The vexillum was a flag-like object used as a military standard by units in the Ancient Roman army. The word vexillum is a diminutive of the Latin word, meaning a sail, which confirms the historical evidence that vexilla were "little sails": flag-like standards. In the vexillum, the cloth was draped from a horizontal crossbar suspended from a staff; that is unlike most modern flags in which the "hoist" of the cloth is attached directly to a vertical staff. The bearer of a vexillum was known as vexillifer. Just as in the case of the regimental colors or flags of early modern Western regiments, the vexillum was a treasured symbol of the military unit that it represented and it was defended in combat, it was the main standard of some types of units cavalry. However, not clear from surviving sources; the only existent Roman military vexillum is dated to the first half of the 3rd century AD and is housed in the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts. It is an square piece of coarse linen cloth with the image of the goddess Victoria and measures 47×50 cm.
The lower edge has the remains of a fringe. The vexillum was once attached to a piece of reed wood, it is unknown to. The vexillum was found in Egypt shortly before 1911, but its exact provenance is unclear; the term vexillum is used more for any object, such as a relic or icon, used as a standard in battle, may be considered the offensive equivalent of the more defensive palladium in this context. Vexillology, or the study of flags, derives its name from this word and a vexilloid is a standard, not of conventional flag form. Nearly all of the present-day regions of Italy preserve the use of vexilla. Many Christian processional banners are in the vexillum form. For example, a vexillum is used by the Legion of Mary as the term for its standards. A small version is used on the altar and a larger one leads processions. In the Middle Ages, the type of banner draped from a horizontal crossbar became known as a gonfalon. Vexilla Regis, early Christian hymn whose first line uses this word, referring to the cross as a standard Vexillum, the large upper petal of a papilionaceous flower Vexillum, a genus of snails in the family Costellariidae Inquisitor vexillum, a sea snail species Luca's Fabrica
Marquis Gino Capponi was an Italian statesman and historian of a Liberal Catholic bent. The Capponi family is one of the most illustrious Florentine houses, is mentioned as early as 1250. Gino was the son of the Marquis Pier Roberto Capponi, a nobleman attached to the reigning grand duke of Tuscany, Ferdinand III and son of Maria Madalena Frescobaldi Capponi,https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maria_Maddalena_Frescobaldi, foundress of the Passionist Sister. When that prince was deposed by the French in 1799 the Capponi family followed him into exile at Vienna, where they remained until he exchanged his rights to the grand duchy for a German principality; the Capponi returned to Florence, in 1811 Gino married the marchesina Giulia Vernaccia. Although the family were anti-French, Gino was chosen with other notables to pay homage to Napoleon in Paris in 1813. On the fall of Napoleon, Ferdinand returned to Tuscany, but the restoration proved less reactionary there than in any other part of Italy.https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maria_Maddalena_Frescobaldi Young Capponi was well received at court, but not being satisfied with the life of a mere man of fashion, he devoted himself to serious study and foreign travel.
After sundry journeys in Italy he again visited Paris in 1818, went to England. He became interested in English institutions, studied the constitution, the electoral system, university life, industrial organization. At Edinburgh he met Francis Jeffrey, the editor of the Edinburgh Review, conceived a desire to found a similar review in Italy. Besides knowing Jeffrey he made the acquaintance of many prominent statesmen and men of letters, including Lord John Russell, the duke of Bedford, Dugald Stewart, Ugo Foscolo; this visit had a great effect in forming his character, while it made him an ardent Anglophile, he realized more and more the distressing conditions of his own country. He returned to Italy in 1820, on reaching Florence he set to work to found a review on the lines of the Edinburgh Review, which should attract the best literary talent; this he achieved with the help of the Swiss GP Vieusseux, the result was the journal, Antologia. He contributed to its columns, as well as to those of the Archivio Storico, another of Vieusseux's ventures.
