Georges Jean Raymond Pompidou was Prime Minister of France from 1962 to 1968—the longest tenure in the position's history—and President of the French Republic from 1969 until his death in 1974. He had long been a top aide to president Charles de Gaulle; as president, he was a moderate conservative who repaired France's relationship with the United States and maintained positive relations with the newly independent former colonies in Africa. He strengthened his political party, the Union of Democrats for the Republic, to make it a bastion of the Gaullist movement. Pompidou's presidency is held in high esteem by French political commentators. Pompidou was born in the department of Cantal in central France. After his khâgne at Lycée Louis-le-Grand, where he befriended future Senegalese poet and statesman Léopold Sédar Senghor, he attended the École Normale Supérieure, from which he graduated with a degree of agrégation in literature, he first taught literature at the lycée Henri IV in Paris until hired in 1953 by Guy de Rothschild to work at Rothschild.
In 1956, he was appointed the bank's general manager, a position he held until 1962. He was hired by Charles de Gaulle to manage the Anne de Gaulle Foundation for Down syndrome. Jacques Chirac served as an aide to Prime Minister Pompidou and recalled: The man gave the appearance of being secretive, wily, a little cunning – which he was, to a degree. However, it was his intelligence and competence that conferred indisputable authority on him and commanded respect.... I remember his untamed eyebrows, his penetrating kindly gaze, his perceptive smile, full of humour and mischievousness, his voice with its wonderful low, gravelly tone, a figure, both powerful and elegant. Reserved, little given to emotional outbursts, Pompidou did not forge close ties with his colleagues, he served as prime minister of France under de Gaulle after Michel Debré resigned, from 14 April 1962 to 10 July 1968, to this day is the longest serving French prime minister under the Fifth Republic. His nomination was controversial.
In October 1962, he was defeated in a vote of no-confidence, but de Gaulle dissolved the National Assembly. The Gaullists won Pompidou was reappointed as Prime Minister. In 1964, he was faced with a miners' strike, he led the 1967 legislative campaign of the Union of Democrats for the Fifth Republic to a narrow victory. Pompidou was regarded as being responsible for the peaceful resolution of the student uprising of May 1968, his strategy was to break the coalition of students and workers by negotiating with the trade-unions and employers. Until this crisis, he was the Prime Minister of a prosperous France. However, during the events of May 1968, disagreements arose between de Gaulle. Pompidou did not understand why the President did not inform him of his departure to Baden-Baden on May 29, their relationship, until very good, would be strained from on. Pompidou led and won the 1968 legislative campaign, overseeing a tremendous victory of the Gaullist Party, he resigned. In part due to his actions during the May 1968 crisis, he appeared as the natural successor to de Gaulle.
Pompidou announced his candidature for the Presidency in January 1969. Some weeks his wife's name was mentioned in the Markovic affair, thus appearing to confirm her husband's status as a cuckold. Pompidou was certain. In social policy, Pompidou's tenure as prime minister witnessed the establishment of the National Employment Fund in 1963 to counter the negative effects on employment caused by industrial restructuring. After the failure of the 1969 constitutional referendum, de Gaulle resigned and Pompidou was elected president of France. In the general election of 15 June 1969, he defeated the centrist President of the Senate and Acting President Alain Poher by a wide margin. Though a Gaullist, Pompidou was more pragmatic than de Gaulle, notably facilitating the accession of the United Kingdom to the European Community on 1 January 1973, he embarked on an industrialisation plan and initiated the Arianespace project, as well as the TGV project, furthered the French civilian nuclear programme.
He was sceptical about the "New Society" programme of Jacques Chaban-Delmas. In 1972, he replaced Chaban-Delmas with a more conservative Gaullist. While the left-wing opposition organised itself and proposed a Common Programme before the 1973 legislative election, Pompidou widened his presidential majority by including Centrist pro-European parties. In addition, he paid special attention to regional and local needs in order to strengthen his political party, the UDR, which he made it a central and lasting force in the Gaullist movement; the United States was eager to restore positive relations with France after de Gaulle's departure from office. New US President Richard Nixon and his top adviser Henry Kissinger admired Pompidou; the United States offered to help the French nuclear programme. Economic difficulties, arose following the Nixon Shock and the 1973-75 recession over the role of the American dollar as the medium for world trade. Pompidou sought to maintain good relations with the newly-independent former French colonies in Africa.
