monte; the exterior of the church was reworked in Romanesque style between 1059 and 1128. In 1100, Florence was a "Commune"; the city's primary resource was the Arno river, providing power and access for the industry, access to the Mediterranean sea for international trade. Another great source of strength was its industrious merchant community; the Florentine merchant banking skills became recognised in Europe after they brought decisive financial innovation to medieval fairs. This period saw the eclipse of Florence's powerful rival Pisa, the exercise of power by the mercantile elite following an anti-aristocratic movement, led by Giano della Bella, that resulted in a set of laws called the Ordinances of Justice.
Of a population estimated at 94,00
Collodi is a part of the municipality of Pescia in the Tuscany region of central Italy. It is a medieval village documented since the 12th century, it is linked to the name of author of The Adventures of Pinocchio. The Florentine writer spent part of his childhood there and took its name, signing his works as Carlo Collodi; the village has the aristocratic Villa Garzoni which has a major garden. The economy of the village is based on tourism thanks to the park dedicated to Pinocchio. Church of San Bartolomeo Park of Pinocchio Villa Garzoni http://www.collodi.com/ http://www.meteocollodi.it Stazione Meteo Collodi - Ponte all'Abate Carlo Collodi a Collodi Percorso turistico sulla vita di Carlo Lorenzini a Collodi
Candlewick is a fictional character who appears in Carlo Collodi's book The Adventures of Pinocchio. Candlewick is introduced in chapter XXX, his real name is Romeo. He is described as the most unruly of Pinocchio's class, he refuses Pinocchio’s invitation to a party celebrating his upcoming transformation into a real boy, persuades the puppet to instead come with him to the Land of Toys, where education and study are nonexistent. The two are transported to the Land of Toys by the Coachman, spend their days indulging in play and idleness. After five months, both of them awake with donkey ears; the two are reluctant to admit their condition to each other, but after some coaxing, they remove their caps and laugh at each other. Their laughter soon turns to the two transform into a pair of donkeys. While Pinocchio is sold to a circus ringleader, Candlewick is sold to a farmer who makes him work at a water mill. In a chapter, Pinocchio is sold to a drummer who attempts to drown the donkey in order to skin his hide and use it to make his drum.
The man is surprised that instead of finding a dead donkey, he sees Pinocchio who says the fish ate away at all his donkey skin. Pinocchio and Candlewick meet again in chapter XXXVI, where it is revealed that Candlewick is dying from exhaustion. Pinocchio, now returned to normal, temporarily takes on Candlewick's job of doing farm work, is laughed at when he reveals to Candlewick's owner that he went to school with the animal. Candlewick dies from exhaustion not long after; the first Lucignolo of the history of cinema was the French-Italian comedian Natalino Guillaume in Pinocchio directed by Giulio Antamoro, in a cast of adult actors, in which the character of Pinocchio was played by his brother Ferdinand Guillaume. Candlewick appeared in Walt Disney's 1940 animated adaptation of Pinocchio, he is given the alternate translation of his name, is voiced by Frankie Darro as a human and Clarence Nash in his donkey form. His likeness is modeled after Disney animator Fred Moore. Like his literary version, he is tall and slender, sports red hair and buckteeth.
Lampwick made a cameo in House of Mouse, makes a cameo in Who Framed Roger Rabbit appearing on a poster advertising for "exploding cigars" in Toontown, with his donkey ears from the original film. In the original film, Lampwick befriends Pinocchio during the journey to Pleasure Island and leads Pinocchio astray by introducing him to such activities as fighting others, drinking beer and other bad deeds that good children wouldn't do. Jiminy Cricket finds Pinocchio playing pool with Lampwick and the latter bullies him calling Jiminy a "grasshopper" and "beetle," laughing at him after Jiminy threatens to fight him. Shortly after this altercation, Jiminy notices that the boys on Pleasure Island are turning into jackasses and being rounded up for slave labor. Lampwick's transformation is swift: within a minute, he loses all humanity and is last seen wrecking the pool hall in panic. Strangely enough Lampwick and to a lesser extent Pinocchio are the last victims to become donkeys. In the live action Lampwick has starred in Disneyland's Electrical Parade along with an unnamed boy from Pleasure Island.
Lampwick and the other boys have tails and donkey ears and wave to guests at Disneyland. The first child actor to play the role of Candlewick was Guglielmo Selvaggio in The Adventures of Pinocchio directed by Giannetto Guardone in 1947. Lampwick appears in Un burattino di nome Pinocchio a 1972 Italian animated adaptation of Pinocchio, he is portrayed like the original story: a lazy boy who dislikes school and convinces Pinocchio to come to the Land of Toys with him. They eat junk food and go on amusement rides, he and Pinocchio transform into donkeys and are sold to a farmer and a circus. Near the end of the film, Pinocchio finds Lampwick wounded and exhausted from overwork at the farm and he volunteers to do his work until he feels better, but it is too late and Lampwick dies from his wounds; the character is voiced by Italian actress Flaminia Jandolo in the original version and by Canadian actor Paul Kligman in the 1978 English-dubbed version. In the 1972 television miniseries The Adventures of Pinocchio, director Luigi Comencini entrusted the part to Domenico Santoro, a kid he had "discovered" while shooting a documentary on child labor in Naples.
