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Carnegie Institution for Science

The Carnegie Institution of Washington, known for public purposes as the Carnegie Institution for Science, is an organization in the United States established to fund and perform scientific research. The institution is headquartered in Washington, D. C. More than 20 organizations around the world that were established through the philanthropy of Andrew Carnegie now feature his surname and perform work involving topics as diverse as art, international affairs, world peace, scientific research; the organizations are related by name only. In 2007, the institution adopted the public name "Carnegie Institution for Science" to distinguish itself better from other organizations established by and named for Andrew Carnegie; the institution remains and the Carnegie Institution of Washington, but now has a public identity that describes its work more accurately. "It is proposed to found in the city of Washington, an institution which...shall in the broadest and most liberal manner encourage investigation and discovery show the application of knowledge to the improvement of mankind..."

— Andrew Carnegie, January 28, 1902 Beginning during 1895, Andrew Carnegie contributed his vast fortune toward the establishment of 22 organizations that presently feature his surname and perform work in such topics as art, international affairs and scientific research. In 1901, Andrew Carnegie retired from business to begin his career in philanthropy. Among his new enterprises, he considered establishing a national university in Washington, D. C. similar to the great centers of learning in Europe. Because he was concerned that a new university could weaken existing universities, he opted for an independent research organization that would increase basic scientific knowledge. Carnegie communicated with President Theodore Roosevelt and declared his readiness to endow the new institution with $10 million, he added $2 million more to the endowment in 1907, another $10 million in 1911. By some estimates, the value of his endowment in current terms was $500 million; as ex officio members of the first board of trustees, Carnegie chose the President of the United States, the President of the Senate, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the secretary of the Smithsonian Institution and the president of the National Academy of Sciences.

In all, he selected 27 men for the institution's original board. Their first meeting was held in the office of the Secretary of State on January 29, 1902, Daniel Coit Gilman, president of Johns Hopkins University, was elected president; the institution was incorporated by the U. S. Congress in 1903; the president and trustees devoted much of the institution's budget to individual grants for various topics, including astronomy, literature, economics and mathematics. Among the researchers who received individual grants were American physicist Albert A. Michelson, paleontologist Oliver Perry Hay, botanist Janet Russell Perkins, Thomas Hunt Morgan and his "fly group", geologist Thomas Chrowder Chamberlin, historian of science George Sarton, rocket pioneer Robert H. Goddard and botanist Luther Burbank; the institution funded archaeological research by Sylvanus Morley at Chichen Itza. As directed by Robert Woodward, who became president in 1904, the board changed its practice, deciding to provide major funding to departments of research rather than to individuals.

This allowed them to concentrate on fewer topics and fund groups of researchers in related areas over many years. Starting in 1907 the Institution maintained the Tortugas Laboratory on Garden Key, under the direction of Alfred G. Mayer. Since the beginning, the Carnegie Institution has made discoveries but left the development to others; this philosophy has resulted in unexpected results, including the development of hybrid corn, the technology that led to Pyrex ® glass, novel techniques to control genes known as RNA interference. Some of Carnegie's researchers from the early and middle years of the 20th century are well known: Edwin Hubble, who revolutionized astronomy with his discovery that the universe is expanding and that there are galaxies other than our own Milky WayCharles Richter, who created the earthquake measurement scale; when the United States joined World War II, Vannevar Bush was president of the Carnegie Institution. Several months before, on June 12, 1940, Bush had been instrumental in persuading President Franklin Roosevelt to create the National Defense Research Committee to mobilize and coordinate the nation's scientific war effort.