In 1971, he visited Mauritania, Ivory Coast and Gabon. H
Hollywood is a neighborhood in the central region of Los Angeles, notable as the home of the U. S. film industry, including several of its historic studios. Its name has come to be a shorthand reference for the people associated with it. Hollywood was incorporated as a municipality in 1903, it was consolidated with the city of Los Angeles in 1910 and soon thereafter, a prominent film industry emerged becoming the most recognizable film industry in the world. In 1853, one adobe hut stood in Nopalera, named for the Mexican Nopal cactus indigenous to the area. By 1870, an agricultural community flourished; the area was known as the Cahuenga Valley, after the pass in the Santa Monica Mountains to the north. According to the diary of H. J. Whitley known as the "Father of Hollywood", on his honeymoon in 1886 he stood at the top of the hill looking out over the valley. Along came a Chinese man in a wagon carrying wood; the man bowed. The Chinese man was asked what he was doing and replied, "I holly-wood," meaning'hauling wood.'
H. J. Whitley decided to name his new town Hollywood. "Holly" would represent England and "wood" would represent his Scottish heritage. Whitley had started over 100 towns across the western United States. Whitley arranged to buy the 480 acres E. C. Hurd ranch, they shook hands on the deal. Whitley shared his plans for the new town with General Harrison Gray Otis, publisher of the Los Angeles Times, Ivar Weid, a prominent businessman in the area. Daeida Wilcox learned of the name Hollywood from Ivar Weid, her neighbor in Holly Canyon and a prominent investor and friend of Whitley's, she recommended the same name to Harvey. H. Wilcox, who had purchased 120 acres on February 1, 1887, it wasn't until August 1887 Wilcox decided to use that name and filed with the Los Angeles County Recorder's office on a deed and parcel map of the property. The early real-estate boom busted at the end of that year. By 1900, the region had a post office, newspaper and two markets. Los Angeles, with a population of 102,479 lay 10 miles east through the vineyards, barley fields, citrus groves.
A single-track streetcar line ran down the middle of Prospect Avenue from it, but service was infrequent and the trip took two hours. The old citrus fruit-packing house was converted into a livery stable, improving transportation for the inhabitants of Hollywood; the Hollywood Hotel was opened in 1902 by H. J. Whitley, a president of the Los Pacific Boulevard and Development Company. Having acquired the Hurd ranch and subdivided it, Whitley built the hotel to attract land buyers. Flanking the west side of Highland Avenue, the structure fronted on Prospect Avenue, still a dusty, unpaved road, was graded and graveled; the hotel was to become internationally known and was the center of the civic and social life and home of the stars for many years. Whitley's company sold one of the early residential areas, the Ocean View Tract. Whitley did much to promote the area, he paid thousands of dollars for electric lighting, including bringing electricity and building a bank, as well as a road into the Cahuenga Pass.
The lighting ran for several blocks down Prospect Avenue. Whitley's land was centered on Highland Avenue, his 1918 development, Whitley Heights, was named for him. Hollywood was incorporated as a municipality on November 14, 1903, by a vote of 88 for and 77 against. On January 30, 1904, the voters in Hollywood decided, by a vote of 113 to 96, for the banishment of liquor in the city, except when it was being sold for medicinal purposes. Neither hotels nor restaurants were allowed to serve liquor before or after meals. In 1910, the city voted for merger with Los Angeles in order to secure an adequate water supply and to gain access to the L. A. sewer system. With annexation, the name of Prospect Avenue changed to Hollywood Boulevard and all the street numbers were changed. By 1912, major motion-picture companies had set up production in Los Angeles. In the early 1900s, most motion picture patents were held by Thomas Edison's Motion Picture Patents Company in New Jersey, filmmakers were sued to stop their productions.
