The city of Cartagena, known in the colonial era as Cartagena de Indias, is a major port founded in 1533, located on the northern coast of Colombia in the Caribbean Coast Region. It was strategically located between the Magdalena and Sinú rivers and became the main port for trade between Spain and its overseas empire, establishing its importance by the early 1540s. During the colonial era it was a key port for the export of Peruvian silver to Spain and for the import of enslaved Africans under the asiento system, it was defensible against pirate attacks in the Caribbean. It is the capital of the Bolívar Department, had a population of 1,028,736 according to the 2018 census; the fifth-largest city in Colombia and the second largest in the region, after Barranquilla. The urban area of Cartagena is the fifth-largest urban area in the country. Economic activities include petrochemicals industries, as well as tourism; the present city—named after Cartagena, Spain—was founded on June 1, 1533. During the Spanish colonial period Cartagena served a key role in administration and expansion of the Spanish empire.
It was a center of political and economic activity. In 1984, Cartagena's colonial walled city and fortress were designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site; the Puerto Hormiga Culture, found in the Caribbean coast region in the area from the Sinú River Delta to the Cartagena Bay, appears to be the first documented human community in what is now Colombia. Archaeologists estimate that around 4000 BC, the formative culture was located near the boundary between the present-day departments of Bolívar and Sucre. In this area, archaeologists have found the most ancient ceramic objects of the Americas, dating from around 4000 BC; the primary reason for the proliferation of primitive societies in this area is thought to have been the relative mildness of climate and the abundance of wildlife, which allowed the hunting inhabitants a comfortable life. Archaeological investigations date the decline of the Puerto Hormiga culture and its related settlements to around 3000 BC; the rise of a much more developed culture, the Monsú, who lived at the end of the Dique Canal near today's Cartagena neighborhoods Pasacaballos and Ciénaga Honda at the northernmost part of Barú Island, has been hypothesized.
The Monsú culture appears to have inherited the Puerto Hormiga culture's use of the art of pottery and to have developed a mixed economy of agriculture and basic manufacture. The Monsú people's diet was based on shellfish and fresh and salt-water fish; the development of the Sinú society in what is today the departments of Córdoba and Sucre, eclipsed these first developments around the Cartagena Bay area. Until the Spanish colonization, many cultures derived from the Karib and Arawak language families lived along the Colombian Caribbean coast. In the late pre-Columbian era, the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta was home to the Tayrona people, whose language was related to the Chibcha language family. Around 1500 the area was inhabited by different tribes of the Carib language family, more the Mocanae sub-family. Mocana villages of the Carib people around the Bay of Cartagena included: on sandy island facing the ocean in what is present-day downtown: Kalamarí on the island of Tierrabomba: Carex on Isla Barú a peninsula: Bahaire on present-day Mamonal, the eastern coast of the exterior bay: Cospique in the suburban area of Turbaco: Yurbaco TribeHeredia found these settlements, "...largely surrounded with the heads of dead men placed on stakes."Some subsidiary tribes of the Kalamari lived in today's neighborhood of Pie de la Popa, other subsidiaries from the Cospique lived in the Membrillal and Pasacaballos areas.
Among these, according to the earliest documents available, the Kalamari had preeminence. These tribes, though physically and administratively separated, shared a common architecture, such as hut structures consisting of circular rooms with tall roofs, which were surrounded by defensive wooden palisades. Rodrigo de Bastidas traveled to the Pearl Coast and the Gulf of Uraba in 1500–01. On 14 February 1504, Ferdinand V contracted Juan de la Cosa's voyage to Uraba. However, Juan de la Cosa died in 1510 along with 300 of Alonso de Ojeda's men, after an armed confrontation with indigenous people, before Juan de la Cosa could get possession of the Gulf of Urabá area. Similar contracts were signed in 1508 with Diego de Nicuesa for the settlement of Veragua and with Alonso de Ojeda for the settlement of Uraba, "where gold had been obtained on earlier voyages," according to Floyd. After the failed effort to find Antigua del Darién in 1506 by Alonso de Ojeda and the subsequent unsuccessful founding of San Sebastián de Urabá in 1517 by Diego de Nicuesa, the southern Caribbean coast became unattractive to colonizers.