Capponi began to take a more active interest in politics, entered into communication with the Liberals of all parts of Italy. He had discussed the possibility of liberating Italy with Prince Charles Albert of Savoy-Carignano, to whom he had introduced the Milanese revolutionist Count Confalonieri, but the collapse of the rising of 1821 and the imprisonment of Confalonieri made Capponi despair of achieving anything by revolution, he devoted himself to the economic development of Tuscany and to study. He was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1842. At his beautiful villa of Varramista he collected materials for a history of the Church. In 1847 he discussed plans for an Italian alliance against Austria; when the grand duke Leopold II decided in 1848 to grant his people a constitution, Capponi was made a member of the commission to draw it up, he became prime minister. During his short tenure of office he conducted foreign affairs with great skill, made every effort to save the Italian situation after the defeat of Charles Albert on the Mincio.
In October 1848 he resigned. The blind statesman thanked God, he commenced his great Storia della Repubblica di Firenze. On Leopold's second flight a Tuscan assembly was summoned, Capponi elected member of it, he voted for the union of Tuscany with Piedmont. King Victor Emmanuel made him senator in 1860, his last years were devoted exclusively to his Florentine history, published in 1875 and achieved an immediate success. This was Capponi's last work. Capponi was one of the best specimens of the Tuscan landlord class. "He represents," wrote his biographer Tabarrini, "one of the most striking personalities of a generation, now wholly died, which did not resign itself to the beatitudes of 1815, but wished to raise Italy from the humble state to which the European peace of that year had condemned her. He knew nearly all the most interesting people in Italy, besides many distinguished foreigners: Giuseppe Giusti, the poet, Alessandro Manzoni, the novelist, Niccolò Tommaseo, Richard Cobden, A von Reumont, the historian, were among those whom he entertained at his palace or his villas, many were the struggling students and revolutionists to whom he gave assistance.
As a historian his reputation rests on his Storia della Repubblica di Firenze.
Lucca is a city and comune in Tuscany, Central Italy, on the Serchio, in a fertile plain near the Tyrrhenian Sea. It is the capital of the Province of Lucca, it is famous for its intact Renaissance-era city walls. Lucca was founded by the Etruscans and became a Roman colony in 180 BC; the rectangular grid of its historical centre preserves the Roman street plan, the Piazza San Michele occupies the site of the ancient forum. Traces of the amphitheatre may still be seen in the Piazza dell'Anfiteatro. At the Lucca Conference, in 56 BC, Julius Caesar and Crassus reaffirmed their political alliance known as the First Triumvirate. Frediano, an Irish monk, was bishop of Lucca in the early sixth century. At one point, Lucca was plundered by the first Germanic King of Italy. Lucca was an important city and fortress in the sixth century, when Narses besieged it for several months in 553. Under the Lombards, it was the seat of a duke; the Holy Face of Lucca, a major relic carved by Nicodemus, arrived in 742.
During the eighth-tenth centuries Lucca was a center of Jewish life, the community being led by the Kalonymos family. Lucca became prosperous through the silk trade that began in the eleventh century, came to rival the silks of Byzantium. During the tenth–eleventh centuries Lucca was the capital of the feudal margraviate of Tuscany, more or less independent but owing nominal allegiance to the Holy Roman Emperor. After the death of Matilda of Tuscany, the city began to constitute itself an independent commune with a charter in 1160. For 500 years, Lucca remained an independent republic. There were many minor provinces in the region between southern Liguria and northern Tuscany dominated by the Malaspina. Dante’s Divine Comedy includes many references to the great feudal families who had huge jurisdictions with administrative and judicial rights. Dante spent some of his exile in Lucca. In 1273 and again in 1277, Lucca was ruled by a Guelph capitano del popolo named Luchetto Gattilusio. In 1314, internal discord allowed Uguccione della Faggiuola of Pisa to make himself lord of Lucca.
The Lucchesi expelled him two years and handed over the city to another condottiero, Castruccio Castracani, under whose rule it became a leading state in central Italy. Lucca rivalled Florence until Castracani's death in 1328. On 22 and 23 September 1325, in the battle of Altopascio, Castracani defeated Florence's Guelphs. For this he was nominated by Louis IV the Bavarian to become duke of Lucca. Castracani's tomb is in the church of San Francesco, his biography is Machiavelli's third famous book on political rule. In 1408, Lucca hosted. Occupied by the troops of Louis of Bavaria, the city was sold to a rich Genoese, Gherardino Spinola seized by John, king of Bohemia. Pawned to the Rossi of Parma, by them it was ceded to Mastino II della Scala of Verona, sold to the Florentines, surrendered to the Pisans, nominally liberated by the emperor Charles IV and governed by his vicar. Lucca managed, at first as a democracy, after 1628 as an oligarchy, to maintain its independence alongside of Venice and Genoa, painted the word Libertas on its banner until the French Revolution in 1789.