To escape this, filmmakers began moving out west to Los Angeles, where attempts to enforce Edison's patents were easier to evade. The weather was ideal and there was quick access to various settings. Los Angeles became the capital of the film industry in the United States; the mountains and low land prices made Hollywood a good place to establish film studios. Director D. W. Griffith was the first to make a motion picture in Hollywood, his 17-minute short film In Old California was filmed for the Biograph Company. Although Hollywood banned movie theaters—of which it had none—before annexation that year, Los Angeles had no such restriction; the first film by a Hollywood studio, Nestor Motion Picture Company, was shot on October 26, 1911. The H. J. Whitley home was used as its set, the unnamed movie was filmed in the middle of their groves at the corner of Whitley Avenue and Hollywood Boulevard; the first studio in Hollywood, the Nestor Company, was established by the New Jersey–based Centaur Company in a roadhouse at 6121 Sunset Boulevard, in October 1911.
Four major film companies – Paramount, Warner Bros. RKO, Columbia – had studios in Hollywood, as did several minor companies and rental studios. In the 1920s, Hollywood was the fifth-largest industry in the nation. By the 1930s, Hollywood studios became vertically integrated, as production and exhibition was controlled by these companies, enabling Hollywood to produce 600 films per year. H
Lombardy is one of the twenty administrative regions of Italy, in the northwest of the country, with an area of 23,844 square kilometres. About 10 million people, forming one-sixth of Italy's population, live in Lombardy and about a fifth of Italy's GDP is produced in the region, making it the most populous and richest region in the country and one of the richest regions in Europe. Milan, Lombardy's capital, is the largest metropolitan area in Italy; the word Lombardy comes from Lombard, which in turn is derived from Late Latin Longobardus, derived from the Proto-Germanic elements *langaz + *bardaz. Some sources derive the second element instead from Proto-Germanic *bardǭ, *barduz, related to German Barte. During the early Middle Ages "Lombardy" referred to the Kingdom of the Lombards, a kingdom ruled by the Germanic Lombards who had controlled most of Italy since their invasion of Byzantine Italy in 568; as such "Lombardy" and "Italy" were interchangeable. The Kingdom was divided between Longobardia Major in the north and Langobardia Minor in the south, which were until the 8th century separated by the Byzantine Exarchate of Ravenna and the Papacy.
During the late Middle Ages, after the fall of the northern part of the Kingdom to Charlemagne, the term shifted to mean Northern Italy.. The term was used until around 965 in the form Λογγοβαρδία as the name for the territory covering modern Apulia which the Byzantines had recovered from the Lombard rump Duchy of Benevento. With a surface of 23,861 km2, Lombardy is the fourth-largest region of Italy, it is bordered by Switzerland and by the Italian regions of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol and Veneto, Emilia-Romagna, Piedmont. Three distinct natural zones can be easily distinguished in Lombardy: mountains and plains—the latter being divided in Alta and Bassa; the orography of Lombardy is characterised by the presence of three distinct belts: a northern mountainous belt constituted by the Alpine relief, a central piedmont area of pebbly soils of alluvial origin, the Lombard section of the Padan plain in the southernmost part of the region. The most important mountainous area is an Alpine zone including the Lepontine and Rhaetian Alps, the Bergamo Alps, the Ortler Alps and the Adamello massif.
The plains of Lombardy, formed by alluvial deposits, can be divided into the Alta—an upper, permeable ground zone in the north and a lower zone—and the Bassa—dotted by the so-called line of fontanili, spring waters rising from impermeable ground. Inconsistent with the three distinctions above made is the small subregion of Oltrepò Pavese, formed by the Apennine foothills beyond the Po River; the mighty Po river marks the southern border of the region for a length of about 210 km. In its progress it receives the waters of the Ticino River, which rises in the Bedretto valley and joins the Po near Pavia; the other streams which contribute to the great river are, the Olona, the Lambro, the Adda, the Oglio and the Mincio. The numerous lakes of Lombardy, all of glacial origin, lie in the northern highlands. From west to east these are Lake Maggiore, Lake Lugano, Lake Como, Lake Iseo, Lake Idro Lake Garda, the largest in Italy. South of the Alps lie the hills characterised by a succession of low heights of morainic origin, formed during the last Ice Age and small fertile plateaux, with typical heaths and conifer woods.
