Boundary Cone is a geologic promontory located in the western foothills of the Black Mountains in Mohave County, Arizona. The peak is to the east of the Mohave Valley, northeast of Needles and southeast of Bullhead City; the peak is about 4 miles southwest of the mountain community of Oatman and 12 miles east of the Colorado River. Several Indian tribes attach religious and cultural significance to Boundary Cone as well as much of the surrounding landscape. In March 2006, the Bureau of Land Management determined and the Arizona State Historic Preservation Office concurred that Boundary Cone is eligible for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places as a property of traditional and cultural importance to several Indian tribes. Boundary Cone was a prominent landmark for early travelers in this region. Media related to Boundary Cone at Wikimedia Commons
Carr Peak is the third-highest mountain in Cochise County, Arizona and is the second-highest mountain in the Huachuca Mountains. It rises about 10 miles south of Arizona; the summit is in the Miller Peak Wilderness on the Coronado National Forest and about 4 miles south of the Nature Conservancy's Ramsey Canyon Preserve. The area is well known among birders because of the variety of hummingbird species seen in the area as well as the dozens of southwestern specialties such as Apache pine, Chihuahua pine, ridge-nosed rattlesnake, lesser long-nosed bat and elegant trogon; this trail is not only easy to get to, but it provides a moderate hike to some of the best views in the Huachucas. In the process it offers access to two of the highest points in southeastern Arizona, Carr Peak and Miller Peak. For these reasons, this combination of trails provides some of the most popular hiking on the Sierra Vista District. Carr Peak Trail is conveniently accessible from both the Reef Townsite Campground and Ramsey Vista Campground on scenic Carr Canyon Road.
The main trailhead is located at the edge of a parking area just outside Ramsey Vista Campground. Other means of access are provided by a short spur that comes directly out of the Ramsey Vista Campground, the Old Sawmill Spring Trail from the parking lot across FR 368 from the Reef Townsite Campground. Much of the 2,000-foot climb from the trailhead to the summit is through an area, burned by at least three wildfires, one in 1977 that scorched much of the upper reaches of the mountain range, a smaller one in 1991, the Monument Fire in 2011; these areas of disturbance are well on their way to healing as various shrubs and wildflowers return to reclaim them. In places where a short time ago only ashes, burnt snags and bare dirt could be found, healthy communities of young aspens are putting on brilliant displays of fall colors; the trail offers good views of the upper reaches of Carr Peak and of Miller Peak across Miller Canyon. To get to the top of Carr Peak, you'll need to follow the steep Carr Peak Spur.
The main trail continues on to a connection with the Crest Trail, which offers access not only to Miller Peak, but to the rest of the Huachuca Mountains trail network. List of mountains and hills of Arizona by height
The Morrison Formation is a distinctive sequence of Upper Jurassic sedimentary rock found in the western United States, the most fertile source of dinosaur fossils in North America. It is composed of mudstone, sandstone and limestone and is light gray, greenish gray, or red. Most of the fossils occur in the green siltstone beds and lower sandstones, relics of the rivers and floodplains of the Jurassic period, it is centered in Wyoming and Colorado, with outcrops in Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Kansas, the panhandles of Oklahoma and Texas, New Mexico, Arizona and Idaho. Equivalent rocks under different names are found in Canada, it covers an area of 1.5 million square kilometers, although only a tiny fraction is exposed and accessible to geologists and paleontologists. Over 75% is still buried under the prairie to the east, much of its western paleogeographic extent was eroded during exhumation of the Rocky Mountains, it was named after Morrison, where the first fossils in the formation were discovered by Arthur Lakes in 1877.
That same year, it became the center of the Bone Wars, a fossil-collecting rivalry between early paleontologists Othniel Charles Marsh and Edward Drinker Cope. In Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, the Morrison Formation was a major source of uranium ore. According to radiometric dating, the Morrison Formation dates from 156.3 ± 2 million years old at its base, to 146.8 ± 1 million years old at the top, which places it in the earliest Kimmeridgian, early Tithonian stages of the late Jurassic. This is similar in age to the Solnhofen Limestone Formation in Germany and the Tendaguru Formation in Tanzania; the age and much of the fauna is similar to the Lourinhã Formation in Portugal. Throughout the western United States, it variously overlies the Middle Jurassic Summerville, Bell Ranch and Stump Formations. At the time, the supercontinent of Laurasia had split into the continents of North America and Eurasia, although they were still connected by land bridges. North America was passing through the subtropical regions.
