Maggiora was an Italian coachbuilder from Moncalieri near Turin. They produced the Fiat Barchetta and the Lancia Kappa Coupé which was designed by Centro Stile Lancia, in 2003 the company was closed. The company was formed in 1925 as Martelleria Maggiora by Arturo Maggiora as a quality car body maker - a coach builder or Carrozzeria. Their work has graced many Fiat and Lancia cars like the early Fiat 1100 Viotti Giardiniettas, the company was grown and extended, with several Abarth and Cisitalia bodies produced. In 1951 it moved to Borgo San Pietro Moncalieri where car like the Glas GT, Glas V8, Maggiora merged with Sanmarco and Lamier to form IRMA SpA in 1991 - a major supplier to the Ducato range. Maggiora SRL took over the old Lancia factory in Chivasso north of Turin in 1992, the new capacities in the Lancia factory were used to produce the Fiat Barchetta - at around 50 bodies a day. Some complete cars were produced here too, Fiat Barchetta Fiat 2300 S Coupé Lancia Aurelia B20 Lancia Flaminia Touring Alfa Romeo 2000 Touring Maserati Mistral De Tomaso Mangusta De Tomaso Pantera Lancia Kappa Coupé
Ferrari 250 GTO
The Ferrari 250 GTO is a GT car produced by Ferrari from 1962 to 1964 for homologation into the FIAs Group 3 Grand Touring Car category. It was powered by Ferraris Tipo 168/62 V12 engine, the 250 in its name denotes the displacement in cubic centimeters of each of its cylinders, GTO stands for Gran Turismo Omologato, Italian for Grand Touring Homologated. Just 39250 GTOs were manufactured between 1962 and 1964 and this includes 33 cars with 1962-63 bodywork, three with 1964 bodywork similar to the Ferrari 250 LM, and three 330 GTO specials with a larger engine. Four of the older 1962-1963 cars were updated in 1964 with Series II bodies, when new, the GTO cost $18,000 in the United States, with buyers personally approved by Enzo Ferrari and his dealer for North America, Luigi Chinetti. In May 2012 the 1962250 GTO made for Stirling Moss set a record selling price of $38,115,000. In October 2013, Connecticut-based collector Paul Pappalardo sold chassis number 5111GT to a buyer for a new record of around $52 million.
In 2004, Sports Car International placed the 250 GTO eighth on a list of Top Sports Cars of the 1960s, Motor Trend Classic placed the 250 GTO first on a list of the Greatest Ferraris of All Time. Popular Mechanics named it the Hottest Car of All Time, the 250 GTO was designed to compete in GT racing, where its rivals would include the Shelby Cobra, Jaguar E-Type and Aston Martin DP214. The development of the 250 GTO was headed by chief engineer Giotto Bizzarrini, although Bizzarrini is usually credited as the designer of the 250 GTO, he and most other Ferrari engineers were fired in 1962 due to a dispute with Enzo Ferrari. Further development of the 250 GTO was overseen by new engineer Mauro Forghieri, the design of the car was a collaborative effort and cannot be ascribed to a single person. The mechanical aspects of 250 GTO were relatively conservative at the time of its introduction, using engine, the chassis of the car was based on that of the 250 GT SWB, with minor differences in frame structure and geometry to reduce weight and lower the chassis.
The car was built around a hand-welded oval tube frame, incorporating A-arm front suspension, rear live-axle with Watts linkage, disc brakes, the engine was the race-proven Tipo 168/62 Comp. 3.0 L V12 as used in the 250 Testa Rossa Le Mans winner, an all-alloy design utilizing a dry sump and six 38DCN Weber carburetors, it produced approximately 300 horsepower. The gearbox was a new 5-speed unit with Porsche-type synchromesh, Bizzarrini focused his design effort on the cars aerodynamics in an attempt to improve top speed and stability. The body design was informed by wind tunnel testing at Pisa University as well as road, the resulting all-aluminium bodywork had a long, low nose, small radiator inlet, and distinctive air intakes on the nose with removable covers. Early testing resulted in the addition of a rear spoiler, the underside of the car was covered by a belly pan and had an additional spoiler underneath formed by the fuel tank cover. The aerodynamic design of the 250 GTO was a technical innovation compared to previous Ferrari GT cars.
