The Carnac stones are an exceptionally dense collection of megalithic sites in Brittany in northwestern France, consisting of stone alignments, dolmens and single menhirs. More than 3,000 prehistoric standing stones were hewn from local granite and erected by the pre-Celtic people of Brittany, form the largest such collection in the world. Most of the stones are within the Breton village of Carnac, but some to the east are within La Trinité-sur-Mer; the stones were erected at some stage during the Neolithic period around 3300 BCE, but some may date to as early as 4500 BCE. Although the stones date from 4500 BCE, modern myths were formed which resulted from 1st century AD Roman and Christian occupations. A Christian myth associated with the stones held that they were pagan soldiers in pursuit of Pope Cornelius when he turned them to stone. Brittany has its own local versions of the Arthurian cycle. Local tradition claims that the reason they stand in such straight lines is that they are a Roman legion turned to stone by Merlin.
In recent centuries, many of the sites have been neglected, with reports of dolmens being used as sheep shelters, chicken sheds or ovens. More stones have been removed to make way for roads, or as building materials; the continuing management of the sites remains a controversial topic. There are three major groups of stone rows – Ménec and Kerlescan – which may have once formed a single group, but have been split up as stones were removed for other purposes; the standing stones are made of weathered granite from local outcroppings that once extensively covered the area. Eleven converging rows of menhirs stretching for 1,165 by 100 metres. There are. According to the tourist office there is a "cromlech containing 71 stone blocks" at the western end and a ruined cromlech at the eastern end; the largest stones, around 4 metres high, are at the wider, western end. This fan-like layout recurs a little further along to the east in the Kermario alignment, it consists of 1029 stones in about 1,300 m in length.
A stone circle to the east end, where the stones are shorter, was revealed by aerial photography. A smaller group of 555 stones, further to the east of the other two sites, it is composed of 13 lines with a total length of about 800 metres, ranging in height from 80 cm to 4 m. At the extreme west, where the stones are tallest, there is a stone circle. There may be another stone circle to the north. A much smaller group, further east again of Kerlescan, falling within the commune of La Trinité-sur-Mer; these are now set in woods, most are covered with moss and ivy. There are mounds of earth built up over a grave. In this area, they feature a passage leading to a central chamber which once held neolithic artifacts; the tumulus of Saint-Michel was constructed between 5000 BC and 3400 BC. At its base it is 125 by 60 m, is 12 m high, it required 35,000 cubic metres of earth. Its function was the same as that of the pyramids of Egypt: a tomb for the members of the ruling class, it contained various funerary objects, such as 15 stone chests, jewellery, most of which are held by the Museum of Prehistory of Carnac.
It was excavated in 1862 by digging down 8 m. Le Rouzic excavated it between 1900 and 1907, discovering the tomb and the stone chests. A chapel was built on top in 1663 and was rebuilt in 1813, before being destroyed in 1923; the current building is an identical reconstruction of the 1663 chapel, built in 1926. 47.6119°N 3.0608°W / 47.6119. It has a dolmen at the west end, two tombs at the east end. A small menhir 3 m high, is nearby. There are several dolmens scattered around the area; these dolmens are considered to have been tombs. They were constructed with several large stones supporting a capstone buried under a mound of earth. In many cases, the mound is no longer present, sometimes due to archeological excavation, only the large stones remain, in various states of ruin. North, near the Chapelle de La Madeleine. Has a covered roof. 47.6208°N 3.0482°W / 47.6208. It is named after the nearby Chapelle de La Madeleine, still used. A rare dolmen still covered by its original cairn. South of the Kermario alignments, it is 25 to 30 metres wide, 5 m high, has a small menhir on top.
Surrounded by a circle of small menhirs 4 m out, the main passage is 6.5 m long and leads to a large chamber where numerous artifacts were found, including axes, some animal and human teeth, some pearls and sherds, 26 beads of a unique bluish Nephrite gem. It has some Megalithic art carved on its inner surfaces in the form of serpentines and a human-sized double-axe symbol carved in the underside of its main roof slab. In ancient cultures, the axe and more the bi-pennis used to represent the lightning powers of divinity, it was constructed around 4600 BC and used for 3,000 years. A
California Institution for Women is a Women's state prison located in the city of Corona, Riverside County, east of Los Angeles. Although the official California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation documents give a mailing address for CIW in the city of Corona in Riverside County, the prison has been physically located in the city of Chino since 2003 following an annexation of land in previously-unincorporated San Bernardino County. CIW has 120 acres, its facilities include Level I housing, Level II housing, Level III housing. In addition, a Reception Center "provides short term housing to process and evaluate incoming inmates."As of Fiscal Year 2008/2009, CIW had 977 staff and an annual budget of $75 million Institutional and $2.6 million Education. As of October 31, 2013, it had a design capacity of 1,398 but a total institution population of 2,155, for an occupancy rate of 154.1 percent. CIW s located east of Downtown Los Angeles, it takes about one hour to travel to the prison from Downtown LA.