Lucca had been the second largest Italian city state with a republican constitution to remain independent over the centuries. In 1805, Lucca was conquered by Napoleon, who installed his sister Elisa Bonaparte Baciocchi as "Princess of Lucca". From 1815 to 1847 it was a Bourbon-Parma duchy; the only reigning dukes of Lucca were Maria Luisa of Spain, succeeded by her son Charles II, Duke of Parma in 1824. Meanwhile, the Duchy of Parma had been assigned for life to Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma, the second wife of Napoleon. In accordance with the Treaty of Vienna, upon the death of Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma in 1847, Parma reverted to Charles II, Duke of Parma, while Lucca lost independence and was annexed to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany; as part of Tuscany, it became part of the Kingdom of Sardinia in 1860 and part of the Italian State in 1861. The walls encircling the old town remain intact as the city expanded and modernized, unusual for cities in the region. Built as a defensive rampart, once the walls lost their military importance they became a pedestrian promenade, the Passeggiata delle Mura Urbane, a street atop the walls linking the bastions.
It passes through the Bastions of Santa Croce, San Frediano, San Martino, San Pietro/Battisti, San Salvatore, La Libertà/Cairoli, San Regolo, San Colombano, Santa Maria, San Paolino/Catalani, San Donato. Each of the four principal sides of the structure is lined with a different tree species than the others; the walled city is encircled by Piazzale Boccherini, Viale Lazzaro Papi, Viale Carlo Del Prete, Piazzale Martiri della Libertà, Via Batoni, Viale Agostino Marti, Viale G. Marconi, Piazza Don A. Mei, Viale Pacini, Viale Giusti, Piazza Curtatone, Piazzale Ricasoli, Viale Ricasoli, Piazza Risorgimento, Viale Giosuè Carducci; the town includes a number of public squares, most notably the Piazza dell'Anfiteatro, site of ancient Roman amphitheater. Ducal Palace: built on the site of Ca
Guelphs and Ghibellines
The Guelphs and Ghibellines were factions supporting the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor in the Italian city-states of central and northern Italy. During the 12th and 13th centuries, rivalry between these two parties formed a important aspect of the internal politics of medieval Italy; the struggle for power between the Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire had arisen with the Investiture Controversy, which began in 1075 and ended with the Concordat of Worms in 1122. The division between the Guelphs and Ghibellines in Italy, fuelled by the imperial Great Interregnum, persisted until the 15th century. Guelph is an Italian form of the name of the House of the family of the dukes of Bavaria; the Welfs were said to have used the name as a rallying cry during the Siege of Weinsberg in 1140, in which the rival Hohenstaufens of Swabia used "Wibellingen", the name of a castle today known as Waiblingen, as their cry. The names were introduced to Italy during the reign of Frederick Barbarossa; when Frederick conducted military campaigns in Italy to expand imperial power there, his supporters became known as Ghibellines.
The Lombard League and its allies were defending the liberties of the urban communes against the Emperor's encroachments and became known as Guelphs. The Ghibellines were thus the imperial party. Broadly speaking, Guelphs tended to come from wealthy mercantile families, whereas Ghibellines were predominantly those whose wealth was based on agricultural estates. Guelph cities tended to be in areas where the Emperor was more of a threat to local interests than the Pope, Ghibelline cities tended to be in areas where the enlargement of the Papal States was the more immediate threat; the Lombard League defeated Frederick at the Battle of Legnano in 1176. Frederick recognized the full autonomy of the cities of the Lombard league under his nominal suzerainty; the division developed its own dynamic in the politics of medieval Italy, it persisted long after the direct confrontation between Emperor and Pope had ceased. Smaller cities tended to be Ghibelline if the larger city nearby was Guelph, as Guelph Republic of Florence and Ghibelline Republic of Siena faced off at the Battle of Montaperti, 1260.