Bush housed the new agency in the Carnegie Institution's administrative headquarters at 16th and P Streets, NW, in Washington, DC, converting its great rotunda and auditorium into office cubicles. From this location, Bush supervised, among the Manhattan Project. Further, Carnegie scientists cooperated with the development of the proximity fuze and mass production of penicillin; as of June 30, 2018, the Institution's endowment was valued at $996 million. Expenses for scientific programs and administration was $96.6 million. As of July 2, 2018

Amalgamated Housing Cooperative

Amalgamated Housing Cooperative the Amalgamated Cooperative Apartment House, is a pioneering American limited-equity cooperative apartment complex organized under the provisions of the Private Housing Finance law, article IV and built from 1927 to 1930 in The Bronx, New York City, New York. The Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, headed by Sidney Hillman and prodded by Cooperative housing founder Abraham E. Kazan and organized the construction of a community of affordable housing for the working class, it was designed by the architectural team that included Herman Jessor, the man who designed the bulk of the housing cooperatives that went up between 1930-1975. It was the first cooperative housing complex in the United States founded under the limited equity rules; the undertaking was such a success, that it spawned over 40,000 more units to crop up around New York City. Amalgamated Housing grew from original 300 to 1500 apartments by 2007; the newest tower building was completed in 1971.

United Workers Cooperatives Cooperative Village Penn South Co-Op City Amalgamated Housing Website Robie, Alexis. "Lex's Folly: Union Forever", 2004 10:30 AM Hans, Alexandra Vozick. "Amalgamated Housing: The History of a Pioneer Co-Operative 1927 Bronx, New York",, March 2006 - July 2007 At Home in Utopia documentary on housing cooperatives in the Bronx highlighting the Coops with footage of the Amalgamated.


Econodynamics is an empirical science that studies emergences and disappearance of value—a specific concept, used for description of the processes of production and distribution of wealth. Econodynamics is based on the achievements of classical political economy and neo-classical economics and has been using the methods of phenomenological science to investigate evolution of economic system. Econodynamics has been proposing methods of forecasting of economic processes; the comprehensive review of the problems of econodynamics is given by Vladimir Pokrovskii. Economic events are considered as processes of creation and distribution of value, understood as exchange value without any factor interpretation; the factor theory of the exchange value is based on the Smith-Marx’s labour theory of value. According to which efforts of workers L are the most essential production factor, it was impossible to explain the modern economic growth without introduction the second value-creating factor connected with production equipment.

The neoclassical economics has delabourated the ideas about productive force of capital and is using the value of production equipment K as a characteristic variable. In addition to it, econodynamics has been taking into account the functional role of production equipment, as a set of appliances that allow to substitute efforts of workers with work of outer sources of power. A new concept of substitutive work P was introduced, to characterize the functional role of machinery in production processes; the law of substitution, one of the main principles of econodynamics, generalized the Smith-Marx’s labour theory of value. And provide a new interpretation of neo-classical economics; the variable P is true work of production equipment and is equivalent to workers’ efforts in entire relationship, so that the production of value Y can be considered as a function of the two production factors The extension of the labour theory of value with the law of substitution allows us to formulate the theory, which, in fact, is a modification and re-interpretation of neo-classical theory of production with two production factors: labour L and capital K.

The comparison of the theory with neo-classical theory growth accounting that introduce the technical progress as the exogenous factor A gives the expression The exogenous neo-classical technical progress A appears to be connected with the ratio of substitutive work to stock of capital P / K, which can be considered as a measure of technological progress itself, independent on the assumption made in the neo-classical theory. Sometimes it is convenient to use the non-dimensional ratio of substitutive work to labour efforts P / L as a characteristic of technological progress. To the end of the last century, this ratio reaches, for example, 12 for the USA. Technical progress, as an internal property of the theory, is understood as a progress in substitution of labour with work of production equipment in technological processes; the introduction of the substitutive work P could be useful. Although one can find estimates of the total amount of primary energy carriers, the biggest interest for our aims is caused by possible assessments of the quantity of energy going to the substitution of workers' efforts in processes of the production.