The original California Institution for Women was dedicated in Tehachapi in 1932. CIW was called "California Institution for Women at Corona," but "Corona residents objected to the use of their city in the prison's name and it was changed March 1, 1962, to Frontera, a feminine derivative of the word frontier, symbolic for a new beginning." It housed the location of the death row for women in the state. CIW was the only women's prison in California until 1987, when the Northern California Women's Facility opened. In the early years of CIW, convicted women wore Sunday dresses while walking and working at the campus-like setting until the 1980s when three towers were added with officers atop armed with shotguns. Among other programs for inmates at CIW is "Voices from Within" in which inmates read books on tapes for "high school students in remedial classes," "college students with reading disabilities," and the blind; the first prison nursery in California opened at CIW in 2006 "to correct what experts call a dangerous disruption of the natural bonding process."
It "join newborns with their incarcerated mothers for up to 15 months." In 2007, the state of California proposed building 45 new units for mentally ill inmates at CIW and 975 at the nearby California Institution for Men. From 2006 to 2013 one woman at CIW committed suicide. From January 1, 2013 to July 2016 six women committed suicide at CIW, there had been an increase in suicide attempts. Renee Alway, a current inmate, is a noted American model and a former contestant of America's Next Top Model and Modelville runner-up, she is serving a 12-year sentence for four felony burglary counts and one count each of vehicular theft and being a felon in possession of a firearm. Betty Broderick, a current inmate, was a San Diego socialite, convicted of the 1989 murder of her ex-husband, Dan Broderick, his new wife, Linda Kolkena Broderick, she was sentenced to 32-years-to-life in prison. Julia Rodriquez Diaz (First female inmate to receive 15 years parole denial under Proposition 9 Convicted in July 1979 of the murder of seven-year-old boy Javier Angel.
Story told in September 2013 on Investigation Discovery's Deadly Women "Heartless Souls" Barbara Graham and subject of the 1958 film I Want to Live!. Graham was subsequently executed at San Quentin State Prison on June 3, 1955. Claudia Haro, ex-wife of actor Joe Pesci. Pleaded no contest to attempted murder for hiring a hitman to kill her now ex-husband and Hollywood stunt-man, Garrett Warren. Is serving a 12-year sentence. Theresa Knorr - Was charged and found guilty of two counts of murder, two counts of conspiracy to commit murder, two special circumstances charges: multiple murder and murder by torture. Was sentenced to two consecutive life sentences. Patricia Krenwinkel and Leslie Van Houten, of Charles Manson's "Family", are current inmates. Susan Atkins, another Manson Family member, was transferred to Central California Women's Facility in May 2008; each has been denied parole. Atkins, subsequently diagnosed with cancer, was denied a compassionate release in July 2008, Krenwinkel had been scheduled to have a hearing in January 2008, but the date was postponed upon request of her new lawyer, Van Houten received a two-year denial in August 2007.
Susan Atkins died September 24, 2009. Stephanie Lazarus, a former LAPD detective convicted in 2012 of the 1986 murder of a former boyfriend's wife, is in CIW, her Number is WE4479. Dorothea Puente, a convicted serial killer, "did two years and six months for a forgery conviction" beginning in 1984. Cathy Evelyn Smith was in CIW between December 1986 and March 1988 for involuntary manslaughter and drug charges related to the death of John Belushi. Brenda Ann Spencer, a current inmate, was convicted of killing two people and wounding nine at a school in San Diego in 1979. Lucille Miller, who in 1965 served 7 years of a life sentence for the first-degree murder of her husband in what prosecutors alleged was a real-life case of Double Indemnity. Miller's case was the subject of an essay by Joan Didion in the writer's 1968 book Slouching Towards Bethlehem. California Institution for Men Official website University of California, Los Angeles Libraries images: California Institution for Women, c
Carl Breer was an American automotive industry engineer. Along with Fred M. Zeder and Owen Skelton, he was one of the core engineering people that formed the present day Chrysler Corporation, he made material contributions to Tourist Automobile Company, Allis-Chalmers and was the moving engineer behind the Chrysler AirFlow. He was inducted into the Automotive Hall of Fame. Breer was born in Los Angeles, California, on 8 November 1883, he was from German descent. His father came from a village of the Hartz Mountains in Germany, while his mother came from a village of the Black Forest. Breer was the youngest of 9 children in the family, he had 6 brothers. His father's name was Louis, his mother's name was Julia. Breer's father was born in 1828 and his mother was born in 1840. Breer's father was a skilled blacksmith refining his skills by traveling from village to village in Germany. At the age of 20, to avoid being selected for a three-year term in the German army, Breer's father moved to the United States just as he was turning 21.