The bodies were constructed by Scaglietti, with the exception of early prototypes with bodies constructed in-house by Ferrari or by Pininfarina, Cars were produced in many colours, with the most famous being the bright red Rosso Cina
The Milanese coachbuilder Carrozzeria Colli was established by Giuseppe Colli in 1931 and included his four sons, Candido and Tarcisio. The company was specialized in using aluminium its works, the first automobiles it made were racing cars using Fiat 1100 mechanicals and chassis, Fiat 500, Lancia Astura and Aprilia were used as basis. During the World War II the company worked for airforces and after the war made car bodies, after the war they made couple of Alfa Romeo 6C 2500SS, Lancia Aprilia based cars and for the 1947 Villa dEste a Fiat 500 barchetta. Colli made one very special prototype in 1946, the Aerauto PL. 5C roadable aircraft, from the 1950s it worked with Alfa Romeo making cars such as 6C 3000CM and its own single variant of Disco Volante. The company built Giulietta and Giulia estate cars in the 1960s, in 1955 Colli constructed the very shortly used Arzani-Volpini Formula One car utilising a twin-supercharged Maserati 1500 inline-four engine. Colli made car bodies until 1973
Modena is a city and comune on the south side of the Po Valley, in the Province of Modena in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy. One of Ferraris cars, the 360 Modena, was named after the town itself, the University of Modena, founded in 1175 and expanded by Francesco II dEste in 1686, has traditional strengths in economics and law and is the second oldest athenaeum in Italy. Italian military officers are trained at the Military Academy of Modena, the Biblioteca Estense houses historical volumes and 3,000 manuscripts. The Cathedral of Modena, the Torre della Ghirlandina and Piazza Grande are a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1997, Modena is known in culinary circles for its production of balsamic vinegar. Modena lies on the Pianura Padana, and is bounded by the two rivers Secchia and Panaro, both affluents of the Po River and their presence is symbolized by the Two Rivers Fountain in the citys center, by Giuseppe Graziosi. The city is connected to the Panaro by the Naviglio channel, the Apennines begin some 10 kilometres from the city, to the south.
The commune is divided into four circoscrizioni and these are, Centro storico Crocetta Buon Pastore San Faustino Modena has a humid subtropical climate, with an average annual precipitation of 809 millimetres. Summers are warm and winters are chilly and wetter, with the possibility of snowfall and this climate is described by the Köppen climate classification as Cfa. From 1945 to 1992, Modena had a consecutive series of Communist mayors. From the 1990s, the city has been governed by center-left coalitions, at the April 2006 elections, the city of Modena gave about 50% of its votes to the Democratic Party. The legislative body of the municipality is the City Council which is composed by 35 members elected every five years, Modenas executive body is the City Committee composed by 9 assessors, the deputy-mayor and the mayor. The current mayor of Modena is Giancarlo Muzzarelli, member of the Democratic Party of Italy, the territory around Modena was inhabited by the Villanovans in the Iron Age, and by Ligurian tribes and the Gaulish Boii.
Livy described it as a fortified citadel where Roman magistrates took shelter, the outcome of the siege is not known, but the city was most likely abandoned after Hannibals arrival. Mutina was refounded as a Roman colony in 183 BC, to be used as a base by Marcus Aemilius Lepidus. In the 1st century BC Mutina was besieged twice, the first siege was by Pompey in 78 BC, when Mutina was defended by Marcus Junius Brutus. The city eventually surrendered out of hunger, and Brutus fled, in the civil war following Caesars assassination, the city was besieged again, this time by Mark Antony, in 44 BC, and defended by Decimus Junius Brutus. Octavian relieved the city with the help of the Senate, cicero called it Mutina splendidissima in his Philippics. It is said that Mutina was never sacked by Attila, for a dense fog hid it, as of December 2008, Italian researchers have discovered the pottery center where the oil lamps that lit the ancient Roman empire were made
Maranello is a town and comune in the region of Emilia-Romagna in Northern Italy,18 km from Modena, with a population of 17,165 as of 2013. It is best known as the home of Ferrari and the Scuderia Ferrari Formula One racing team, maranello was home to coachbuilding firm Carrozzeria Scaglietti, now owned by Ferrari. The public museum Museo Ferrari, which sports and racing cars. Its new library opened in November 2011, and was designed by Arata Isozaki, maranello is the starting point of the annual Italian Marathon, which finishes in nearby Carpi. Maranellos new town library was designed jointly by Andrea Maffei and Isozaki, the parish church of San Biagio was rebuilt in 1903
Ponton or pontoon styling refers to a 1930s–1960s design genre—ultimately the precursor of modern automotive styling. The trend emerged as bodywork began to enclose the full width and uninterrupted length of a car, incorporating previously distinct running boards, the fenders of an automobile with ponton styling may be called Pontoon fenders, and the overall trend may be known as envelope styling. The term derives from the French and German word ponton, meaning pontoon, the Langenscheidt German–English dictionary defines Pontonkarrosserie as all-enveloping bodywork, straight-through side styling, slab-sided styling. The term ponton styling may have derived from the practice in Germany of adding full-length tread armor along each side of a tank. One of the first known cars with a body is the Bugatti Type 32 Tank which participated in the 1923 French Grand Prix at Tours. In 1924, Fidelis Böhler designed one of the first production cars with a ponton body, the cars body resembled a loaf of bread earning it the sobriquet of Kommissbrot—a coarse whole grain bread as issued by the army.
