Fond du Lac Indian Reservation
The Fond du Lac Indian Reservation is an Indian reservation in northern Minnesota near Cloquet in Carlton and Saint Louis counties. Off-reservation holdings are located across the state in Douglas County, in the northwest corner of Wisconsin; the total land area of these tribal lands is 153.8375 square miles. It is the land-base for the Fond du Lac Band of Lake Superior Chippewa. Before the establishment of this reservation, the Fond du Lac Band of Lake Superior Chippewa were located at the head of Lake Superior, closer to the mouth of the Saint Louis River, where Duluth has developed; the tribe ceded land to the US as part of an 1837 treaty along with other Ojibwa bands. As part of the Treaty of La Pointe in 1842, the Fond du Lac Band and other Ojibwa tribes ceded large tracts of land located in the Lake Superior watershed in Wisconsin and the western Upper Peninsula of Michigan; as part of an 1854 treaty, the tribe and the Lake Superior Band of Chippewa ceded more land to the US. Under this 1854 treaty, the US established the Fond du Lac Indian Reservation farther up the Saint Louis River, at its present location.
The original Nagaajiwanaang Reservation was 1.25 times the current size. In treaty discussions the US representatives were recorded as promising the inclusion of the Perch and Big lakes, but these were excluded from the original reservation, its boundaries extended westward to the western boundaries of the 1854 Ceded Territory. Upon appeal by the tribe, the US extended the reservation boundaries southward to include the two said lakes, but as a concession, the tribe had to agree to a reduction in the western boundaries, which were placed at the current location, it established a reservation for the Lake Superior Band of Chippewa. The FDL adopted a written constitution with an elected government, its tribal council has x members. The FDL operates social services, tribal housing, a tribal police force, a natural resource building, a gas station, three community centers, a private health clinic and pharmacy called Min No Aya Win Health Center; the tribe operates two satellite health clinics, one in Duluth, named The Center for American Indian Resources, another in Minneapolis, the Mashkiki Waakaaigan Pharmacy.
It has numerous members. The tribe owns two casinos: Black Bear Casino in Carlton and Fond du Luth Casino in Duluth. Big Lake Brookston Cloquet Mahnomen Arrowhead Township Brevator Township Brookston Cloquet Culver Township North Carlton unorganized territory Perch Lake Township Stoney Brook Township Twin Lakes Township Minnesota Indian Affairs Council Fond du Lac Reservation and Off-Reservation Trust Land, Minnesota/Wisconsin, United States Census Bureau Fond du Lac Reservation 2000 US Census Tract Map for the Fond du Lac Reservation Digital copy of the 1854 Treaty establishing the Fond du Lac Reservation Digital copy of the letter requesting to modify the Fond du Lac Reservation Digital copy of the Executive Order modifying the Fond du Lac Reservation Black Bear Casino Resort
Kettle River (St. Croix River)
The Kettle is an 83.6-mile-long tributary of the St. Croix River in eastern Minnesota in the United States. Via the St. Croix River, it is part of the watershed of the Mississippi River; the river's English name is due to the large number of large rounded holes in the sandstone in and around the river, carved out by the swirling waters of the river. The river's Dakota name Céġa watpa entered into English via the Anishinaabe people's Akiko-ziibi, both meaning "Kettle River". Throughout the course of the river, the waters of the Kettle have an amber tint; this tint comes from tannins from wetlands. The Kettle's flow changes quickly with rainfall in the area of drainage, about 1,060 square miles, it is not uncommon for the river to be reduced to a trickle during dry summer spells, rise to a whitewater torrent after a few days of rain. Normal water flows vary seasonally from 200 to over 6000 ft³/sec. Check the USGS Water Gauge for current flows before you go. Deep sections of the river exist, with some pools reaching over 100 feet in depth.
The astounding depth of the river and general good water quality support a population of the ancient sturgeon. Up until May of 2018, the record largest fish caught in the state of Minnesota was a 70-inch, 94 pound 4 oz sturgeon caught in the Kettle River in 1994; this record was bested by a 73 inch sturgeon weighing 105 lbs. caught in the Rainy River. The upper section of the river is quick moving with frequent riffles and a few class I rapids; this section of the river is runnable. As the river flows to Banning State Park, its character changes as the river drops through a series of rapids ranging from class I to class IV; these rapids are runnable in an open canoe when water levels are low to moderate, but can become dangerous to experienced whitewater kayakers and rafters during high water. The steep rocky sides to the river, undercut banks and kettles, can make a rescue difficult in these conditions. Shortly after exiting the park, the river quiets before Big Spring Falls; the falls was recreated in 1995.
The removal of the dam has allowed the sturgeon a greater range on the river. There is a small picnic area next to the falls, a bit of a rough portage down to the water. From the falls to the confluence of the St. Croix, the Kettle continues to drop at a moderate rate with frequent riffles and occasional class I rapids; the rapids increase in frequency, but not intensity as the river approaches the St. Croix; this last section of the river is some of the best canoeing available in the state with manageable rapids, good fishing, frequent wildlife sightings and absence of other people. The Kettle River hosts class III-IV white water rapids that are paddled by kayakers and rafters; the Kettle flows into the St. Croix River 10 miles east-northeast of Pine City. Near its headwaters the river collects the West Branch Kettle River, which flows southeastwardly from its source near Wright. Other tributaries include the Dead Moose and Split Rock rivers, which join the Kettle in Carlton County, the Moose Horn, Willow and Grindstone rivers, which join it in Pine County.