He moved about quite a bit for the first few years while in the United States, but settled in the Los Angeles area, where he lived for the rest of his life. Breer's mother was born in Ober-Owerisheim, Germany, located in the Black Forest, his mother and her younger sister moved to the United States to join an uncle who had a shipping business on the west coast of the United States. They settled in the Los Angeles area. Breer's father and mother married in 1863; when Breer was a child growing up his family had a redwood cottage they stayed in for the summer months in Santa Monica, some 16 miles away that took about a three and a half hours one way by horse and buggy from their Los Angeles home. Breer participated in the operations at his father's blacksmith shop when he was a teenager and learned the basics of iron works. Here he acquired journeyman blacksmith skills; when Breer was 14 years old in 1897 he was given a personalized tour of the Los Angeles Water Works pumping plant by the chief engineer, Fred J. Fisher.
During the tour he noticed an innovation that Fisher made – a homemade electric generator to generate electricity for light bulbs in the dark corners of the plant. Mr. Fisher became Breer's mentor, he would visit him at the plant on weekends and when out of school. He copied Fisher's generator; this was Breer's first inspiration for engineering. Breer was 17 years old in 1900; the inspiration came. He confided in Fisher and they decided to build a steam engine for the new car, since Breer's blacksmithing experience had given him some understanding of what was needed. Using Stanley Steamer designs from a magazine as an initial guide, he roughed-out a two-cylinder steam engine, from which he drew detailed sketches of the component parts, he took a wood-carved model of the cylinder block to a foundry to be cast. When the foundry failed on several attempts to make the casting, Breer asked if he could try using their facilities — and made a satisfactory cylinder on his first attempt. Breer made additional parts needed for the steam engine.
One piece was a Bunsen-type burner fueled by gasoline to heat the boiler for the steam. This required about 3,000 small holes to be drilled into the inner chamber of the air tubes. Since there was no drill that could do this, Breer improvised a high-speed Pelton type drill press that operated on water pressure from their outdoor water faucet. With his innovation, the holes were drilled in a short time. Breer assembled his car in 1901, with some help in upholstery and painting the car supplied by hired carriage workers; the maiden voyage of Breer's steam car was made in the fall of 1901. Several improvements were made to the car over the next few years. One was a spare gas tank for the boiler, so that he could go trout fishing with his brother Bill at San Gabriel Canyon near Azusa, California—some 35 miles away on rough dirt roads, a trip not possible with horse and buggy. Breer registered his car, as was required by Los Angeles for all horseless carriages, obtained a favored locomotive number, 666.
Breer rated his steam car at 25–35 miles per hour or about twice the speed of a horse. His car was more efficient than a horse for long distance hill climbing. While his steam car was more effective this way, it was determined by English engineers that steam powered cars were less effective than gasoline powered cars, they conclude. A gasoline car would start where a steam-powered car took time to build up its power. A gas car was more efficient in miles per a more compact vehicle; these reasons motivated some steam powered car companies to convert to gasoline vehicles. He was inducted into the Automotive Hall of Fame in 1976. Breer wanted a job and experience, so he applied at the Tourist Automobile Company, located at North Main and Alameda Street in Los Angeles, he had no prior job experience to offer to the head of the service garage, but demonstrated his steam car he made that he drove there. This obtained for him the first official engineering job during his summer vacations from high school to demonstrate and design.
This led to other similar job opportunities from east coast steam powered automobiles such as Toledo Steam Cars, the Spalding, the Northern, the White Steamer. On the west coast, he was a developer of the cutting edge two-cylinder Duro car. Los Angeles Commercial High School that he attended had no credit standing for an official mechan