The economical car was produced from 1924 to 1928, Böhler built the core body around two side-by-side passenger seats. He dispensed with running boards and integrated the fenders in the body to save on weight, the inexpensive car became popular with consumers in Germany. In 1935, Vittorio Jano, working with the brothers Gino and Oscar Jankovitz, created a one-off mid-engine prototype on an Alfa Romeo 6C2300 chassis, which Jano had shipped to Fiume in 1934. In 1937, Pinin Farina designed a flowing ponton-style body for the Lancia Aprilia berlinetta aerodynamica coupé, and the open body on the 1940 Lancia Aprilia Cabriolet. MoMA acquired an example for its permanent collection in 1951, noting that the hood, fenders. Rounded, flowing forms, with horizontal lines between the fenders—the style had identified as the so-called Ponton Side Design became the new fashion in Europe. One of the first American cars to adopt the new style was the 1947 Studebaker Champion, designed by Virgil Exner and Roy Cole but sometimes erroneously attributed to Raymond Loewy.
Another, the Howard Dutch Darrin-designed 1947–1950 Kaiser-Frazer, was said to have been the inspiration for the 1949 Borgward Hansa 1500, in 1948 Czechoslovakian Tatra 600 began production. Ford and General Motors followed the trend with their own designs in 1949, one of the earliest completely new styled cars that were introduced after World War II in the United States were the 1949 Nash models. Popular Science magazine described the new pontoon Nashes as the most obvious departure from previous designs and they carried the fenderless pontoon-body, fast-back shape further than the competition. This Nash design became an appearance for their automobiles that included the Nash-Healey. The 1952 redesign of the sports car took on an even closer family appearance to the redesigned Nash models by featuring pontoon-type fenders fore
Pininfarina S. p. A. is an Italian car design firm and coachbuilder in Cambiano, Italy. It was founded by Battista Pinin Farina in 1930. On December 14,2015, Mahindra Group, Pininfarina is employed by a wide variety of automobile manufactures to design vehicles. Since the 1980s Pininfarina has designed high-speed trains, trams, rolling stocks, automated light rail cars, people movers, airplanes, with the 1986 creation of Pininfarina Extra they have consulted on industrial design, interior design and graphic design. Pininfarina was run by Battistas son Sergio Pininfarina until 2001, his grandson Andrea Pininfarina until his death in 2008, after Andreas death his younger brother Paolo Pininfarina was appointed as CEO. At its height in 2006 the Pininfarina Group employed 2,768 with subsidiary company offices throughout Europe, as well as in Morocco, as of 2012 with the end of series automotive production, employment has shrunk to 821. Pininfarina is registered and publicly traded on the Borsa Italiana, on December 14,2015, Mahindra Group, announced a deal to acquire Pininfarina S. p. A. in a deal worth about 168 million euros.
That first year the firm employed eighteen and built 50 automobile bodies, on May 22,1930 papers were filed to become a corporation, Società anonima Carrozzeria Pinin Farina headquartered in Turin, Italy, at 107 Corso Trapani. During the 1930s, the company built bodies for Lancia, Alfa Romeo, Isotta-Fraschini, Hispano Suiza, Fiat and this development happened in the mid-1930s when others saw the frameless construction as the end of the independent coachbilder. In 1939, World War II ended automobile production, but the company had 400 employees building 150 bodies a month, the war effort against the Allies brought work making ambulances and searchlight carriages. The Pininfarina factory was destroyed by Allied bombers ending the firms operations, after the war, Italy was banned from the 1946 Paris Motor Show. The Paris show was attended by 809,000 visitors, lines of people stretched from the gate all the way to the Seine. The managers of the Grand Palais said of the display, the devil Pininfarina, but to the press, at the end of 1945 the Cisitalia 202 Coupé was designed.