A minor mountainous area, the Oltrepò Pavese, lies south of the Po, in the Apennines range. In the plains, intensively cultivated for centuries, little of the original environment remains; the most commons trees are elm, sycamore, poplar and hornbeam. In the area of the foothills lakes, grow olive trees and larches, as well as varieties of subtropical flora such as magnolias, acacias. Numerous species of endemic flora in the Prealpine area include some kinds of saxifrage, the Lombard garlic, groundsels bellflowers and the cottony bellflowers; the highlands are characterised by the typical vegetation of the whole range of the Italian Alps. At a lower levels oak woods or broadleafed trees grow. Shrubs such as rhododendron, dwarf pine and juniper are native to the summital zone. Lombardy counts many protected areas: the most important are the Stelvio National Park, with alpine wildlife: red deer, roe deer, chamois, foxes and golden eagles. L
The lira was the currency of Italy between 1861 and 2002 and of the Albanian Kingdom between 1941 and 1943. Between 1999 and 2002, the Italian lira was a national subunit of the euro. However, cash payments could be made in lira only, as euro notes were not yet available; the lira was the currency of the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy between 1807 and 1814. The term originates from the value of a pound weight of high purity silver and as such is a direct cognate of the British pound sterling. "L", sometimes in a double-crossed script form, was the symbol most used. Until the Second World War, it was subdivided into 100 centesimi, which translates to "hundredths" or "cents"; the lira was established at 290.322 milligrams of gold. This was a direct continuation of the Sardinian lira. Other currencies replaced by the Italian lira included the Lombardy-Venetia pound, the Two Sicilies piastra, the Tuscan fiorino, the Papal States scudo and the Parman lira. In 1865, Italy formed part of the Latin Monetary Union in which the lira was set as equal to, among others, the French and Swiss francs: in fact, in various Gallo-Italic languages in north-western Italy, the lira was outright called "franc".
This practice has ended with the introduction of the euro in 2002. World War I resulted in prices rising severalfold in Italy. Inflation was curbed somewhat by Mussolini, who, on August 18, 1926, declared that the exchange rate between lira and pound would be £1 = 90 lire—the so-called Quota 90, although the free exchange rate had been closer to 140–150 lire per pound, causing a temporary deflation and widespread problems in the real economy. In 1927, the lira was pegged to the U. S. dollar at a rate of 1 dollar = 19 lire. This rate lasted until 1934, with a separate "tourist" rate of US$1 = 24.89 lire being established in 1936. In 1939, the "official" rate was 19.8 lire. After the Allied invasion of Italy, an exchange rate was set at US$1 = 120 lire in June 1943, reduced to 100 lire the following month. In German occupied areas, the exchange rate was set at 1 Reichsmark = 10 lire. After the war, the value of the lira fluctuated, before Italy set a peg of US$1 = 575 lire within the Bretton Woods System in November 1947.
Following the devaluation of the pound, Italy devalued to US$1 = 625 lire on 21 September 1949. This rate was maintained until the end of the Bretton Woods System in the early 1970s. Several episodes of high inflation followed; the lira was the official unit of currency in Italy until January 1, 1999, when it was replaced by the euro. Old lira denominated currency ceased to be legal tender on February 28, 2002; the conversion rate is 1,936.27 lire to the euro. All lira banknotes in use before the introduction of the euro, all post-World War II coins, were exchanged by the Bank of Italy up to 6 December 2011. Italy's central bank pledged to redeem Italian coins and banknotes until 29 February 2012, but this was brought forward to 6 December 2011. Although Italian price displays and calculations became unwieldy because of the large number of zeros, efforts were unsuccessful for political reasons until the introduction of the euro which had the effect of lopping off excessive zeros; the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy issued coins between 1807 and 1813 in denominations of 1 and 3 centesimi and 1 soldo in copper, 10 centesimi in 20% silver alloy, 5, 10 and 15 soldi, 1, 2 and 5 lire in 90% silver and 20 and 40 lire in 90% gold.