In the 1993 direct-to-video adaptation by GoodTimes Entertainment, where the character is voiced by Cam Clarke, Candlewick is portrayed like his Disney counterpart, with red hair who tries to have fun in Dunceland with Pinocchio. Like his Disney counterpart, he is transformed into a donkey and his fate is unknown. Lampwick appears in the 1996 film The Adventures of Pinocchio, portrayed by Corey Carrier as a boy whom Pinocchio meets at school and convinces him to come with him to Terra Magica, where they are allowed to do whatever they please, they and a few other boys ride a roller coaster. During the ride, they are splashed with enchanted water which turns them into animals based on their nature. Lampwick and many of the other bad boys turn into donkeys, while Pin
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The Adventures of Pinocchio
The Adventures of Pinocchio simply known as Pinocchio, is a novel for children by Italian author Carlo Collodi, written in Pescia. It is about the mischievous adventures of an animated marionette named Pinocchio and his father, a poor woodcarver named Geppetto, it was published in a serial form as The Story of a Puppet in the Giornale per i bambini, one of the earliest Italian weekly magazines for children, starting from 7 July 1881. The story stopped after nearly 4 months and 8 episodes at Chapter 15, but by popular demand from readers, the episodes were resumed on 16 February 1882. In February 1883, the story was published in a single book. Since the spread of Pinocchio on the main markets for children's book of the time was continuous and uninterrupted, it was met with enthusiastic reviews worldwide. A universal icon and a metaphor of the human condition, the book is considered a canonical piece of children's literature and has had great impact on world culture. Philosopher Benedetto Croce reputed it as one of the greatest works of Italian literature.
Since its first publication, it has inspired hundreds of new editions, stage plays, television series and movies, such as Walt Disney's iconic animated version, commonplace ideas such as a liar's long nose. According to extensive research done by the Fondazione Nazionale Carlo Collodi in late 1990s and based on UNESCO sources, the book has been adapted in over 260 languages worldwide, while as of 2018 it has been translated into over 300 languages; that makes it the most translated non-religious book in the world and one of the best-selling books published, with over 80 million copies sold in recent years. According to Francelia Butler, it remains "the most translated Italian book and, after the Bible, the most read". "The Adventures of Pinocchio" is a story about an animated puppet, boys who turn into donkeys, other fairy tale devices. The setting of the story is the Tuscan area of Italy, it was a unique literary marriage of genres for its time. The story's Italian language is peppered with Florentine dialect features, such as the protagonist's Florentine name.
In the 1850s, Collodi began to have a variety of non-fiction books published. Once, he translated some French fairy-tales so well that he was asked whether he would like to write some of his own. In 1881, he sent a short episode in the life of a wooden puppet to a friend who edited a newspaper in Rome, wondering whether the editor would be interested in publishing this "bit of foolishness" in his children's section; the editor did, the children loved it. The Adventures of Pinocchio was published in a serial form as in the Giornale per i bambini, one of the earliest Italian weekly magazines for children, starting from 7 July 1881. In the original, serialized version, Pinocchio dies a gruesome death: hanged for his innumerable faults, at the end of Chapter 15. At the request of his editor, Collodi added chapters 16–36, in which the Fairy with Turquoise Hair rescues Pinocchio and transforms him into a real boy, when he acquires a deeper understanding of himself, making the story more suitable for children.
In the second half of the book, the maternal figure of the Blue-haired Fairy is the dominant character, versus the paternal figure of Geppetto in the first part. In February 1883, the story was published in a single book with huge success. Children's literature was a new idea in Collodi's time, an innovation in the 19th century, thus in content and style it was new and modern, opening the way to many writers of the following century. As of October 2018, The Adventures of Pinocchio became the world's most translated book excluding religious works; the book has had great impact on world culture, it was met with enthusiastic reviews worldwide. The title character is a cultural icon and one of the most reimagined characters in children's literature; the popularity of the story was bolstered by the powerful philosopher-critic Benedetto Croce, who admired the tale and reputed it as one of the greatest works of Italian literature. Carlo Collodi, who died in 1890, was respected during his lifetime as a talented writer and social commentator, his fame continued to grow when Pinocchio was first translated into English by Mary Alice Murray in 1892, whose translation was added to the read Everyman's Library in 1911.