Pisa maintained a staunch Ghibelline stance against her fiercest rivals, the Guelph Republic of Genoa and Florence. Adherence to one of the parties could therefore be motivated by regional political reasons. Within cities, party allegiances differed from guild to guild, rione to rione, a city could change party after internal upheaval. Moreover, sometimes traditionally Ghibelline cities allied with the Papacy, while Guelph cities were punished with interdict. Contemporaries did not use the terms Guelph and Ghibellines much until about 1250, only in Tuscany, with the names "church party" and "imperial party" preferred in some areas. At the beginning of the 13th century, Philip of Swabia, a Hohenstaufen, his son-in-law Otto of Brunswick, a Welf, were rivals for the imperial throne. Philip was supported by the Ghibellines as a relative of Frederick I, while Otto was supported by the Guelphs. Philip's heir, Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, was an enemy of both Otto and the Papacy, during Frederick's reign the Guelphs became more associated with the Papacy while the Ghibellines became supporters of the Empire, of Frederick in particular.
Frederick II introduced this division to the Crusader states in the Levant during the Sixth Crusade. After the Sixth Crusade, Frederick II quelled a rebellion led by his son Henry in Germany and soon invaded Lombardy with a large Army. Pope Gregory IX failed. Frederick defeated the Lombard League in the Battle of Cortenuova and refused any Peace treaty with any of the Guelph States, he laid siege to Brescia but was forced to lift it. He was excommunicated by the Pope, in response expelled the friars from Lombardy and placed his son Enzo as Imperial vicar in Italy, he annexed Romagna and the Duchy of Spoleto as well as part of the Papal States. In the meantime Frederick marched through Tuscany hoping to capture Rome, however he was forced to retreat, sacking the city of Benevento. Soon however the Ghibelline city of Ferrara fell and Frederick once more marched into Italy capturing Ravenna and Faenza; the Pope called a council but an Imperial-Pisan fleet defeated a Papal fleet carrying Cardinals and prelates from Genoa in the Battle of Giglio and Frederick continued marching towards Rome.
However Pope Gregory soon died and Frederick, seeing the war being directed against the Church and not the Pope, withdrew his forces, releasing two cardinals from Capua, although Frederick did again march against Rome over and over throughout 1242 and 1243. A new Pope Innocent IV was elected. At first Frederick was content with the election; however the new Pope turned against Frederick. When the City of Viterbo rebelled, the pope backed the Guelphs. Frederick marched to Italy and besieged Viterbo; the Pope signed a Peace treaty with the Emperor. However, after the Emperor left the Cardinal Raniero Capocci, as the leader of Viterbo, had the garrison massacred; the Pope made another treaty but he broke it and continued to back the Guelphs, supporting Henry Raspe, Landgrave of Thuringia as King of the Romans and soon plo
A caparison is a cloth covering laid over a horse or other animal for protection and decoration. In modern times, they are used in parades and for historical reenactments. A similar term is horse-trapper; the word is derived from the Latin caparo. In the Middle Ages, caparisons were part of the horse armour known as barding, worn during battle and tournaments, they were adopted in the twelfth century in response to conditions of campaigning in the Crusades, where local armies employed archers, both on foot and horse, in large quantities. The covering might not protect the horse against the arrows but it could deflect and lessen their damage. An early depiction of a knight's horse wearing a caparison may be seen on the small Carlton-in-Lindrick knight figurine from the late 12th century. Modern re-enactment tests have shown that a loose caparison protects the horse reasonably well against arrows if combined with a gambeson-like undercloth underneath. Medieval caparisons were embroidered with the coat of arms of the horse's rider.