An elegantly proportioned design with a low hood, it is the car that usually is given credit for establishing Pininfarinas reputation, the Pininfarina design was honored in the Museum of Modern Arts landmark presentation Eight Automobiles in 1951. A total of 170 Coupés where produced by Pininfarina, the publicity of the Museum of Modern Art exhibit brought Pininfarina to the attention of Nash-Kelvinator managers. The subsequent cooperation with Nash Motors resulted in production of Pininfarina designs. In 1952, Mr. Farina visited the U. S, the Nash-Healey sports car body was, completely designed and assembled in limited numbers from 1952 to 1954 at Pininfarinas Turin facilities. Nash heavily advertised its link to the famous Italian designer, much as Studebaker promoted its longtime association with Raymond Loewy, there were 99 Broughams built in 1959 and 101 in 1960. A similar arrangement was repeated in the late 1980s when Pininfarina designed the Cadillac Allanté at the San Giusto Canavese factory, the car bodies were assembled and painted in Italy before being flown from the Turin International Airport to Detroit for final vehicle assembly
Officine Stampaggi Industriali
OSI was intended to be an independent design branch of Ghias, focussing on niche efforts. The short lived company made some custom built cars based on Alfa Romeo, one of their first contracts was to build the bodyshells of the 1960 Innocenti 950 Spider, designed by a young Tom Tjaarda at Ghias behest. Probably its best known model outside Italy was the Ford 20M TS Coupé based on the German Ford Taunus 20M, the car was designed by Sergio Sartorelli, better known as the designer of the Type 3 based Volkswagen Karmann Ghia Type 34. Approximately 2,200 of the Ford 20M based coupés were produced, the company built the Ford Anglia Torino designed by Giovanni Michelotti,10,007 examples of this model were sold in Italy. Segre died following appendicitis in 1963, leaving the company without its personal link to Ghia. He was replaced by Giacomo Bianco of Fergat, but Bianco was unable to keep the company afloat as contracts began to dry up, in 19662,000 employees had to be laid off, and OSI car production ended in December 1967.
Bianco was fired and Sartorelli was charged with winding up operations, the company remained active as a producer of steel pressings and industrial equipment
Formula One is the highest class of single-seat auto racing that is sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de lAutomobile. The FIA Formula One World Championship has been the form of racing since the inaugural season in 1950. The formula, designated in the name, refers to a set of rules, the F1 season consists of a series of races, known as Grands Prix, held worldwide on purpose-built F1 circuits and public roads. The results of each race are evaluated using a system to determine two annual World Championships, one for drivers, one for constructors. The racing drivers are required to be holders of valid Super Licences, the races are required to be held on tracks graded 1, the highest grade a track can receive by the FIA. Most events are held in locations on purpose-built tracks, but there are several events in city centres throughout the world. Formula One cars are the fastest road racing cars in the world. Formula One cars race at speeds of up to approximately 375 km/h with engines currently limited in performance to a maximum of 15,000 RPM, the cars are capable of lateral acceleration in excess of five g in corners.
The performance of the cars is very dependent on electronics – although traction control and other driving aids have been banned since 2008 – and on aerodynamics, the formula has radically evolved and changed through the history of the sport. F1 had a global television audience of 425 million people during the course of the 2014 season. Grand Prix racing began in 1906 and became the most popular internationally in the second half of the twentieth century. The Formula One Group is the holder of the commercial rights. Its high profile and popularity have created a major merchandising environment, since 2000 the sports spiraling expenditures and the distribution of prize money favoring established top teams have forced complaints from smaller teams and led several teams to bankruptcy. On 23 January 2017 it was confirmed that Liberty Media had completed its $8 billion acquisition of Delta Topco, the Formula One series originated with the European Grand Prix Motor Racing of the 1920s and 1930s.
