Carsten Borchgrevink

Carsten Egeberg Borchgrevink was an Anglo-Norwegian polar explorer and a pioneer of modern Antarctic travel. He was the precursor of Sir Robert Falcon Scott, Sir Ernest Shackleton, Roald Amundsen, others associated with the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration. From 1898 to 1900, he led the British-financed Southern Cross expedition, which established a new Farthest South record at 78° 50'S. Borchgrevink began his exploring career in 1894, by joining a Norwegian whaling expedition, during which he became one of the first persons to set foot on the Antarctic mainland; this achievement helped him to obtain backing for his Southern Cross expedition, which became the first to overwinter on the Antarctic mainland, the first to visit the Great Ice Barrier since the expedition of Sir James Clark Ross nearly 60 years previously. However, the expedition's successes, including the Farthest South, were received with only moderate interest by the public and by the British geographical establishment, whose attention was by focused on Scott's upcoming Discovery expedition.

Some of Borchgrevink's colleagues were critical of his leadership, his own accounts of the expedition were regarded as journalistic and unreliable. After the Southern Cross expedition, Borchgrevink was one of three scientists sent to the Caribbean in 1902, by the National Geographic Society, to report on the aftermath of the Mount Pelée eruption. Thereafter he settled in Kristiania, leading a life away from public attention, his pioneering work was subsequently recognised and honoured by several countries, in 1912, he received a handsome tribute from Roald Amundsen, conqueror of the South Pole. In 1930, the Royal Geographical Society acknowledged Borchgrevink's contribution to polar exploration and awarded him its Patron's Medal; the Society acknowledged in its citation that justice had not been done to the work of the Southern Cross expedition. Carsten Borchgrevink was born in Christiania, the son of a Norwegian lawyer, Henrik Christian Borchgrevink, an English mother Annie, née Ridley; the family lived in the Uranienborg neighbourhood, where Roald Amundsen, an occasional childhood playmate grew up.

Borchgrevink was educated at Gjertsen College, at the Royal Saxon Academy of Forestry at Tharandt, Saxony, in Germany. According to the historian Roland Huntford, Borchgrevink was of a restless nature, with a passion for adventure which took him, after his forestry training, to Australia. For four years he worked with government surveying teams in Queensland and New South Wales before settling in the small town of Bowenfels, where he became a teacher in languages and natural sciences at Cooerwull Academy, his initial interest in polar exploration developed from reading press reports about the work of local scientists on the first Australian Antarctic Exploration Committee. This organisation, founded in 1886, was investigating the possibility of establishing permanent scientific research stations in the Antarctic regions; these plans were not realised. The expedition that Borchgrevink joined was organised by Henryk Bull, a Norwegian businessman and entrepreneur who, like Borchgrevink, had settled in Australia in the late 1880s.

Bull planned to make a whaling voyage into Antarctic waters. He met the 84-year-old "father of modern whaling" and inventor of the harpoon gun. With Foyn's help he acquired the whaler Kap Nor. Bull hired an experienced whaling captain, Leonard Kristensen, with a crew and a small scientific team left Norway in September 1893; when Borchgrevink learned that Antarctic was due to visit Melbourne in September 1894, he hurried there hoping to find a vacancy. He was fortunate; this created an opening for Borchgrevink, who met Bull in Melbourne and persuaded him to take him on as a deck-hand and part-time scientist. During the following months, Antarctic's sealing activities around the subantarctic islands were successful, but whales proved difficult to find. Bull and Kristensen decided to take the ship further south, to areas where the presence of whales had been reported by earlier expeditions; the ship penetrated a belt of pack ice and sailed into the Ross Sea. On 17 January 1895 a landing was made at Possession Island, where Sir James Clark Ross had planted the British flag in 1841.

Bull and Borchgrevink left a message in a canister there. On the island Borchgrevink found a lichen, the first plant life discovered south of the Antarctic Circle. On 24 January the ship reached the vicinity of Cape Adare, at the northern extremity of the Victoria Land coastline of the Antarctic mainland. Ross's 1841 expedition been unable to land here, but as Antarctic neared the cape, conditions were calm enough for a boat to be lowered. A party including Bull, Kristensen and others headed for a shingled foreshore below the cape. Who went ashore first became a matter of dispute, with both Kristensen and Borchgrevink contending for the honour along with a 17-year-old New Zealand seaman, Alexander von Tunzelmann, who said that he had "leapt out to hold the boat steady"; the party claimed this as the first landing on the Antarctic mainland