The Morrison Basin, which stretched from New Mexico in the south to Alberta and Saskatchewan in the north, was formed during the Nevadan orogeny, a precursor event to orogenic episodes that created the Rocky Mountains started pushing up to the west. The deposits from their east-facing drainage basins, carried by streams and rivers from the Elko Highlands and deposited in swampy lowlands, river channels and floodplains, became the Morrison Formation. In the north, the Sundance Sea, an extension of the Arctic Ocean, stretched through Canada down to the United States. Coal is found in the Morrison Formation of Montana, which means that the northern part of the formation, along the shores of the sea, was wet and swampy, with more vegetation. Aeolian, or wind-deposited sandstones, are found in the southwestern part, which indicates it was much more arid—a desert, with sand dunes. In the Colorado Plateau region, the Morrison Formation is further broken into four sub-divisions, or members. From the oldest to the most recent, they are: Windy Hill Member: The oldest member.
At the time, the Morrison basin was characterized by shallow marine and tidal flat deposition along the southern shore of the Sundance Sea. Tidwell Member: The Sundance Sea receded to Wyoming during this member and was replaced by lakes and mudflats. Salt Wash Member: The first purely terrestrial member; the basin was a semi-arid alluvial plain, with seasonal mudflats. Brushy Basin Member: Much finer-grained than the Salt Wash Member, the Brushy Basin Member is dominated by mudstone rich in volcanic ash. Rivers flowed from the west into a basin that contained a giant, saline alkaline lake called Lake T'oo'dichi' and extensive wetlands that were located just west of the modern Uncompahgre Plateau. Deposition in the Morrison Formation ended about 147 Ma; the latest Morrison strata are followed by a thirty-million-year gap in the geologic record. The overlying units are the Lower Cretaceous Cedar Mountain, Burro Canyon and Cloverly Formations. Though many of the Morrison Formation fossils are fragmentary, they are sufficient to provide a good picture of the flora and fauna in the Morrison Basin during the Kimmeridgian.
Overall, the climate was dry, similar to a savanna but, since there were no angiosperms, the flora was quite different. Conifers, the dominant plants of the time, were to be found with ginkgos, tree ferns, horsetail rushes. Much of the fossilized vegetation was riparian. Insects were similar to modern species, with termites building 30-meter-tall nests. Along the rivers, there were fish, salamanders, crocodiles, pterosaurs, crayfish and mammaliforms; the dinosaurs were most riparian, as well. Hundreds of dinosaur fossils have been discovered, such as Allosaurus, Ornitholestes, several stegosaurs comprising at least two species of Stegosaurus and the older Hesperosaurus, the early ankylosaurs and Gargoyleosaurus, most notably a broad range of sauropods. Since at least some of these species are known to have nested in the area, there are indications that it was a good environment for dinosaurs and not just home to migratory, seasonal populations. Sauropods that have been discovered include Diplodocus, Brachiosaurus
The Bradshaw Mountains are a mountain range in central Arizona, United States, named for brothers Isaac and William D. Bradshaw after their deaths, having been known in English as the Silver Mountain Range; the first known settlements in the Bradshaws were a group of Yavapai people, called the Kwevkapaya who built forts and mined copper from around AD 1100 to 1600. The Walker party found gold, within a few years, the Bradshaws were filling up with settlers mining for gold and copper. In the early part of the 20th century, most of the towns that had sprung up were little more than ghost towns. Located 5 miles south of Prescott, between the Agua Fria River on the east, the Hassayampa River on the west, the range is 40 miles long, 25 miles wide. Mount Union, named during the Civil War, is the highest, at 7,979 feet. Mount Davis – second highest at 7,897 feet, named for Jefferson Davis. Spruce Mountain – 7,696 feet, misnamed for Douglas firs mistaken for Spruces. Mount Tritle – 7,793 feet, named for Frederick Augustus Tritle Governor of Arizona Territory.