Other well regarded English translations include the 1926 translation by Carol Della Chiesa, the 1986 bilingual edition by Nicolas J. Perella; the first appearance of the book in the United States was in 1898, with publication of the first US edition in 1901, translated and illustrated by Walter S. Cramp and Charles Copeland. From that time, the story was one of the most famous children's book in the United States and an important step for many illustrators. Together with those from the United Kingdom, the American editions contributed to the popularity of Pinocchio in countries more culturally distant from Italy, such as Iceland and Asian countries. In 1905, Otto Julius Bierbaum published a new version of the book in Germany, entitled Zapfelkerns Abenteuer, the first French edition was published in 1902. Between 1911 and 1945, translations were made into all European languages and several languages of Asia and Oceania. In 1936, Soviet writer Aleksey Nikolayevich Tolstoy published a reworked version of Pinocchio titled The Golden Key, or the Adventures of Buratino, which became one of the most popular characters of Russian chi
Italian unification known as the Risorgimento, was the political and social movement that consolidated different states of the Italian peninsula into the single state of the Kingdom of Italy in the 19th century. The process began in 1815 with the Congress of Vienna and was completed in 1871 when Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy; the term, which designates the cultural and social movement that promoted unification, recalls the romantic and patriotic ideals of an Italian renaissance through the conquest of a unified political identity that, by sinking its ancient roots during the Roman period, "suffered an abrupt halt of its political unity in 476 AD after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire". However, some of the terre irredente did not join the Kingdom of Italy until 1918 after Italy defeated Austria–Hungary in World War I. For this reason, sometimes the period is extended to include the late 19th-century and the First World War, until the 4 November 1918 Armistice of Villa Giusti, considered the completion of unification.
This view is followed, at the Central Museum of Risorgimento at the Vittoriano. Italy was unified by Rome in the third century BC. For 700 years, it was a kind of territorial extension of the capital of the Roman Republic and Empire, for a long time, a privileged status and so it was not converted into a province. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, Italy remained united under the Ostrogothic Kingdom and disputed between the Kingdom of the Lombards and the Byzantine Empire. Following conquest by the Frankish Empire, the title of King of Italy merged with the office of Holy Roman Emperor. However, the emperor was an absentee German-speaking foreigner who had little concern for the governance of Italy as a state. Southern Italy however was governed by the long-lasting Kingdom of Sicily or Kingdom of Naples established by the Normans. Central Italy was governed by the Pope as a temporal kingdom known as the Papal States; this situation persisted through the Renaissance but began to deteriorate with the rise of modern nation-states in the early modern period.
Italy, including the Papal States became the site of proxy wars between the major powers, notably the Holy Roman Empire and France. Harbingers of national unity appeared in the treaty of the Italic League, in 1454, the 15th century foreign policy of Cosimo De Medici and Lorenzo De Medici. Leading Renaissance Italian writers Dante, Boccaccio and Guicciardini expressed opposition to foreign domination. Petrarch stated. Machiavelli quoted four verses from Italia Mia in The Prince, which looked forward to a political leader who would unite Italy "to free her from the barbarians"; the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 formally ended the rule of the Holy Roman Emperors in Italy. However, the Spanish branch of the Habsburg dynasty, another branch of which provided the Emperors, continued to rule most of Italy down to the War of the Spanish Succession. A sense of Italian national identity was reflected in Gian Rinaldo Carli's Della Patria degli Italiani, written in 1764, it told how a stranger entered a café in Milan and puzzled its occupants by saying that he was neither a foreigner nor a Milanese.
"'Then what are you?' they asked.'I am an Italian,' he explained." The Habsburg rule in Italy came to an end with the campaigns of the French Revolutionaries in 1792–97, when a series of client republics were set up. In 1806, the Holy Roman Empire was dissolved by the last emperor, Francis II, after its defeat by Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz; the Italian campaigns of the French Revolutionary Wars destroyed the old structures of feudalism in Italy and introduced modern ideas and efficient legal authority. The French Republic spread republican principles, the institutions of republican governments promoted citizenship over the rule of the Bourbons and Habsburgs and other dynasties; the reaction against any outside control challenged Napoleon's choice of rulers. As Napoleon's reign began to fail, the rulers he had installed tried to keep their thrones further feeding nationalistic sentiments. Beauharnais tried to get Austrian approval for his succession to the new Kingdom of Italy, on 30 March 1815, Murat issued the Rimini Proclamation, which called on Italians to revolt against their Austrian occupiers.
After Napoleon fell, the Congress of Vienna restored the pre-Napoleonic patchwork of independent governments. Italy was again controlled by the Austrian Empire and the Habsburgs, as they directly controlled the predominantly Italian-speaking northeastern part of Italy and were, the most powerful force against unification. An important figure of this period was Francesco Melzi d'Eril, serving as vice-president of the Napoleonic Italian Republic and consistent supporter of the Italian unification ideals that would lead to the Italian Risorgimento shortly after his death. Meanwhile and literary sentiment turned towards nationalism.