All except the 10 centesimi bore a portrait of Napoleon, with the denominations below 1 lira showing a radiate crown and the higher denominations, a shield representing the various constituent territories of the Kingdom. In 1861, coins were minted in Florence, Milan and Turin in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10 and 50 centesimi, 1 lira, 2, 5, 10 and 20 lire, with the lowest four in copper, the highest two in gold and the remainder in silver. In 1863, silver coins below 5 lire were debased from 90% to 83.5% and silver 20-centesimi coins were introduced. Minting switched to Rome in the 1870s. Apart from the introduction in 1894 of cupro-nickel 20-centesimi coins and of nickel 25-centesimi pieces in 1902, the coinage remained unaltered until the First World War. In 1919, with a purchase power of the lira reduced to one fifth of that of 1914, the production of all earlier coin types except for the nickel 20 centesimi halted, smaller, copper 5- and 10-centesimi and nickel 50-centesimi coins were introduced, followed by nickel 1- and 2-lira pieces in 1922 and 1923, respectively.
In 1926, silver 5- and 10-lira coins were introduced, equal in size and composition to the earlier 1- and 2-lira coins. Silver 20-lira coins were added in 1927. In 1936, the last substantial issue of silver coins was made, whilst, in 1939, moves to reduce the cost of the coinage led to copper being replaced by aluminium bronze and nickel by stainless steel. All issuance of coinage came to a halt in 1943. In 1943 the AM-lira was issued, in circulation in Italy after the landing in Sicily on the night between 9 and 10 July 1943. After 1946, the AM-lira ceased to be the currency of employment and was used along with normal notes, until June 3, 1950. Between 1947 and 1954, zone B of the Free Territory of Trieste used the Triestine lira. In 1946 coin production was resumed, although only in 1948, with the purchasing power of the lira reduced to 2% of that of 1939, did nu
Sofia Villani Scicolone, known professionally as Sophia Loren, is an Italian film actress and singer. Encouraged to enroll in acting lessons after entering a beauty pageant, Loren began her film career at age 16 in 1950, she appeared in several bit parts and minor roles in the early part of the decade, until her five-picture contract with Paramount in 1956 launched her international career. Notable film appearances around this time include The Pride and the Passion, It Started in Naples, her talents as an actress were not recognized until her performance as Cesira in Vittorio De Sica's Two Women. She holds the record for having earned six David di Donatello Awards for Best Actress: Two Women. After starting a family in the early 1970s, Loren chose to make only occasional film appearances. In years, she has appeared in American films such as Grumpier Old Men and Nine. Aside from the Academy Award, she has won a Grammy Award, five special Golden Globes, a BAFTA Award, a Laurel Award, the Volpi Cup for Best Actress at the Venice Film Festival, the Best Actress Award at the Cannes Film Festival, the Honorary Academy Award in 1991.
In 1995, she received the Golden Globe Cecil B. DeMille Award for lifetime achievements, one of many such awards. In 1999, Loren was named by the American Film Institute as one of the 25 greatest female stars of Classic Hollywood Cinema, she is the only living actress on the list. Sofia Villani Scicolone was born on 20 September 1934 in the Clinica Regina Margherita in Rome, the daughter of Romilda Villani and Riccardo Scicolone, a construction engineer of noble descent. Loren's father Riccardo Scicolone refused to marry Villani, leaving the piano teacher and aspiring actress without financial support. Loren met with her father three times, at age five, age seventeen and in 1976 at his deathbed, citing that she forgave him but had never forgotten the abandonment of her mother. Loren's parents had another child together, her sister Maria, in 1938. Loren has two younger paternal half-brothers and Giuseppe. Romilda and Maria lived with Loren's grandmother in Pozzuoli, near Naples. During the Second World War, the harbour and munitions plant in Pozzuoli was a frequent bombing target of the Allies.