Towers Mountain – 7,628 feet. Maverick Mountain – 7,443 feet. Mount Wasson – 4,687 feet; the Bradshaw Mountains consist of Precambrian granite and schist. The biotic community of the Bradshaws ranges from interior chaparral and montane conifer forest, to plains and desert grassland, Sonoran desert scrub. Many species of trees are found in the Bradshaws, including Piñon, Alligator Juniper, Ponderosa pine, Blue Spruce, Quaking Aspen, White fir, Douglas fir; as well, much wildlife is present, including javelina, mountain lion, black bear, mule deer, fox, rock squirrel, wild turkey, many species of reptiles and amphibians, many species of birds. Several creeks have been dammed to form reservoirs, including Lynx Lake, Goldwater Lake, Lake Marapai, Hassayampa Lake, Horsethief Lake, Cedar Tank. Gold was first discovered in the Bradshaws in 1863, over $2,000,000 worth being taken from just the Crown King Mine. Copper and silver were mined in the early part of the 20th century. Within Mount Union lies the Poland Junction silver mine.
Its adit, now sealed, may be accessed near Walker. There are over 40 ghost towns in the Bradshaw Mountains, including Crown King, Bumble Bee, Bradshaw City and Cleator. Much of the Bradshaw Mountains are on Prescott National Forest land. Other parks include Horsethief Basin Recreational Area, Lynx Lake Recreational Area, the Castle Creek Wilderness. Hieroglyphic Mountains Castle Hot Springs
Mingus Mountain is a mountain located in the U. S. state of Arizona in the Black Hills mountain range. It is located within the Prescott National Forest traversed by State Route 89A midway between Cottonwood and Prescott; the summit can be reached via Forest Service roads that branch off from State Route 89A. From the mountain, there are views of the Verde Valley, Sycamore Canyon Wilderness and the towns of Cottonwood and Clarkdale; the Woodchute Wilderness, north of the summit of 89A offers views and hiking trails. There are several National Forest campgrounds in the area and it is the transmitter location for Prescott full-service television station KAZT-TV and several low-power television stations serving Cottonwood, Camp Verde and Prescott Valley. Mingus Mountain is the premier flying site of the Arizona Hang Gliding and Paragliding Association. According to the book, Roadside History of Arizona, by Marshall Trimble, "Mingus Mountain was named for Joseph and Jacob Mingus, two brothers who settled in the area in the 1880s and operated a sawmill near the base of the mountain".
Another source attributes the name to William Mingus, a pioneer prospector who lived and worked on Mingus Mountain in the 1870s. The Mingus Lookout Complex is a complex of fire tower and associated buildings at the top of the mountain, is listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the ACA Retreat on Mingus Mountain
The Cerbat Mountains is a mountain range in Mohave County in northwest Arizona north of Kingman. The Cerbat Mountains and the White Hills adjacent north, are the dividing ranges between the Detrital Valley west, the Hualapai Valley east, it is a 23 mi long range trending northwest-southeast. It lies directly east of the 130-mile long Black Mountains range and is separated by the Sacramento Valley bordering southwest of Kingman through which Interstate 40 turns south and west to meet Needles, California. A series of peaks can be found towards the southern end of the range, including Packsaddle Mountain at 6,431 feet, Cherum Peak at 6,983 feet; the northern section of the Cerbat Mountains is composed of the Mount Tipton Wilderness, with Mount Tipton being its peak at 7,148 feet. The Dolan Springs community is at the base of the wilderness on the northwestern side of the Cerbat Mountains; the "Mineral Park mine", a large copper and turquoise mine, is located in the Cerbat Mountains 14 miles northwest of Kingman, Arizona.
List of mountain ranges of Arizona List of LCRV Wilderness Areas
The Colorado Plateau known as the Colorado Plateau Province, is a physiographic and desert region of the Intermontane Plateaus centered on the Four Corners region of the southwestern United States. This province covers an area of 336, 700 km2 within western Colorado, northwestern New Mexico and eastern Utah, northern Arizona. About 90% of the area is drained by the Colorado River and its main tributaries: the Green, San Juan, Little Colorado. Most of the remainder of the plateau is drained by its tributaries; the Colorado Plateau is made up of high desert, with scattered areas of forests. In the southwest corner of the Colorado Plateau lies the Grand Canyon of the Colorado River. Much of the Plateau's landscape is related, in both appearance and geologic history, to the Grand Canyon; the nickname "Red Rock Country" suggests the brightly colored rock left bare to the view by dryness and erosion. Domes, fins, river narrows, natural bridges, slot canyons are only some of the additional features typical of the Plateau.
