SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

A Carnot heat engine is a theoretical engine that operates on the Carnot cycle. The basic model for this engine was developed by Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot in 1824; the Carnot engine model was graphically expanded by Benoît Paul Émile Clapeyron in 1834 and mathematically explored by Rudolf Clausius in 1857 from which the concept of entropy emerged. Every thermodynamic system exists in a particular state. A thermodynamic cycle occurs when a system is taken through a series of different states, returned to its initial state. In the process of going through this cycle, the system may perform work on its surroundings, thereby acting as a heat engine. A heat engine acts by transferring energy from a warm region to a cool region of space and, in the process, converting some of that energy to mechanical work; the cycle may be reversed. The system may be worked upon by an external force, in the process, it can transfer thermal energy from a cooler system to a warmer one, thereby acting as a refrigerator or heat pump rather than a heat engine.

In the adjacent diagram, from Carnot's 1824 work, Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire, there are "two bodies A and B, kept each at a constant temperature, that of A being higher than that of B. These two bodies to which we can give, or from which we can remove the heat without causing their temperatures to vary, exercise the functions of two unlimited reservoirs of caloric. We will call the first the furnace and the second the refrigerator.” Carnot explains how we can obtain motive power, i.e. “work”, by carrying a certain quantity of heat from body A to body B. It acts as a cooler and hence can act as a Refrigerator; the previous image shows the original piston-and-cylinder diagram used by Carnot in discussing his ideal engines. The figure at right shows a block diagram such as the Carnot engine. In the diagram, the “working body”, a term introduced by Clausius in 1850, can be any fluid or vapor body through which heat Q can be introduced or transmitted to produce work. Carnot had postulated that the fluid body could be any substance capable of expansion, such as vapor of water, vapor of alcohol, vapor of mercury, a permanent gas, or air, etc.

Although, in these early years, engines came in a number of configurations QH was supplied by a boiler, wherein water was boiled over a furnace. The output work, W, represents the movement of the piston as it is used to turn a crank-arm, which in turn was used to power a pulley so as to lift water out of flooded salt mines. Carnot defined work as “weight lifted through a height”; the Carnot cycle when acting as a heat engine consists of the following steps: Reversible isothermal expansion of the gas at the "hot" temperature, TH. During this step the gas is allowed to expand and it does work on the surroundings; the temperature of the gas does not change during the process, thus the expansion is isothermic. The gas expansion is propelled by absorption of heat energy Q1 and of entropy Δ S H = Q H / T H from the high temperature reservoir. Isentropic expansion of the gas. For this step the piston and cylinder are assumed to be thermally insulated, thus they neither gain nor lose heat; the gas continues to expand, doing work on the surroundings, losing an equivalent amount of internal energy.

The gas expansion causes it to cool to the "cold" temperature, TC. The entropy remains unchanged. Reversible isothermal compression of the gas at the "cold" temperature, TC. Now the gas is exposed to the cold temperature reservoir while the surroundings do work on the gas by compressing it, while causing an amount of heat energy Q2 and of entropy Δ S C = Q C / T C to flow out of the gas to the low temperature reservoir; this work is less than the work performed on the surroundings in step 1 because it occurs at a lower pressure given the removal of heat to the cold reservoir as the compression occurs. Isentropic compression of the gas. Once again the piston and cylinder are assumed to be thermally insulated and the cold temperature reservoir is removed. During this step, the surroundings continue to do work to further compress the gas and both the temperature and pressure rise now that the heat sink has been removed; this additional work increases the internal energy of the gas, compressing it and causing the temperature to rise to TH.

The entropy remains unchanged. At this point the gas is in the same state as at the start of step 1. Carnot's theorem is a formal statement of this fact: No engine operating between two heat reservoirs can be more efficient than a Carnot engine operating between the same reservoirs. Explanation This maximum efficiency η I is defined as above: W is the work done by the system, Q H is the heat p

Gertrude Mary Denman, Lady Denman, GBE, sometimes known as Trudie, was a British woman active in women's rights issues including the promotion of Women's suffrage in the United Kingdom. She was the wife of Lord Denman, the 3rd Baron Denman, fifth Governor-General of Australia, she named Australia's capital city Canberra in 1913, she was the second child, only daughter, of Weetman and Annie Pearson. Her father was a successful businessman in engineering, in the development of oilfields in Mexico, the production of munitions for the First World War, building the Sennar Dam on the River Nile, as well as coal mining and newspaper publishing. Weetman was a staunch Liberal who supported causes such as free trade, Irish Home Rule and women's suffrage. Trudie's mother, Annie Pearson was the daughter of a farmer from Yorkshire. A woman of strong character, Annie Pearson was a feminist, an active member of the executive of the Women's Liberal Federation; the Pearsons had just moved to London. Two younger brothers and Geoffrey, were born in 1887 and 1891 respectively.