Wolf Creek, in Banning State Park, drops over a 12-foot waterfall just before it enters the Kettle River. Artists Clara Mairs and Clement Haupers frequented the Kettle River, created paintings of the people and landscape. Breinin, Greg. Paddling Minnesota. ISBN 1-56044-690-0 Columbia Gazetteer of North America entry U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Kettle River Waters, Thomas F.. The Streams and Rivers of Minnesota. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0-8166-0960-8. Kettle River canoe route from the Minnesota DNR Kettle River Rafting Adventures American Whitewater - Minnesota Rivers USGS Kettle River Current Water Flow Kettle River Paddle Festival
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
St. Louis County, Minnesota
St. Louis County is a county located in the northeastern part of the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 census, the population was 200,226, its county seat is Duluth. It is the largest county by total area in Minnesota, the largest in the United States east of the Mississippi River. St. Louis County is included in MN-WI Metropolitan Statistical Area. Major industries include pulpwood tourism. Surface mining of taconite and processing it into high grade iron ore remains an important part of the economy of the Iron Range. Parts of the federally recognized Bois Forte and Fond du Lac Indian reservations are in the county; this area was long inhabited by Algonquian-speaking tribes: the Ojibwe and Potawatomi peoples were loosely affiliated in the Council of Three Fires. As American settlers entered the territory, the Native Americans were pushed to outer areas; the Minnesota Legislature established St. Louis County on February 20, 1855, as Doty County, changed its name to Newton County on March 3, 1855.
It consisted of the area east and south of the St. Louis River, while the area east of the Vermilion River and north of the St. Louis River was part of Superior County. Superior County was renamed St. Louis County. On March 1, 1856, that St. Louis County was renamed as Lake County. Newton County had that eastern area added to it. On May 23, 1857, St. Louis County took its current shape when Carlton County was formed from parts of St. Louis and Pine counties. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 6,860 square miles, of which 6,247 square miles is land and 612 square miles is water. By area, it is the largest county in Minnesota and the largest in the U. S. east of the Mississippi River. Voyageurs National Park, established in 1975, is located in its northwestern corner, on the south shore of Rainy Lake on the Canada–US border; the county includes parts of Superior National Forest, established in 1909, the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness on the border, established in 1978.
The BWCAW is a 1,090,000-acre wilderness area designated for fishing, camping and canoeing, is one of the most visited wilderness areas in the United States. St. Louis County has more than 500 lakes, including Rainy, Namakan, Sand Point, Crane lakes; the largest lakes are Vermilion. The "Hill of Three Waters" on the Laurentian Divide lies northeast of Hibbing. Rain falling on this hill runs to three watersheds: Hudson Bay to the north, the Gulf of Saint Lawrence to the east, or the Gulf of Mexico to the south and west; the county is drained by the St. Louis and other rivers. Duluth on Lake Superior is one of the most important fresh-water ports in the United States and located in this county; the county encompasses part of the Iron Range. It has had a significant taconite mining industry in the city of Virginia. Rainy River District, Canada Lake County Douglas County, Wisconsin Carlton County Aitkin County Itasca County Koochiching County Superior National Forest Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness Voyageurs National Park The county has a humid continental climate moderated by its proximity to Lake Superior.
Winters are long and cold seeing maximum temperatures remaining below 32 °F on 106 days. Due to global warming, in January 2019 Tracy Twine, professor at the University of Minnesota’s Department of Soil and Climate, said "we just don’t expect temperatures to be below 10 degrees Fahrenheit in Duluth anymore. Public schools and other government offices shut down on January 29-30, 2019 because of wind chills of -70°F; as of the 2010 census, there were 200,226 people residing in the county. The racial makeup of the county was 94.0% White, 2.2% Native American, 0.4% Black or African American, 0.9% Asian, 0.2% of some other race and 2.3% of two or more races. 1.2% were Hispanic or Latino. According to the 2010–2015 American Community Survey, the ancestral makeup was 24.3% German, 15.9% Norwegian, 13.0% Swedish, 10.2% Irish. As of the 2000 census, there were 200,528 people, 82,619 households, 51,389 families residing in the county; the population density was 32 people per square mile. There were 95,800 housing units at an average density of 15 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 94.86% White, 0.85% Black or African American, 2.03% Native American, 0.66% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.22% from other races, 1.35% from two or more races. 0.80% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 27.60% of households included children under the age of 18, 49.30% were married couples living together, 9.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.80% were non-families. 31.20% of all households consisted of individuals and 13.00% of individuals 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.90. The population spread by age was 22.40% under the age of 18, 11.40% from 18 to 24, 25.90% from 25 to 44, 24.30% from 45 to 64, 16.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 96.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $36,306, the median income for a family was $47,134.