The formula is a set of rules that all cars must meet. Formula One was a new formula agreed upon after World War II during 1946, the first world championship race was held at Silverstone, United Kingdom in 1950. A championship for constructors followed in 1958, national championships existed in South Africa and the UK in the 1960s and 1970s. Non-championship Formula One events were held for years, but due to the increasing cost of competition
Vignale was an Italian automobile coachbuilder company. Carrozzeria Alfredo Vignale was established in 1948 at Via Cigliano, Turin by Alfredo Vignale in Grugliasco, the first body on a Fiat 500 Topolino base was made in 1948, followed by a special Fiat 1100. Most customers were Italian firms such as Cisitalia, Alfa Romeo, Fiat, Maserati, in 1952, Vignale collaborated with Briggs Cunningham to jointly produce the Continental C-3. In 1968, Vignale designed the body of Tatra 613, Vignale designed and built cars, usually low volume variants of the main production cars of these automobile manufacturers. Amongst them were 850, Samantha and the Vignale Gamine, a close cooperation was maintained with Giovanni Michelotti. Vignale was taken over by De Tomaso in 1969 who already owned Carrozzeria Ghia, both coachbuilder firms were sold to Ford in 1973 but the Vignale brand was discontinued. At the 1993 Geneva motor show Aston Martin, at the time owned by Ford, Ford used the Vignale name in the Ford Focus Vignale concept car introduced at the 2004 Paris Motor Show, however the production model was named as Ford Focus Coupé-Cabriolet.
In September 2013, Ford of Europe announce plans to resurrect the Vignale name as an upscale luxury sub-brand of Ford, the cars will be visually distinct from regular Ford products and have an improved dealership experience. Exclusive services, such as free lifetime car washes, will be offered as well, the first Ford model to receive the Vignale name will be the 2015 Ford Mondeo. On 1st March 2016 Ford of Europe announced a Kuga Vignale Concept vehicle at the Geneva motorshow
The Ferrari 488 is a mid-engined sports car produced by the Italian sports car manufacturer Ferrari, introduced in 2015 to replace the previous 458. It is powered by a 3. 9-litre twin-turbocharged V8, smaller in displacement, the 488 GTB was named The Supercar of the Year 2015 by car magazine Top Gear. The 488 GTB is powered by a 3902cc all-aluminium dry sump unit of the Ferrari F154 engine family, the engine produces 670 PS at 8,000 rpm and 760 N·m of torque at 3,000 rpm. This results in a power output of 126.3 kW per litre and specific torque output of 194.8 N·m per litre. The only available transmission for the 488 is an automated manual dual-clutch 7-speed F1 gearbox manufactured for Ferrari by Getrag, improved carbon-ceramic brakes are supplied on the 488, derived from technology used in LaFerrari, constructed with new materials that reduce the time needed to achieve optimum operating temperature. Disc sizes are 398 mm at the front, and 360 mm at the rear and these advancements reportedly reduce stopping distances by 9% over the 458. A new 5-spoke alloy wheel was designed for the 488, measuring 51 centimetres front, front tires measure 245/35 with rears 305/30.
The first 488 to be introduced was the 488 GTB 2-seat berlinetta and it was launched on 3 February 2015, in advance of its world première at the March 2015 Geneva Motor Show. The Ferrari 488 Spider is a 2-seat roadster variant of the 488 with a folding hardtop, Ferrari released pictures of the 488 Spider at the end of July 2015, and the car debuted at the Frankfurt Motor Show in September 2015. The Spiders drivetrain is the same of the 488 GTB, including the 670 PS3. 9-litre twin-turbocharged V8, the 488 Spider is only 50 kg heavier than its coupé sibling, and 10 kg lighter than the 458 Spider. The 0–100 km/h sprint is unchanged at 3.0 seconds, while the 0–200 km/h acceleration takes slightly longer at 8.7 seconds, UK sales are expected to begin in late spring 2016. The racing versions of the 488 GTB are the successors to the 458 Italia GTC, both the 488 GTE and GT3 were unveiled at the 2015 Finali Mondiali Ferrari which took place at Mugello. The 488 GTE made its debut in Round 1 of the 2016 WeatherTech SportsCar Championship at the 24 Hours of Daytona on 30–31 January.
The 488 GTE run by Scuderia Corsa finished 10th outright and 4th in the GTLM class, at the 201624 Hours of Le Mans, the car took second place, ran by Risi Competizione. The 488 GT3 made its competition debut in Round 2 of the 2016 Australian GT Championship at the Albert Park Circuit in Melbourne on 17 March. Italian Andrea Montermini and Danish driver Benny Simonsen shared the car for Australian team DeFelice Homes. Over the 4 races that made up the round, Montermini finished 5th in race 1 and 14th in race 3 while Simonsen finished 2nd in race 2 and 6th in the fourth and final race. In February 2017, the 488 GT3 won the 2017 Liqui Moly Bathurst 12 Hour, ran by Maranello Motorsport