During one raid, as Loren ran to the shelter, she was wounded in the chin. After that, the family moved to Naples. After the war and her family returned to Pozzuoli. Loren's grandmother Luisa opened a pub in their living room. Romilda Villani played the piano, Maria sang, Loren waited on tables and washed dishes; the place was popular with the American GIs stationed nearby. At age 16, Loren as Sofia Lazzaro entered the Miss Italia 1950 beauty pageant and was assigned as Candidate #2, being one to the four sharing contestants representing the Lazio region, she was selected as one of the last three finalists and won the title of “Miss Elegance 1950”, while Liliana Cardinale won the title of “Miss Cinema” and Anna Maria Bugliari won the grand title of Miss Italia. In 2010, Loren returned as a judge in the 71st Miss Italia pageant. At age 17, as Sofia Lazzaro, she enrolled in acting class and was selected as an uncredited extra in Mervyn LeRoy's 1951 film Quo Vadis, filmed when she was 17 years old.
That same year, she appeared in Italian film Era lui... sì! sì!, where she played an odalisque, was credited as Sofia Lazzaro. She appeared in several bit parts and minor roles in the early part of the decade, including the La Favorita. Carlo Ponti changed her name and public image to appeal to a wider audience as Sophia Loren, being a twist on the name of the Swedish actress Märta Torén and suggested by Goffredo Lombardo, her first starring role was in Aida. After playing the lead role in Two Nights with Cleopatra, her breakthrough role was in The Gold of Naples, directed by Vittorio De Sica. Too Bad She's Bad released in 1954, became the first of many films in which Loren co-starred with Marcello Mastroianni. Over the next three years, she acted in many films, including Scandal in Sorrento, Lucky to Be a Woman, Boy on a Dolphin, Legend of the Lost and The Pride and the Passion. Loren became an international film star following her five-picture contract with Paramount Pictures in 1958. Among her films at this time were Desire Under the Elms with Anthony Perkins, based upon the Eugene O'Neill play.
In 1960, she starred in Vittorio De Sica's Two Women, a stark, gritty story of a mother, trying to protect her 12-year-old daughter in war-torn Italy. The two end up gang-raped inside a church as they travel back to their home city following cessation of bombings there. Cast as the daughter, Loren fought against type and was cast as the mother. Loren's performance earned her many awards, including the Cannes Film Festival's best performance prize, an Academy Award for Best Actress, the first major Academy Award for a non-English-language perf
Second Italian War of Independence
The Second Italian War of Independence called the Franco-Austrian War, Austro-Sardinian War or Italian War of 1859, was fought by the French Empire and the Kingdom of Sardinia against the Austrian Empire in 1859 and played a crucial part in the process of Italian unification. The Piedmontese, following their defeat by Austria in the First Italian War of Independence, recognised their need for allies; this led Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, the prime minister of the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia, to attempt to establish relations with other European powers through Piedmont's participation in the Crimean War. In the peace conference at Paris following the Crimean War, Cavour attempted to bring attention to efforts for Italian unification, he found Britain and France to be sympathetic, but unwilling to go against Austrian wishes, as any movement towards Italian independence would threaten Austria's territory of Lombardy–Venetia. Private talks between Napoleon III and Cavour after the conference identified Napoleon as the most albeit still uncommitted, candidate for aiding Italy.
On 14 January 1858, an Italian, led an attempt on Napoleon III's life. This assassination attempt brought widespread sympathy for the Italian unification effort, had a profound effect on Napoleon himself, who now was determined to help Piedmont against Austria in order to defuse the wider revolutionary activities that the governments inside Italy might allow to happen in the future. After a covert meeting at Plombières, Napoleon III and Cavour signed a secret treaty of alliance against Austria: France would help Sardinia-Piedmont to fight against Austria if attacked, Sardinia-Piedmont would give Nice and Savoy to France in return; this secret alliance served both countries: it helped with the Sardinian plan of unification of the Italian peninsula under the House of Savoy, weakened Austria, a fiery adversary of Napoleon III's French Empire. Cavour, being unable to get the French help unless the Austrians attacked first, provoked Vienna with a series of military manoeuvers close to the border.