1440p is the shorthand name for a family of video display resolutions. The p stands for progressive scan, i.e. non-interlaced. The 1440 denotes a vertical resolution of double the vertical resolution of 720p. 1440p video mastered from 4:3 ratio content could be displayed with 1920×1440 or higher resolution such as QXGA or 2304×1440 with scaling, windowboxing, or pillarboxing. Widescreen 16:9 1440p requires 2560×1440 resolution, possible with WQXGA, 2560×1920, or higher resolution with letterboxing, scaling, or windowboxing. Apple's 27" iMac and Dell's UltraSharp U2711 monitor are WQHD; the HDMI 1.3 specification supports WQXGA, hence widescreen 1440p. In autumn 2006, Chi Mei Optoelectronics announced a 47" 1440p LCD panel to be released in Q2 2007. In relation to smartphones, 1440p displays are sometimes marketed as "Quad HD", as it is four times the resolution of 720p high definition; the Vivo Xplay 3S, released December 2013, was the first smartphone to use a 1440p display. 720p 1080p WQHD 4K 8K

Miracle Landing

Miracle Landing is a 1990 American made-for-television drama film based on an in-flight accident aboard Aloha Airlines Flight 243 that occurred in April 1988. The Boeing 737-200 was flying from Hilo, Hawaii to Honolulu, when it experienced rapid decompression when a section of the fuselage was torn away. With one flight attendant blown from the cabin to her death and 65 others injured, the aircraft was able to make a successful emergency landing at Kahului Airport, on Maui. Miracle Landing stars Wayne Rogers, Ana Alicia and Nancy Kwan; the film aired February 11, 1990 on CBS and has since been shown in syndication on network broadcasts throughout the world. In February 1988, two pilots in a flight simulator face the challenge of landing a crippled jet that experiences a cabin decompression, an engine fire and a loss of hydraulics; the three simulated emergencies foreshadow the events of Paradise Airlines Flight 243, taking place two months later. Three crew members: Madeleine "Mimi" Tompkins, Captain Robert "Bob" Schornstheimer and Flight Attendant Michelle Honda are flying together on Paradise Airlines Flight 243.

First Officer pilot Tompkins has been selected for training to become a full Captain in the airline, having been the first female pilot to be hired by Paradise in 1979. Paradise Airlines 243 is an inter-island flight from Honolulu to Hilo, with a return to Honolulu the same day; the flight takes off over Hilo, soon beverage service begins. During that time, nothing out of the ordinary occurs, but soon after, David Kornberg, a young boy travelling with his mother, calls the lead flight attendant, C. B. asks her about the crack appearing in the ceiling. At that moment, chaos breaks loose and the entire front and top half section of the airliner, apart from the cockpit and cargo hold, blows off in a clean separation. In the chaos, Michelle falls to the floor and clings to a passenger's seat, C. B. is blown from the aircraft off-screen, passengers are badly injured from debris and decompression. The third flight attendant Jane Sato-Tomita is thrown to the cabin floor and sustains serious head injuries, clinging to other passengers to avoid the same fate as C.

B. The cockpit crew is unaware of the full scale of the disaster and believe a bomb or decompression has occurred. Soon passengers seated in the section, not swept away have oxygen masks fall but it is useless as all the lines were destroyed. However, the aircraft was at a low altitude thus it had not affected them as badly. Mimi and Bob contact Kahului Airport to declare an emergency. Soon, the pilots are faced with the fact they may crash and passengers would die, both Mimi and Bob have flashbacks to her training days and his US Air Force times, respectively. Michelle has a flashback to walking the shoreline with her father who as a soldier in the Army, has died. Jane's injuries worsen and Michelle struggles to help her, she feels she might lose it from the chaos and picks up the call phone only to find it dead. Dorothy Hendricks leans out of the airliner and appears to have a state of shock before her husband George notices and pulls her back inside. Michelle begins to instruct the passengers on a possible crash landing or water landing and passes out life jackets.

Gail Kornberg becomes hysterical when she cannot get a life jacket for David, but soon is calmed by Michelle. Roy Wesler panics; the tower alerts Kahului Fire and Rescue personnel and they arrive before the crippled jet lands. After several tense minutes and Bob are able to figure out a plan for the emergency. After some time, the airliner lands but with difficulties in the hydraulics; the pilots were worried that the landing might result in a broken aircraft and fire, but miraculously their landing resulted in no deaths and the emergency notification allowed crews to treat and evacuate passengers immediately. Principal photography for Miracle Landing took place in Honolulu, Hawaii; the aircraft used for the movie bearing the colors of the fictitious Paradise Airlines, is a Boeing 737-297CT, registered as N70723. At the time, it was owned by the airline involved in the Flight 243 incident; that aircraft was used by WestJet Airlines in Canada until 2002. Miracle Landing was considered an authentic and accurate portrayal of the Aloha Airlines Flight 243.

In his review, Sergio Ortega said: "Miracle Landing is one of the most technically accurate air disaster movies ever."Miracle Landing won the 1990 Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Individual Achievement in Special Visual Effects. Notes Citations Bibliography Miracle Landing at the TCM Movie Database Miracle Landing on IMDb Miracle Landing Review