Carol Burnett

Carol Creighton Burnett is an American actress, comedian and writer, whose career spans seven decades of television. She is best known for her groundbreaking comedy variety show, The Carol Burnett Show aired on CBS, it was the first of its kind to be hosted by a woman. She has achieved success on stage and film in varying genres including dramatic and comedic roles, she has appeared on various talk shows and as a panelist on game shows. Born in San Antonio, Burnett moved with her grandmother to Hollywood, where she attended Hollywood High School and studied theater and musical comedy at UCLA, she performed in nightclubs in New York City and had a breakout success on Broadway in 1959 in Once Upon a Mattress, for which she received a Tony Award nomination. She soon made her television debut appearing on The Garry Moore Show for the next three years, won her first Emmy Award in 1962. Burnett had her television special debut in 1963 when she starred as Calamity Jane in the Dallas State Fair Musicals production of Calamity Jane on CBS.

Burnett moved to Los Angeles and began an 11-year run as star of The Carol Burnett Show on CBS television from 1967 to 1978. With its vaudeville roots, The Carol Burnett Show was a variety show that combined comedy sketches with song and dance; the comedy sketches included film parodies and character pieces. Burnett created many memorable characters during the show's run, both she and the show won numerous Emmy and Golden Globe Awards. During and after her variety show, Burnett appeared in many film projects, her film roles include Pete'n' Tillie, The Front Page, The Four Seasons, Noises Off, Horton Hears a Who!. On television, she has appeared in other sketch shows, she returned to the Broadway stage in 1995 in Moon Over Buffalo, for which she was again nominated for a Tony Award. Burnett has written and narrated several memoirs, earning Grammy nominations for all of them, a win for In Such Good Company: Eleven Years Of Laughter, And Fun In The Sandbox. In 2005, she was recognized as "one of America's most cherished entertainers" and awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom "for enhancing the lives of millions of Americans and for her extraordinary contributions to American entertainment."

Burnett was born in San Antonio, Texas, on April 26, 1933, the daughter of Ina Louise, a publicity writer for movie studios, Joseph Thomas Burnett, a movie theater manager. Her maternal grandparents were Mabel Eudora "Mae" Jones. Both of her parents were alcoholics, at a young age, she was left with her grandmother, her parents divorced in the late 1930s, her mother moved to Hollywood and she and her grandmother moved to a one-room apartment near her mother's in an impoverished area of Hollywood, California. There they stayed in a boarding house with Burnett's younger half-sister Chrissie; when Burnett was in second grade, she invented an imaginary twin sister named Karen, with Shirley Temple-like dimples. She recalled that, motivated to further the pretense, she "fooled the other boarders in the rooming house where we lived by frantically switching clothes and dashing in and out of the house by the fire escape and the front door. I became exhausted and Karen mysteriously vanished." When Burnett was nine, she taught herself how to do the "Tarzan yell", which she realized years was a good vocal exercise for volume, it became a fan favorite.

Burnett's first experiences with singing occurred with her family. Her grandmother was a trained musician who could play the piano, her mother played the ukulele, so they sometimes sang popular songs in harmony together around the kitchen table, her grandmother took Burnett and her sister to the movies - as well as take a few rolls of toilet paper home from the theater. Years the movies she saw in her youth influenced the sketch content in The Carol Burnett Show. For a while, she worked as an usherette at the Warner Brothers Theater; when the cinema screened Alfred Hitchcock's Strangers on a Train, having seen and enjoyed the film, she advised two patrons arriving during the last five minutes of a showing to wait until the beginning of the next showing to avoid spoiling the ending for them, but the couple insisted on being seated. The manager observed Burnett not letting the couple in and fired her, stripping the epaulettes from her uniform on the spot. Years in the 1970s after achieving TV stardom, when the Hollywood Chamber of Commerce offered her a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, they asked her where she wanted it.

She replied "Right in front of where the old Warner Brothers Theater was, at Hollywood and Wilcox", where it was placed, at 6439 Hollywood Blvd. After graduating from Hollywood High School in 1951, she received an anonymous envelope containing $50 for one year's tuition at UCLA, where she planned on studying journalism. During her first year of college, she switched her focus to theatre arts and English, with the goal of becoming a playwright, she found. She followed a sudden impulse in her first performance.