Austria issued an ultimatum on 23 April 1859, demanding the complete demobilization of the Sardinian army, when it was not heeded, Austria started a war with Sardinia, thus drawing France into the conflict. The French army for the Italian campaign had 170,000 soldiers, 2,000 horsemen and 312 guns, half of the whole French army; the army was under the command of Napoleon III, divided into five corps: the I Corps, led by Achille Baraguey d'Hilliers, the II Corps, led by Patrice MacMahon, the III Corps, led by François Certain de Canrobert, the IV Corps, led by Adolphe Niel, the V Corps, led by prince Napoleon. The Imperial Guard was commanded by Auguste Regnaud de Saint-Jean d'Angély; the Sardinian army had 4,000 horsemen and 90 guns. It was divided into five divisions, led by Castelbrugo, Manfredo Fanti, Giovanni Durando, Enrico Cialdini, Domenico Cucchiari. Two volunteer formations, the Cacciatori delle Alpi and the Cacciatori degli Appennini, were present; the commander in chief was Victor Emmanuel II of Savoy, supported by Alfonso Ferrero la Marmora.
The Austrian army fielded more men: it was composed of 220,000 soldiers, 824 guns and 22,000 horsemen and was led by Field Marshal Ferenc Graf Gyulay. At the declaration of war, there were no French troops in Italy, so Marshal François Certain Canrobert moved into Piedmont in the first massive military use of railways; the Austrian forces counted on a swift victory over the weaker Sardinian army before French forces could arrive in Piedmont. However, Count Gyulai, the commander of the Austrian troops in Lombardy, was cautious and marched around the Ticino River in no specific direction until he crossed it to begin the offensive. For him heavy rains began to fall, allowing the Piedmontese to flood the rice fields in front of his advance, slowing his army's march to a crawl; the Austrians, under Gyulai arrived in Vercelli, menacing Turin, but the Franco-Sardinian move to strengthen the Alessandria and Po River bridges around Casale Monferrato forced them to fall back. On 14 May Napoleon III arrived in Alessandria.
The initial clash of the war was at Montebello on 20 May, a battle between an Austrian Corps under Stadion and a single division of the French I Corps under Forey. The Austrian contingent was three times as large, but the French were victorious, making Gyulai still more cautious. In early June, Gyulai had advanced to the rail centre of Magenta, leaving his army spread out. Napoleon III attacked the Ticino head on with part of his force while sending another large group of troops to the north to flank the Austrians; the plan worked, causing Gyulai to retreat east to the quadrilateral fortresses in Lombardy, where he was relieved of his post as commander. Replacing Gyulai was Emperor Franz Josef I himself, he planned to defend the well-fortified Austrian territory behind the Mincio River. The Piedmontese-French army had taken Milan and marched further east to finish off Austria in this war before Prussia could get involved; the Austrians found out that the French had halted at Brescia, decided that they should counterattack along the river Chiese.
The two armies met accidentally around Solferino. A French corps held off three Austrian corps all day at Medole, keeping them from joining the larger battle around Solferino, after a day-long battle, the French broke through. Ludwig von Benedek with the Austrian VIII Corps was separated from the main force, defended Pozzolengo against the Piedmontese part of the opposing army; this they did but the entir
Dame Jocelyn Barbara Hepworth was an English artist and sculptor. Her work exemplifies Modernism and in particular modern sculpture, she was one of the few female artists of her generation to achieve international prominence. Along with artists such as Ben Nicholson and Naum Gabo, Hepworth was a leading figure in the colony of artists who resided in St Ives during the Second World War. Jocelyn Barbara Hepworth was born on 10 January 1903 in Wakefield, West Riding of Yorkshire, the eldest child of Gertrude and Herbert Hepworth, her father was a civil engineer for the West Riding County Council, who in 1921 became County Surveyor. Hepworth attended Wakefield Girls' High School, where she was awarded music prizes at the age of twelve as noted by Sophie Bowness in "Rhythm of the Stones: Barbara Hepworth and Music" and won a scholarship to and studied at the Leeds School of Art from 1920, it was there that she met Henry Moore. They established a friendly rivalry that lasted professionally for many years.