This is a problem, considered specially. The direct methods of estimation of the substitutive work can be used for both past and future situations. For example, the total amount of substitutive work in the U. S. economy in 1999 can be estimated as 10 18 J per year. It is one hundred times less than total consumption of energy, about 97 ⋅ 10 18 J in 1999. However, the amount of primary energy, needed to provide this amount of substitutive work, is about 25 ⋅ 10 18 J, it is about 26% of total primary consumption of energy. Econodynamics establishes relationship between the concrete wealth and abstract concepts of value and entropy; the artificial products created by humans: buildings, vehicles, clothes, home appliances and so on, can be sorted and counted, so that one consider the amounts of quantities in natural units of measurement Q 1, Q 2... Q n and the prices of all products p 1, p 2... P n to be given, so that one can define increase in value of a stock of products as Due to dependence of prices on the amounts of products p i = p i ( Q 1, Q 2


Viapath is a London-based provider of pathology services jointly owned by Serco, Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, King's College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust. Viapath provides pathology services to Bedford Hospital NHS Trust and the Princess Royal University Hospital as well as to Guy's, St Thomas’ and King's College hospitals, delivering tests across 20 major pathology services, from clinical transplantation to biochemical genetics and biochemical sciences. More than 1,000 scientists support these services; the laboratories are either accredited with or working towards the ISO 15189 medical laboratory standard and are listed by UKAS. The cancer diagnostics hub has an extensive range of tests and the Haematological Malignancy Diagnostic Centre offers a comprehensive, state of the art clinical and diagnostic service. Taking on the recommendations of the National Institute for Clinical Excellence guidance on cancer services, it offers a multidisciplinary service to diagnose and monitor haematological cancers.

This includes immunophenotyping, molecular haemato-oncology and histology providing a high-volume, rapid turn-around, integrated diagnostic facility in a single pathology laboratory site. The genetics laboratories are supporting the UK’s ground-breaking 100,000 Genomes Project, set to improve the lives of countless patients with cancer and rare diseases by sequencing 100,000 whole genomes from around 70,000 NHS patients with rare diseases or cancer. Viapath has instigated many research projects some of which have resulted in the development of new tests with sustainable clinical benefits. One such project aims to revolutionise the field of pathogen identification and anti-microbial susceptibility, it will improve early management of sepsis, reduce unnecessary antibiotic use to combat antimicrobial resistance, identify rare but serious pandemic infectious diseases threats, both known and emerging. The goal is to provide same-day microbiological identification and anti-microbial susceptibility, which until now has been an enigma.

A Newborn Screening project enabled the linking of newborn and antenatal screening results, improving the robustness and scalability of Viapath’s NHS service, a benefit to patient lives. Viapath has an Innovation Fund from which scientists are invited to apply for funding to develop new tests which progress to new services that support patient care. In 2018 Viapath Nutris, a pathology-to-patient service providing access to tests which are focusing on vitamin deficiency, was introduced. There are around 120,000 people in the UK who are B12 deficient, with vegans and patients with pernicious anaemia most vulnerable and waiting for a B12 deficiency diagnosis, risks neurological damage and cognitive decline; the online service provides direct access to tests that help patients to identify their B12 status and manage it. Viapath was established under the name of GSTS Pathology in 2009, it was founded in response to the recommendations in the “Report of the Review of NHS Pathology Services in England” chaired by Lord Carter of Coles, published in 2006.

GSTS Pathology posted a £5.9 million loss in 2011 but a £3.8m net profit for the year ending December 2013, up from £300,000 in 2012. Income increased by 6% from £87.6m in 2012 to £92.5m in 2013. In 2014 the majority-owned NHS joint venture rebranded. In January 2014, Viapath began operating as three different entities: Viapath Group, Viapath Analytics and Viapath Services. Viapath Group – enables the provision of an end to end pathology service including laboratory testing services, laboratory facilities and equipment, logistics, IT and corporate support services. Viapath Analytics – enables the provision of laboratory testing services across the full range of core and reference pathology services including Blood Sciences, Histopathology & Cytology, Molecular Pathology and Genetics. Viapath Services – enables the provision of managed laboratory services including equipment, facilities, logistics and IT to support laboratory testing across all pathology disciplines; the company awarded a contract to Cerner for its PathNet pathology system in May 2014.