In the Indian state of Kerala, elephants are decorated during temple festivals. They wear a distinctive golden head covering called a nettipattam, translated into English as an elephant caparison. However, it covers only the head, not the body, as in a horse caparison. Horses in the Middle Ages Barding Horses in warfare Temple elephants of India War elephant Caparisons in 13th–17th century illustrations and artwork A caparison made for the wedding-celebration of Gustaf II Adolf of Sweden and Maria Eleonora of Brandenburg, 1621 Caparisons in the 14th-century German Manesse Codex This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chambers, Ephraim, ed.. "article name needed". Cyclopædia, or an Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences. James and John Knapton, et al
Italy in the Middle Ages
The history of the Italian peninsula during the medieval period can be defined as the time between the collapse of the Western Roman Empire and the Italian Renaissance. Late Antiquity in Italy lingered on into the 7th century under the Ostrogothic Kingdom and the Byzantine Empire under the Justinian dynasty, the Byzantine Papacy until the mid 8th century; the "Middle Ages" proper begin as the Byzantine Empire was weakening under the pressure of the Muslim conquests, the Exarchate of Ravenna fell under Lombard rule in 751. Lombard rule ended with the invasion of Charlemagne in 773, who established the Kingdom of Italy and the Papal States; this set the precedent for the main political conflict in Italy over the following centuries, between the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor, culminating with conflict between Pope Gregory VII and Henry IV and the latter's "Walk to Canossa" in 1077. The term "Middle Ages" itself derives from the description of the period of "obscurity" in Italian history during the 9th to 11th centuries, the saeculum obscurum or "Dark Age" of the Roman papacy as seen from the perspective of the 14th to 15th century Italian Humanists.
In the 11th century began a political development unique to Italy, the transformation of medieval communes into powerful city states modelled on ancient Roman Republicanism. The republics of Venice, Genoa, among others, rose to great political power and paved the way for the Italian Renaissance and the "European miracle", the resurgence of Western civilization from comparative obscurity in the Early Modern period. On the other hand, the Italian city states were in a state of constant warfare, adding to and overlapping with the persistent conflict between the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor; each city aligned itself with one faction or the other, yet was divided internally between the two warring parties and Ghibellines. Since the 13th century, these wars had been fought by mercenaries, giving rise to the Italian institution of condottieri and the Swiss mercenary culture. After the three decades of wars in Lombardy between the Duchy of Milan and the Republic of Venice, there was a balance of power between five emerging powerful states, which at the Peace of Lodi formed the so-called Italic League, bringing relative calm for the region for the first time in centuries.
These five powers were the maritime republics of Venice and Florence, whose naval powers dominated the east and west coast of the peninsula the territorial powers of Milan and the Papal States, dominating the northern and central parts of Italy and the Kingdom of Naples in the south. The precarious balance between these powers came to an end in 1494 as the duke of Milan Ludovico Sforza sought the aid of Charles VIII of France against Venice, triggering the Italian War of 1494–98; as a result, Italy became a battleground of the great European powers for the next sixty years culminating in the Italian War of 1551–59, which concluded with Habsburg Spain as the dominant power in Italy. The House of Habsburg would control Italy for the duration of the early modern period, until Napoleon's invasion of Italy in 1796. Italy was invaded by the Visigoths in the 5th century, Rome was sacked by Alaric in 410; the last Western Roman Emperor, Romulus Augustus, was deposed in 476 by an Eastern Germanic general, Odoacer.
He subsequently ruled in Italy for seventeen years as rex gentium, theoretically under the suzerainty of the eastern Roman emperor Zeno, but in total independence. The administration remained the same as that under the Western Roman Empire, gave religious freedoms to the Christians. Odoacer fought against the Vandals, who had occupied Sicily, other Germanic tribes that periodically invaded the peninsula. In 489, Emperor Zeno decided to oust the Ostrogoths, a foederatum people living in the Danube, by sending them into Italy. On February 25, 493 Theodoric the Great became the king of the Ostrogoths. Theodoric, who had lived long in Constantinople, is now considered a Romanized German, he in fact ruled over Italy through Roman personnel; the Goth minority, of Arian confession, constituted an aristocracy of landowners and militaries, but its influence over the country remained minimal. The reign of Theodoric is considered a period of recovery for the country. Infrastructures were repaired, frontiers were expanded, the economy well cared for.