James Valenti

James Valenti is an American operatic tenor with an active international career specializing in leading roles in the Italian and French repertoire. Born and raised in New Jersey, in the United States, he is a graduate of West Virginia University and the Academy of Vocal Arts in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Valenti made his professional debut in 2003 as Rodolfo in La bohème at the Rome Opera, was the 2010 winner of the Richard Tucker Award. Born in Summit, New Jersey, he was raised in Clinton, he developed an interest in performing as a student at North Hunterdon High School. Valenti is the Academy of Vocal Arts in Philadelphia. In the course of his studies he received grants from the Singer's Development Foundation, the Sullivan Foundation, the Sergio Franchi Music Foundation, he made his professional debut at age 25 as Rodolfo in the Franco Zeffirelli production La bohème at the Rome Opera. He went on to perform in many of the world's major opera houses, including La Scala, Metropolitan Opera, Royal Opera House, Paris Opera, Sydney Opera House, Opernhaus Zürich and Teatro Colón.

He made his Metropolitan Opera debut in March 2010 as Alfredo in Verdi's La traviata in a cast that included Angela Gheorghiu and Thomas Hampson, at the Royal Opera House Covent Garden in the same role in June 2010. His roles include Cavaradossi in Tosca, Don José in Carmen, Don Carlo in Don Carlo, the Duke of Mantua in Rigoletto, Lt. Pinkerton in Madama Butterfly, Maurizio in Adriana Lecouvreur, Edgardo in Lucia di Lammermoor, Werther in Werther and Doctor Faust in Faust. Valenti resides in West Palm Beach, Florida. New York City Opera Renaissance mounted Puccini’s “Tosca” in January 2015, at the Rose Theater at Jazz at Lincoln Center, in the Time Warner Center at Columbus Circle, with Valenti performing. 2002 The Licia Albanese-Puccini Foundation – 1st place award 2002 Metropolitan Opera National Council Auditions – winner 2002, 2003 Opera Index Vocal Competition – winner 2003 Loren Zachary Competition – 1st-place winner 2003 Enrico Caruso Competition – 1st-place winner 2003 Mario Lanza Opera Competition – 1st-place winner 2008 New York City Opera – Outstanding Debut Artist 2009 Dallas OperaMaria Callas Debut Artist Award 2010 Richard Tucker Award 2014 West Virginia University College of Creative Arts Distinguished Alumnus Award 2015 West Virginia University Induction into Academy of Distinguished Alumni Mario Cavaradossi in Giacomo Puccini's Tosca – Lyric Opera Kansas City Don José in Bizet's Carmen – Hamburg Staatsoper Rudolph Valentino in Argento's The Dream of Valentino – Minnesota Opera Maurizio in Cilea's Adriana Lecouvreur – Washington Concert Opera Nemorino in Donizetti's L'elisir d'amore – Hamburg State Opera Edgardo in Donizetti's Lucia di Lammermoor – Sydney Opera House, Florida Grand Opera Faust in Gounod's Faust – Royal Opera House, Opera Carolina, Teatro Verdi Roméo in Gounod's Roméo et Juliette – Minnesota Opera, Werther in Massenet's Werther – Minnesota Opera, Opera Lyon in Bunkamura Concert Hall, Tokyo, Opéra Bastille Viscardo in Mercadante's Il giuramento – Washington Concert Opera Rodolfo in Puccini's La bohème – The Minnesota Opera, Palacio de Festivales de Cantabria, Dallas Opera, La Scala, Aubade Hall, Florida Grand Opera, New York City Opera, Teatro Verdi Lt. Pinkerton in Puccini's Madama Butterfly – Teatro Colón, Metropolitan Opera, Opernhaus Zürich, Lyric Opera of Chicago, Opéra Bastille, Vancouver Opera, Michigan Opera Theatre, New York City Opera, San Francisco Opera, Opéra de Marseille, Palm Beach Opera, Teatro Carlo Felice Don Carlo in Verdi's Don Carlo – Caramoor Festival, Austin Lyric Opera Alfredo in Verdi's La traviata – Bavarian State Opera, Dallas Opera, Royal Opera House, Metropolitan Opera, Deutsche Oper Berlin, Korean Opera, Teatro Pérez Galdós de Las Palmas, Canadian Opera Company, La Monnaie, Hamburg State Opera, Teatro Comunale di Bologna Duke of Mantua in Verdi's Rigoletto – Teatro del Maggio Musicale Fiorentino, Palm Beach Opera, Opera Carolina, Academy of Vocal Arts Official website

Transnistrian ruble

The ruble is the currency of Transnistria and is divided into 100 kopecks. Since Transnistria is a state with limited international recognition and considered as part of Moldova, its currency has no ISO 4217 code. However, unofficially some Transnistrian organisations such as Agroprombank and Gazprombank used the code PRB, a code that would otherwise be reserved for Puerto Rico; the Trans-Dniester Republican Bank sometimes uses the code RUP. Soviet banknotes were used in the Trans-Dniester Moldavian Republic after its formation in 1990; when the former Soviet republics began issuing their own currencies, Transnistria was flooded with Soviet rubles. In an attempt to protect its financial system, in July 1993 the Transnistrian government bought used Goznak-printed Soviet and Russian notes dated 1961–1992 which it modified by applying adhesive stamps bearing the image of General Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov, founder of Tiraspol and its corresponding denomination; these stamped notes replaced unstamped Russian notes at par.