The company increased its income by 5% to £97.1m in 2014 compared to the previous year. Profit however dipped slightly from £3.8m to £3.7m over the same period. In February 2016, Dr David Bennett, former head of NHS Foundation Trust regulator Monitor, was appointed the new Chair of Viapath. In July 2016, Dr Dominic Harrington won the ‘Academy for Healthcare Science award for innovation’ at the Advancing Healthcare Awards, he was recognised for his achievement in creating Viapath’s Innovation Academy. The Innovation Academy is a peer-to-peer platform for innovation and was formed to encourage networking in order to advance pathology services and communicate developments in pathology. Over 100 delegates attended the inaugural symposium, which included presentations on subjects such as Child Health, Infectious Diseases and Next Generation Diagnostics. In 2016, response to the Government’s new Apprenticeship Levy scheme, Viapath partnered with 3aaa Apprenticeships to train apprentices under Viapath’s new VIAcademy scheme.

In 2018, in conjunction with the Academy of Healthcare Science, the “Viapath Award For Innovation In Healthcare Science” was created, a category, open to all UK healthcare scientists. The winners were Jonathan Ashmore and Cormac McGrath, clinical scientists from NHS Highlands and Belfast Health and Social Care Trust for their work on developing a free app which allows children to experience their upcoming MRI in virtual reality, helping them to understand and prepare for what is a difficult and scary experi

FK Rabotnički

FK Rabotnichki or more Rabotnički and Rabotnicki is a football club that plays at the Toshe Proeski Arena in Skopje, North Macedonia. They compete in the Macedonian First League. FK Rabotnichki was founded in 1937 as SK Radnički Skoplje, it is regarded as the ‘railway football club’. It started competing in the 1938–39 Second League of the Skoplje Football Subassociation which finished 4th out of 5 teams; however the next season Radnički won the league with no defeats among 6 teams and with a goal difference of 45–6, thus earning promotion to the First League of the Skoplje Football Subassociation. However the 1940–41 season of the First League of the Skoplje Football Subassociation was interrupted by the start of the Second World War. By the time Rabotnički had two draws and one defeat. After the end of the war, for a long time, Rabotnichki competed in the Federal Second League or the Macedonian Republic League, they competed in the First Federal League of SFR Yugoslavia for two years. Since the Republic of Macedonia became an independent country, Rabotnichki competes in the Macedonian First League.

In all these years since its establishing in 1937, Rabotnichki has always been among the best clubs, has always been a good representative of Macedonian football in Europe. The club's most successful years were those between 2001 and 2008 when the club was acquired by the famous company Kometal. Since it was acquired by Kometal, Rabotnichki showed constant progress: in 2002/03 they finished second in the national league and competed in the UEFA Cup, they won the national championship and competed in the qualifications for the UEFA Champions League, in they had their best year by winning the double crown. Kometal and Trifun Kostovski left Rabotnichki and took over Vardar in 2008; the following year they won the Macedonian Cup for the second time in club history. On 14 July 2009, they faced Crusaders FC of Northern Ireland in the UEFA Europa League 2nd qualifying round, they managed to win the second leg 4–2 and went out in the 3rd qualifying round against Odense BK after losing 3–7 on aggregate.

On 16 July 2010, they were drawn against Liverpool in the UEFA Europa League 3rd qualifying round. In the first leg on 29 July 2010, they lost 2–0, losing the return leg 2–0 a week later. In July 2011, they were named the best club in the World for that month by the IFFHS; the winning streak of five games in the Europa League, from which four were in July, plus a win against Bregalnica in the first round of the domestic league were more than enough for the International Federation of Football History & Statistics to name Rabotnički as the "Best club in the World for July 2011". In March 2012, with 674 points on the IFFHS list Rabotnički became the best club from Macedonia in the 21st century. On 11 May 2014, Rabotnichki won their fourth Macedonian First League title. After winning their third Macedonian Cup the previous week, they accomplished the double crown for the 2nd time in club history. Association of Veterans of Rabotnichki has been functioning informally since the formation of the club Rabotnichki itself, in 1937.