Due to the worldwide business interests of their father, the Pearson children saw little of their parents and spent their early years in the care of a nanny and a governess. In 1894, when Trudie was ten years old, her father was made a baronet and purchased Paddockhurst, a modern country house and estate in Sussex. Trudie continued her education in London, both at a day school in Queen's Gate, at home in Carlton House Terrace with a series of governesses, while her brothers were educated away from home at boarding school. At the age of sixteen, Trudie completed her formal education at a finishing school in Dresden; the poet and socialite Nadja Malacrida was her cousin. In 1902, Trudie met Thomas Denman at a ball in London. A 28-year-old Liberal peer, Lord Denman was the son of a Sussex squire and had inherited his barony from his great-uncle when he was 20. Denman had been wounded as an officer in the South African War and had returned home and entered political life. Lord Denman courted the 18-year-old Trudie.

Under some pressure from her parents, the courtship continued, in August 1903 the couple became engaged at Braemar Castle in Aberdeenshire. The couple was married by the Bishop of Chichester on 26 November 1903 at St. Margaret's, Westminster. In 1905, Gertrude Denman gave birth to her first child, Thomas; that year Sir Weetman bought Trudie her own country estate, Balcombe in Sussex. The house, Balcombe Place, was to become Denman's home for the rest of her life, her second child, Judith was born at Balcombe in 1907. In May 1908, Lady Denman was elected to the Executive of the Women's Liberal Federation; the youthful and inexperienced Trudie was joining a committee with some formidable elder members. Her mother, Lady Pearson had been on the Executive for many years together with its President Lady Carlisle, Lady Aberconway and Mrs Broadley Reid; the Women's Liberal Federation busied itself with the question of women's suffrage through 1908 and into early 1909. The question of suffrage was put on hold for the Women's Liberal Federation when the People's Budget presented by Lloyd George in April 1909 presented a more pressing issue for the Liberals and subsequently precipitated the general election of January 1910.

With the election over, the Executive of the Women's Liberal Federation were able to turn again to the suffrage question, Trudie was active in supporting the Executive's refusal to support Liberal parliamentary candidates who refused to answer the Executive's test questions on suffrage. At the Federation's 1910 Annual meeting, she was re-elected to the Executive with an increased vote and spoke in favour of a resolution to curtail the power of veto held by the House of Lords. By the end of 1910 it was clear. In 1911 Lord Denman was appointed Governor-General of Australia; the Denmans left London at the end of June and travelled to Marseille from where they set sail for Melbourne, arriving on 31 July. The Denman children arrived having been sent via the Cape to avoid the heat of the Red Sea; the Denmans received a favourable welcome despite the tendency of the Australian press to poke fun at the English, Lord Denman formed a cordial relationship with the Labour Government leader Andrew Fisher and his Attorney-General Billy Hughes.

As well as the large number of official engagements that Lady Denman was required to attend as the wife of the Governor-General, she found time to take an interest in the National Council of Women of each State. Lady Denman met the councils in all the States and encouraged them at their first interstate conference in 1912 to meet together annually so that all could work toward the same objectives. Another area in which Lady Denman took a particular interest was that of bush nursing. Bush nursing was a service to those living in remote and scattered areas far from doctors and hospital facilities. Lady Denman's predecessor, Lady Dudley, had promoted the idea of a self-supporting scheme in each state and had started raising funds for the project; when Trudie arrived in 1911 just one nurse had been appointed. In 1912 she opened two new centres and the following year she presided at the Bush Nursing Association's annual meeting. By the time the Denmans left Australia, her interest and support had led to the establishment of al

"The Otto Show" is the 22nd episode of The Simpsons' third season. It first aired on the Fox network in the United States on April 23, 1992. In the episode, Bart decides that he wants to become a rock star after attending a Spinal Tap concert, so Homer and Marge buy him a guitar, he shows the guitar to Otto the bus driver, who plays it and makes the children late for school. Racing to Springfield Elementary, Otto crashes the school bus and is suspended until he can get his license back. Bart, who respects Otto, invites him to move in with the Simpson family; the episode was directed by Wes Archer. It was the first episode of the show to feature Otto Mann in a prominent role. "The Otto Show" features an appearance from Spinal Tap, a parody band that first appeared in the 1984 mockumentary film This Is Spinal Tap. The episode guest stars Michael McKean as David St. Christopher Guest as Nigel Tufnel. Harry Shearer, a regular Simpsons cast member, reprises his This Is Spinal Tap role as Derek Smalls.

In its original airing on the Fox Network, the episode had an 11.5 Nielsen rating and finished the week ranked 41st. The episode received positive reviews and Spinal Tap was ranked as the 18th best guest appearance on the show by IGN. Bart and Milhouse attend a Spinal Tap concert, which degenerates into a riot when the band plays for only 20 minutes due to a malfunctioning laser light show. Bart decides he wants to become a rock guitarist, so Homer and Marge buy him an electric guitar, which he struggles to play. On the school bus, Bart tells the driver, that his guitar must be broken, but Otto plays it in an impromptu performance which wows the bus passengers. After his rendition of "Free Bird" makes the children late for school, Otto drives recklessly and crashes the bus, it lands on its side in the town square. Otto admits to Officer Lou he is suspended without pay. Principal Skinner takes over his route but, being a less aggressive driver than Otto, is trapped at a busy intersection for an entire day.