Hepworth was the first to sculpt the pierced figures. They would lead in the path to modernism in sculpture. Despite attempting to gain a position in what was a male-dominated environment, Hepworth won a county scholarship to attend the Royal College of Art in London, studied there from 1921 until she was awarded the diploma of the Royal College of Art in 1924. Following her studies at the RCA, Hepworth travelled to Florence, Italy, in 1924 on a West Riding Travel Scholarship. Hepworth was the runner-up for the Prix-de-Rome, which the sculptor John Skeaping won. After travelling with him to Siena and Rome, Hepworth married Skeaping on 13 May 1925 in Florence. In Italy, Hepworth learned how to carve marble from Giovanni Ardini. Hepworth and Skeaping returned to London in 1926, where they exhibited their works together from their flat, their son Paul was born in London in 1929. Her early work was interested in abstraction and art movements on the continent. In 1933, Hepworth travelled with Ben Nicholson to France, where they visited the studios of Jean Arp, Pablo Picasso, Constantin Brâncuşi.
Hepworth became involved with the Paris-based art movement, Abstraction-Création. In 1933, Hepworth co-founded the Unit One art movement with Nicholson and Paul Nash, the critic Herbert Read, the architect Wells Coates; the movement sought to unite abstraction in British art. Hepworth helped raise awareness of continental artists amongst the British public. In 1937, she designed the layout for Circle: An International Survey of Constructivist Art, a 300-page book that surveyed Constructivist artists and, published in London and edited by Nicholson, Naum Gabo, Leslie Martin. Hepworth married Nicholson on 17 November 1938 at Hampstead Register Office in north London, following his divorce from his wife Winifred; the couple had triplets in 1934, Rachel and Simon. Rachel and Simon became artists; the couple divorced in 1951. Hepworth and their children went to live in Cornwall at the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939. Hepworth lived in Trewyn Studios in St Ives from 1949 until her death in 1975.
She said. Here was a studio, a yard, garden where I could work in open air and space." St Ives had become a refuge for many artists during the war. On 8 February 1949, Nicholson co-founded the Penwith Society of Arts at the Castle Inn. Hepworth was a skilled draughtsman. After her daughter Sarah was hospitalised in 1944, she struck up a close friendship with the surgeon Norman Capener. At Capener's invitation, she was invited to view surgical procedures and, between 1947–1949, she produced nearly eighty drawings of operating rooms in chalk and pencil. Hepworth was fascinated by the similarities between surgeons and artists, stating: "There is, it seems to me, a close affinity between the work and approach of both physicians and surgeons, painters and sculptors."In 1950, works by Hepworth were exhibited in the British Pavilion at the XXV Venice Biennale alongside works by Matthew Smith and John Constable. The 1950 Biennale was the last time that contemporary British artists were exhibited alongside artists from the past.
Two early public commissions, Contrapunctal Forms and Turning Forms, were exhibited at the Festival of Britain in 1951. During this period, Hepworth moved away from working only in stone or wood and began to work with bronze and clay. Hepworth used her garden in St Ives, which she designed with her friend the composer Priaulx Rainier, to view her large-scale bronzes, her eldest son, was killed on 13 February 1953 in a plane crash while serving with the Royal Air Force in Thailand. A memorial to him and Child, is in the parish church of St Ives. Exhausted, in part from her son's death, Hepworth travelled to Greece with her good friend Margaret Gardiner in August 1954, they visited Athens and many of the Aegean Islands. When Hepworth returned to St Ives from Greece in August 1954, she found that Gardiner had sent her a large shipment of Nigerian guarea hardwood. Although she received only a single tree trunk, Hepworth noted that the shipment from Nigeria to the Tilbury docks came in at 17 tons. Between 1954–1956 Hepworth sculpted six pieces out of guarea wood, many of which were inspired by her trip to Greece, such as "Corinthos" and "Curved Form".
The artist increased her studio space when she purchased the Palais de Danse, a cinema and dance studio, across the street from Trewyn in 1960. She used this new space to work on large-scale commis