The Colorado Plateau has the greatest concentration of U. S. National Park Service units in the country outside the Washington, DC metropolitan area. Among its nine National Parks are Grand Canyon, Bryce Canyon, Capitol Reef, Arches, Mesa Verde, Petrified Forest. Among its 18 National Monuments are Bears Ears, Rainbow Bridge, Hovenweep, Sunset Crater Volcano, Grand Staircase-Escalante, Natural Bridges, Canyons of the Ancients, Chaco Culture National Historical Park and the Colorado National Monument; this province is bounded by the Rocky Mountains in Colorado, by the Uinta Mountains and Wasatch Mountains branches of the Rockies in northern and central Utah. It is bounded by the Rio Grande Rift, Mogollon Rim and the Basin and Range Province. Isolated ranges of the Southern Rocky Mountains such as the San Juan Mountains in Colorado and the La Sal Mountains in Utah intermix into the central and southern parts of the Colorado Plateau, it is composed of six sections: Uinta Basin Section High Plateaus Section Grand Canyon Section Canyon Lands Section Navajo Section Datil SectionAs the name implies, the High Plateaus Section is, on average, the highest section.
North-south trending normal faults that include the Hurricane, Grand Wash, Paunsaugunt separate the section's component plateaus. This fault pattern is caused by the tensional forces pulling apart the adjacent Basin and Range province to the west, making this section transitional. Occupying the southeast corner of the Colorado Plateau is the Datil Section. Thick sequences of mid-Tertiary to late-Cenozoic-aged lava covers this section. Development of the province has in large part been influenced by structural features in its oldest rocks. Part of the Wasatch Line and its various faults form the western edge of the province. Faults that run parallel to the Wasatch Fault that lies along the Wasatch Range form the boundaries between the plateaus in the High Plateaus Section; the Uinta Basin, Uncompahgre Uplift, the Paradox Basin were created by movement along structural weaknesses in the region's oldest rock. In Utah, the province includes several higher fault-separated plateaus: Awapa Plateau Aquarius Plateau Kaiparowits Plateau Markagunt Plateau Paunsaugunt Plateau Sevier Plateau Fishlake Plateau Pavant Plateau Gunnison Plateau and the Tavaputs Plateau.
Some sources include the Tushar Mountain Plateau as part of the Colorado Plateau, but others do not. The flat-lying sedimentary rock units that make up these plateaus are found in component plateaus that are between 4,900 to 11,000 feet above sea level. A supersequence of these rocks is exposed in the various cliffs and canyons that make up the Grand Staircase. Younger east-west trending escarpments of the Grand Staircase extend north of the Grand Canyon and are named for their color: Chocolate Cliffs, Vermillion Cliffs, White Cliffs, Gray Cliffs, the Pink Cliffs. Within these rocks are abundant mineral resources that include uranium, coal and natural gas. Study of the area's unusually clear geologic history has advanced that science. A rain shadow from the Sierra Nevada far to the west and the many ranges of the Basin and Range means that the Colorado Plateau receives six to sixteen inches of annual precipitation. Higher areas receive more precipitation and are covered in forests of pine and spruce.
Though it can be said that the Plateau centers on the Four Corners, Black Mesa in northern Arizona is much closer to the east-west, north-south midpoint of the Plateau Province. Lying southeast of Glen Canyon and southwest of Monument Valley at the north end of the Hopi Reservation, this remote coal-laden highland has about half of the Colorado Plateau's acreage north of it, half south of it, half west of it, half east of it; the Ancestral Puebloan People lived in the region from 2000 to 700 years ago. A party from Santa Fe led by Fathers Dominguez and Escalante, unsuccessfully seeking an overland route to California, made a five-month out-and-back trip through much of the Plateau in 1776-1777. Despite having lost one arm in the American Civil War, U. S. Army Major and geologist John Wesley Powell explored the area in 1869 and 1872. Using wooden oak boats and small groups of men the Powell Geographic Expedition charted this unknown region of the United States for the federal government. Construction of the Hoover Dam in the 1930s and the Glen Canyon Dam in the 1960s changed the character of the Colorado River.
Reduced sediment load changed its color from reddish brown t