Otto fails the driver's test administered by Marge's sister, after he asks her if she was born male. Unable to pay his rent, he is evicted from his apartment. Homer and Marge reluctantly let him stay in their garage after Bart pleads with them, but Otto soon makes a nuisance of himself and Homer demands that he leave. Otto takes the license test again, angry that Homer called him a "sponge". Patty is unhappy to see Otto again until he tells her he plans to staple his license "to Homer Simpson's big bald head". Patty gives him the correct answers to the written test and ignores his careless driving on the test route. Patty is so amused by Otto's account of Homer's crude behavior that she passes him and offers to buy him margaritas. License in hand, Otto regains his job and Skinner returns to his job as principal of Springfield Elementary. "The Otto Show" was directed by Wes Archer. The episode's title is a pun on auto show; the episode was the first to feature bus driver Otto Mann in a prominent role.

Otto's full name is revealed for the first time. Writers Jay Kogen and Wallace Wolodarsky had wanted to name him Otto Mechanic, but the animators gave him the last name Mann."The Otto Show" features an appearance from Spinal Tap, a parody band that first appeared in the 1984 mockumentary film This Is Spinal Tap. The episode guest stars Michael McKean as David St. Christopher Guest as Nigel Tufnel. Harry Shearer, a regular Simpsons cast member starred in This Is Spinal Tap and reprises his role as Derek Smalls, the third member of the group; the episode follows the approach of the film by presenting the band. According to executive producer Al Jean, the executives at Fox were unhappy about having the band guest star because it cost a lot of money to purchase rights to play their songs. Mike Reiss said that Fox felt that the show could have gotten a "real group" for that amount of money; the animators gave many of the members of the crowd at the Spinal Tap concert long bangs, so they would not have to animate many pairs of eyes.

In the final scene to feature the band, their tour bus bursts into flames after being knocked off the road. According to the writers, the scene was not in the original script and was added because they felt the band's final scene was not interesting enough; when Homer puts on an old jacket he finds a can of Billy Beer in one of the pockets. While waiting in the car during the Spinal Tap concert, Homer sings along to the song "Spanish Flea" by Herb Alpert and the Tijuana Brass; the writers had a difficult time getting the rights to the song, but a writer, related to a member of the band was able to get the rights at the last minute. Homer hums along to "Summer Samba" at a segment in the car. Homer makes a comment on their situation with Otto, saying "This is not Happy Days and he is not The Fonz!" Otto walks in and says to Homer, "Heeeeeyy, Mr. S," in reference to the long-running situation comedy; the song Otto plays on the school bus is "Free Bird" by Lynyrd Skynyrd. Otto's statement that he would prefer to be sleeping in a Dumpster brand trash container over a "Trash Co.

Waste Disposal Unit" alludes to the word's status as a registered trademark for a brand of large trash containers. In its original airing on the Fox Network, the episode had an 11.5 Nielsen rating and was viewed in 10.59 million homes. It finished the week of April 20 -- 1992 ranked 41st, down from the season's average rank of 35th; the Simpsons was the fourth highest rated show on Fox that week after Married... with Children, Beverly Hills, 90210 and In Living Color. The episode, like

Ust-Yudoma is a rural locality, one of two settlements in Ust-Maya Urban Okrug of Ust-Maysky District in the Sakha Republic, Russia, in addition to Ust-Maya, the administrative center of the Urban Okrug and the District, from which it is located 183 kilometers away. Its population as of the 2010 Census was 29, down from 49 recorded during the 2002 Census. Ust-Yudoma has an extreme subarctic climate with cold winters and warm summers. Official website of the Sakha Republic. Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Divisions of the Sakha Republic. Ust-Maysky District. Государственное Собрание Республики Саха. Закон №173-З №353-III от 30 ноября 2004 г. «Об установлении границ и о наделении статусом городского и сельского поселений муниципальных образований Республики Саха », в ред. Закона №1058-З №1007-IV от 25 апреля 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Республики Саха "Об установлении границ и о наделении статусом городского и сельского поселений муниципальных образований Республики Саха"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования.

Опубликован: "Якутия", №245, 31 декабря 2004 г

Get Outta My Face is an arcade game designed by Will Brierly, owner of American studio Snowrunner Productions. The object of the game is to survive. You do this by moving around the stage, knocking down walls, using your surroundings to keep yourself safe. There are no weapons in the game so you must use your surroundings and the physics in each level to survive; when the countdown reaches zero you are transported to the next stage. Throughout each level, malicious cubes set off traps to stop your progress. If you are hit by any of these cubes 4 times your character dies or as it is called in the game you are "deleted"; every 5 levels there is a cut scene. And as you progress throughout the game "Blue" moves faster and the levels become more challenging. Scoring in Get Outta My Face is based on the character's movement throughout each level; when the player moves in any direction or leans into objects the score is increased. In each level there are areas that are safer other, this gives the player a balance between surviving to get to the next level and moving around to obtain the high score.