The association of the veterans of Rabotnički is formally registered in front of the competent court of law with approval number 29/05 in 18.02.2005, it is notified in the register of the associations of citizens and foundations under registration number 1928 by the name Rabotnički “Veterans” Skopje with main office in Skopje, city park in large numbers. This association inherited the property of legal entity on 18 February 2005. Apart from this right, of independent legal entity, the association is functioning in association with Rabotnički comparing its policies, delegate its own members in the governing bodies of the club, gives its own opinions and proposals of a common interest, all this with a purpose-achieving greater results and giving real affirmation of the club in both Macedonia and abroad. Basic sources of financing of the association are: enrollment fee, sponsorship, as well as goods that are supplied and sold by the club. Members of the association are: Active members who have spent a number of years in the running of the club as well as sportsmen who were active football players in the club for many years, as well as many citizens who have shown an interest in joining the association.

Accordingly, the association has members from all branches of society life including: lawyers, directors of famous companies, coaches, famous football players representatives and many other famous persons from the sport and public life. President of the association since its inception is the Lawyer Dragan Popovski, the Secretary-General is Gojko Stojanovski, the selector is Jastrat Janevski, it is with special interest that we mention that the association of veterans of FK Rabotnički is first of its kind in the Republic of Macedonia. From the moment of creation, the association has shown great development of football matters, while creating and expanding upon friendly relations with other football clubs both in Macedonia and abroad. To this end the association has established friendly sporting relations with teams from Bulgaria, Montenegro, Greece, Slovenia and Sweden among others; the association Rabotnički Veterans is a regular participant in the traditional Albena Cup, held in Albena, Bulgaria every year.

As well as in competitive games with teams in Bulgaria it has played a couple of games with teams from Romania with teams from Turkey and with teams from Serbia. With every concerned with the association have through hard work and persistence gained excellent results and helped it win numerous cups and international recognitio

2009 FIA GT3 European Championship

The 2009 FIA GT3 European Championship season was the fourth season of the FIA GT3 European Championship. The season will end on 14 November 2009 at Zolder; the season featured six double-header rounds, with each race lasting for a duration of 60 minutes. Most of the events were support races to the 2009 FIA GT Championship season, the 2009 GT4 European Cup and the 2009 Lamborghini Super Trofeo. Phoenix Racing pairing Christopher Haase and Christopher Mies claimed the overall title, with a fourth place in the final race of the season at Zolder. In the Teams Championship, Hexis Racing were champions ahead of Team Rosberg. Two new manufacturers join the FIA GT3 category in 2009. Audi, with their V10-powered R8 LMS, Alpina's B6, based on the 6-Series; the Ford Mustang FR500GT3 does not return in 2009. Ferrari replaces its previous F430 GT3 with the new 430 Scuderia GT3, while Morgan's Aero 8 is replaced by the Aero Super Sport. New for 2009 is an alteration in the structure of teams and manufacturers.

Although manufacturers will still be allowed a maximum of six cars, teams are only limited to two cars. There is therefore a maximum of three teams; the manufacturers of Ascari, Jaguar and Morgan will not be eligible for the Manufacturers Cup due to not supplying the minimum of four cars required to enter the Cup. † – JMB Racing were allowed by the FIA to use a 2008 Ferrari F430 GT3 for their #14 entry at Silverstone due to not having a second 430 Scuderia GT3 prepared in time. Points are awarded to the top eight finishers in the order 10-8-6-5-4-3-2-1. Cars which failed to complete 75% of the winner's distance are awarded half the points awarded for completing the 75% race distance; the Manufacturer Cups are open to any manufacturer who supplies at two or more teams in the full season. Points are awarded based on the driver's position within that manufacturer's class; the official website of the FIA GT3 European Championship