The Latin culture flourished for the last time with figures like Theodoric's minister. However, Theodoric's successors were not equal to him; the eastern half of the Empire, now centred on Constantinople, invaded Italy in the early 6th century, the generals of emperor Justinian and Narses, conquered the Ostrogothic kingdom after years of warfare, ending in 552. This conflict, known as the Gothic Wars, destroyed much of the town life that had survived the barbarian invasions. Town life did not disappear, but they became smaller and more primitive than they had been in Roman times. Subsistence agriculture employed the bulk of the Italian population. Wars and disease epidemics had a dramatic effect on the demographics of Italy; the agricultural estates of the Roman era did not disappear. They produced an agricultural surplus, sold in towns; the withdrawal of Byzantine armies allowed the Lombards, to invade Italy. Cividal
Saint George was a soldier of Cappadocian Greek origins, member of the Praetorian Guard for Roman emperor Diocletian, sentenced to death for refusing to recant his Christian faith. He became one of the most venerated saints and megalo-martyrs in Christianity, was venerated as a military saint since the Crusaders. In hagiography, as one of the Fourteen Holy Helpers and one of the most prominent military saints, he is immortalised in the legend of Saint George and the Dragon, his memorial, Saint George's Day, is traditionally celebrated on 23 April. England and several other nation states, universities and organisations all claim Saint George as their patron. Little is known about St George’s life, but it is thought he was a Roman officer of Greek descent from Cappadocia, martyred in one of the pre-Constantinian persecutions. Beyond this, early sources give conflicting information. There are two main versions of the legend, a Greek and a Latin version, which can both be traced to the 5th or 6th century.
The saint's veneration dates to the 5th century with some certainty, still to the 4th. The addition of the dragon legend dates to the 11th century; the earliest text preserving fragments of George's narrative is in a Greek hagiography identified by Hippolyte Delehaye of the scholarly Bollandists to be a palimpsest of the 5th century. An earlier work by Eusebius, Church history, written in the 4th century, contributed to the legend but did not name George or provide significant detail; the work of the Bollandists Daniel Papebroch, Jean Bolland, Godfrey Henschen in the 17th century was one of the first pieces of scholarly research to establish the saint's historicity via their publications in Bibliotheca Hagiographica Graeca. Pope Gelasius I stated that George was among those saints "whose names are justly reverenced among men, but whose actions are known only to God." A critical edition of a Syriac Acta of Saint George, accompanied by an annotated English translation, was published by E. W. Brooks in 1925.
The compiler of this Acta Sancti Georgii, according to Hippolyte Delehaye, "confused the martyr with his namesake, the celebrated George of Cappadocia, the Arian intruder into the see of Alexandria and enemy of St. Athanasius". In the Greek tradition, George was born in Cappadocia, his father died for the faith when George was fourteen, his mother returned with George to her homeland of Syria Palaestina. A few years George's mother died. George joins the Roman army. George is persecuted by one Dadianus. In versions of the Greek legend, this name is rationalized to Diocletian, George's martyrdom is placed in the Diocletian persecution of AD 303; the setting in Nicomedia is secondary, inconsistent with the earliest cultus of the saint being located in Diospolis. George was executed by decapitation before Nicomedia's city wall, on 23 April 303. A witness of his suffering convinced Empress Alexandra of Rome to become a Christian as well, so she joined George in martyrdom, his body was returned to Lydda for burial.
The Latin Acta Sancti Georgii follows the general course of the Greek legend, but Diocletian here becomes Dacian, Emperor of the Persians. George dies in Melitene in Cappadocia, his martyrdom is extended, to more than twenty separate tortures over the course of seven years. Over the course of his martyrdom, 40,900 pagans are converted to Christianity, including the empress Alexandra; when George dies, the wicked Dacian is carried away in a whirlwind of fire. In Latin versions, the persecutor is the Roman emperor Decius, or a Roman judge named Dacian serving under Diocletian. There is little information on the early life of Saint George. Herbert Thurston in The Catholic Encyclopedia states that based upon an ancient cultus, narratives of the early pilgrims, the early dedications of churches to Saint George, going back to the fourth century, "there seems, therefore, no ground for doubting the historical existence of St. George", although no faith can be placed in either the details of his history or his alleged exploits.
According to Donald Attwater, "No historical particulars of his life have survived... The widespread veneration for St George as a soldier saint from early times had its centre in Palestine at Diospolis, now Lydda. St George was martyred there, at the end of the third or the beginning of the fourth century, and that Saint George in all likelihood was martyred before the year 290. Although the Diocletianic Persecution of 303, associated with military saints because the persecution was aimed at Christians among the professional soldiers of the Roman army, is of undisputed historicity, the identity of Saint George as a historical individual had not been ascertained as of Edmund Spenser's day, Edward Gibbon argued that George, or at least the legend from which the above is distilled, is based on George of Cappadocia, a notorious Arian bishop