Males had a median income of $37,934 versus $24
Interstate 35 is a major Interstate Highway in the central United States. As with most interstates that end in a five, it is a major cross-country, north-south route stretching from Laredo, Texas, at the Mexican-American border to Duluth, Minnesota, at Minnesota Highway 61 and 26th Avenue East; the highway splits into Interstate 35E and Interstate 35W in two separate places, the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex in Texas and at the Minnesota twin cities of Minneapolis–Saint Paul. At 1,568 mi, Interstate 35 is the ninth-longest Interstate Highway following Interstate 94, it is the third-longest north-south Interstate Highway, following Interstate 75 and Interstate 95. Though the route is considered to be a border to border highway, this highway does not directly connect to either international border. I-35's southern terminus is a traffic signal in Laredo, just short of the Mexican–American border. Travelers going south can take one of two toll bridges across the Rio Grande and the Mexican border, either straight ahead into the Juarez-Lincoln International Bridge, or via Interstate 35 Business through downtown Laredo into the Gateway to the Americas International Bridge.
To the north, I-35 terminates in Duluth, with connections to Canada from the interstate's terminus via Minnesota Highway 61 to Grand Portage, or north to the border at International Falls, Minnesota via U. S. Route 53 in Duluth, but that route is more accessed from the south by Minnesota Highway 33 at Cloquet, Minnesota. In addition to the Dallas-Fort Worth and Minneapolis-Saint Paul areas, the major cities that I-35 connects to include San Antonio. I-35 northbound begins at a traffic-signaled intersection with Business Spur I-35 in Laredo, just north of the Rio Grande and the international border between Mexico and the US, it has a 17-mile concurrency with U. S. Highway 83. Through Webb, La Salle, Frio counties, it has a north-northeastern course, turning more northeastly around Moore, it cuts across the corners of Medina and Atascosa counties before entering Bexar County and San Antonio. I-35 is named the Pan Am Expressway in San Antonio. There, it has brief concurrencies with I-10 and I-410, it serves as the northern terminus of I-37.
I-35 heads northeast out of the city towards Austin. In Austin, I-35 is the Interregional Highway and has a concurrency with US 290 through Downtown Austin. Throughout Austin, elevated express lanes were constructed on either side of the original freeway. Prior to this expansion, this section included an at-grade railroad crossing, unusual for a freeway. From Austin, I-35 goes through Round Rock, Temple and Waco. In Belton, south of Temple, it serves as the current eastern terminus for I-14. In Waco, I-35 is known as the Jack Kultgen Freeway, begins its concurrency with US 77; the campuses of both the University of Texas at Austin and Baylor University are located adjacent to I-35. I-35 heads to Hillsboro, where it splits into I-35W and I-35E and runs through the Dallas–Fort Worth area; the official mile markers, along with the route of US 77, follow I-35E through Dallas—I-35W, 85 miles in length, carries its own mileage from Hillsboro to Denton, as though it were an x35 loop. In Dallas, I-35E is the R.
L. Thornton Freeway south of I-30, which picks up the name heading east. North of I-30, it is the Stemmons Freeway. After passing through Dallas and Fort Worth, I-35's two forks branches in Denton near the University of North Texas campus; the unified Interstate continues north to Gainesville before crossing the Red River into Oklahoma. In Oklahoma, I-35 runs from the Red River at the Texas border to the Kansas state line near Braman, it passes adjacent to many of the state's major cities. From south to north these cities include Ardmore, Pauls Valley, Norman, Oklahoma City, Del City, Midwest City, Edmond, El Reno, Guthrie and Ponca City. In Downtown Oklahoma City, I-35 has a major junction with I-40 and spurs into I-235 through the north central inner city as heavy traffic follows through the city into the northern area of the state. Between the Oklahoma state line and Emporia, I-35 is part of the Kansas Turnpike; this section of interstate passes through the Flint Hills area. At Emporia, I-35 branches off on its own alignment.
This free section of I-35 provides access to Ottawa before entering the Kansas City Metropolitan Area, where it serves Johnson County, Kansas City, Kansas. Of note on the route, at several points between Cassoday and Emporia in the Flint Hills dirt driveways that provide direct access without a ramp, for cattle trucks, may be found in either direction along the highway. BETO Junction is a highway intersection in Coffey County, Kansas, the intersection of U. S. Highway 75 and I-35, it derives its name from the four major cities nearest the intersection: Burlington, Emporia and Ottawa. It is located 16 miles north of Burlington at exit 155; the intersection referred to as "BETO Junction" before I-35 was constructed was located on the old US 75 highway alignments 2 miles south and 2 miles east, near Waverly, Kansas. I-35 enters Missouri two miles southwest of Kansas City's Central Business District as a six-lane highway. After merging with Southwest Trafficway and Broadway, it becomes eight lanes and continues north to downtown Kansas City, where it serves as the west and north legs of the downtown freeway loop.
Along the north edge of the loop, I-35 joins with I-70 west of Broadway and carries six lanes of traffic with a s