It is thought that most uncirculated notes bearing these stickers were created after 1994 for collectors. The first, provisional issues were replaced in August 1994 by a new Transnistrian ruble, equal to 1000 old rubles; this currency consisted of banknotes and suffered from high inflation, necessitating the issue of notes overstamped with higher denominations. Although issued in 1994, some notes were issued dated 1993. In 2000, a new ruble was introduced at a rate of 1 new ruble = 1,000,000 old rubles; this new currency consists of both banknotes. Coins are of 1 to 50 kopecks and are made from aluminium or copper-zinc and are similar to Soviet-era coinage; the 1 kopeck coins were withdrawn from circulation in January 2009. On August 22, 2014, the Transnistrian Republican Bank issued coins made of composite materials and come in denominations of 1-, 3-, 5- and 10 rubles. Since 2000 the Transnistrian Republican Bank has issued many commercial commemorative coins made from silver and gold, their mintage numbers were low, ranging between 500 and 5,000.

Topics included for example "Ancient fortresses on the river Dniester", "The Outstanding people Transdniestria" and "Red book Transdniestria". A complete listing can be found on the website of the Transnistrian Republican Bank; when it was founded, Transnistria did not have its own mint. Thus a foreign mint had to be found to strike Transnistrian coins; the Mint of Poland in Warsaw was selected. Coins dated 2000 were struck in Warsaw and transported via Ukraine to Transnistria in trucks belonging to the Transnistrian Republican Bank; the Moldovan government was not pleased with this situation, since they viewed it as a de facto recognition of Transnistria. In October 2001 Moldovan president Vladimir Voronin addressed the issue with his Polish counterpart; the Polska Mennica responded to the criticism by stating that because the Transnistrian ruble is not internationally recognized as a currency, they were producing tokens and not coins, normal business for mints. The conflict came to a height when in December 2004 Ukrainian customs confiscated a truck with US$117,000 worth of Transnistrian coins near Lviv.

The coins were handed over to Moldovan authorities, who in response again protested with the Polish government. The Polish Ministry of Foreign Affairs en state property wrote another letter to Polska Mennica in April 2005, they warned that continued production of Transnistrian coins would endanger relations with Ukraine and Moldova and damage the image of Poland abroad. The Polska Mennica bowed to the pressure and cancelled its contract with Transnistria that same month. For Transnistria there was no other solution but to strike future coins themselves. Thus, on 18 November 2005 the Tiraspol Mint was opened in the presence of President Igor Smirnov. Notes are issued by the Transnistrian Republican Bank in 2000 as part of a currency reform, with 1 ruble equal to 1 million of the old rubles; the notes come in denominations of 1 -, 5 -, 10 -, 25 -, 50 -, 100 -, 500 rubles. In 2007 a new series replaced the above banknotes of denominations 1 to 100 rubles; the new notes have the same themes but improved security features.

The currency is de facto pegged to the United States dollar. The central bank determines each work day whether it is appropriate to devalue the currency against the U. S. dollar. As of 20th of March 2019 U. S. dollar: 16.1000 rubles Euro: 18.2816 rubles Russian ruble: 0.2503 rubles Moldovan leu: 0.9169 rublesOn 11 February 2009 the exchange rate was set to 9 rubles per dollar. It was changed to 9.40 rubles on 5 March 2010, 9.80 on 24 September 2010, 10.20 on 14 December 2010. By 2013, the value of the ruble had dropped to 11.10 rubles per dollar. This was further changed to 11.30 per dollar on 16 March 2016. On 17 June 2017, the currency was devalued to 15 rubles per dollar, it was set to 16 per dollar on 12 January 2018. The most recent change was made on 5 April 2018; the Transnistrian Ruble is not accepted as currency outside of Transnistria, though some bus companies with connections to Tiraspol accept Transnistrian rubles at the Chișinău bus station as well as local shops in Varnița. Pridnestrovie's own currency Central Bank of PMR Banknotes of Transnistria Coins of Transnistria at The banknotes of Transnistria