They preferred Cuba. Although the royal control point for trade, the Casa de Contratación gave permission to Rodrigo de Bastidas to again conduct an expedition as adelantado to this area, Bastidas explored the coast and sighted the Magdalena River Delta in his first journey from Guajira to the south in 1527, a trip that ended in the Gulf of Urabá, the location of the failed first settlements. De Nicuesa and De Ojeda noted the existence of a big bay on the way from Santo Domingo to Urabá and the Panama isthmus, that encouraged Bastidas to investigate. Under contract to Queen Joanna of Castile, Pedro de Heredia entered the Bay of Cartagena with three ships, a lighter, 150 men, 22 horses, on 14 January 1533, he soon found. Proceedin
Somerset College is an independent, non-denominational Christian day school located in Mudgeeraba, Australia. Established in 1983, the college has a non-selective enrolment policy and caters for 1480 students from Pre-Prep to Year 12. Constructed in rural farmland in the Gold Coast hinterland, the countryside surrounding the campus has undergone significant urban development since the school's foundation; the college is noted for its academic, rating in state and national rankings. Since 1997, Somerset is one of only two Queensland schools where the most common OP score among students has been 1. In 2014, 56.2% of its Year 12 students achieved an OP 1–5, the second highest percentage of any graduating class in Queensland. The college has offered the IB Diploma for students since 1999; the Celebration of Literature, Australia's largest writers festival for children and young adults, is hosted by the college every March. Somerset is affiliated with the Independent Primary School Heads of Australia, the Association of Heads of Independent Schools of Australia, Independent Schools Queensland and is a founding member of the Associated Private Schools of Queensland.
Somerset College was opened on 16 October 1983 by Queensland Premier Joh Bjelke-Petersen. Its name is based on the fact the school is located on Somerset Drive, on a location used for dairy farming; the school's founding principal was Clifford Rodney Wells. In 1980, Wells moved to the Gold Coast from Sydney with his wife, singer Roslyn Wells, obtained farmland belonging to property developer John Jenkins for a $1 deposit. For 12 months, Wells conducted feasibility studies, had meetings with the Queensland Education Department and held public meetings to establish financial and community support. In 1981, a small group was formed as the first steering committee; the first buildings opened on 27 January 1983 with 158 students in classes from Year 1 to Year 8. Staff and students helped with the landscaping and laying of turf; the Latin phrase "Deo Confidimus" was chosen as the school motto. By term four of 1983 enrolments had grown to 248, of which 189 were in the Junior School; this rapid growth proved the need for independent schools on the Gold Coast and secured the College's future.
Building projects continued well into the late 1980s. In 1986 Barry Arnison OAM, a foundation staff member and deputy headmaster, was appointed headmaster, he oversaw the first graduating class of Year 12 students in 1987 as well as most of the buildings and facilities that stand today including the Arnison Building named in his honour. Upon Arnison's retirement, Craig Bassingthwaighte was appointed headmaster in 2009. In 2015, the first Pre-Prep students were admitted into the College. New building developments include the Early Learning Precinct, the Knowledge and Information Precinct, the Student Services Hub for the Senior School and the new athletic facilities, including a gym, indoor hardwood floor courts, outdoor volleyball courts, a ten-lane 400m athletics track as well as new grandstands and clubhouses for the existing pool and tennis complexes; the school is divided into the Senior School. Both have their separate administration centres with their respective heads being the Head of Junior School and Head of Senior School.
The Founders of Somerset College formed the initial School Council, renamed the College Board in 2011. Somerset College is a separately incorporated not for profit company limited by guarantee; the College Board has responsibility for the governance of Somerset College in finances and grounds, policy. Its most important task is to appoint the Headmaster to manage the operations of the College; the Board discharges its responsibilities through its regular meetings, including its Committees, by supporting and monitoring the performance of the Headmaster. The chairs of the board are parents, former parents or alumni; the current Chair of the College Board is Tony Hickey. The College Leadership Team is made up of key staff members including the Headmaster, Deputy Headmaster, chief operating officer, Head of Senior School, Head of Junior School, Dean of Information Technology, Dean of Middle Years, Dean of Teaching and Learning, Dean of Activities and the Dean of Admissions, they are responsible for the key decisions surrounding the day-to-day running of the College.
Somerset College offers all three International Baccalaureate programs. The Primary Years Programme forms the basis of the curriculum from Pre-Prep to Year, 5 providing the essential building blocks of literacy and numeracy with the culminating experience of the PYP Exhibition; the Middle Years Programme from Years 6–10 focuses on developing students who are self-directed, self-regulated and autonomous learners. Service requirements provide opportunities for students to be active members of the greater community and is an essential part of the life at Somerset. In Years 11 and 12 students choose either the IB Diploma Programme or Queensland Certificate of Education both of which allow for tertiary entrance. In June 2006, the college hosted the Asia-Pacific International Baccalaureate conference. All students and most teaching staff at the college are divided up into 5 different houses, each named after prominent families in the Mudgeeraba area; the position of a Senior at Somerset requires a high degree of individual responsibility in upholding the ideals and rules of the College at all times.
At the same time, it carries the role of mentor to all members of the college. The Student Leadership Team, compr
Cameron Lionel Murphy AM is an Australian barrister, civil libertarian and Labor Party political candidate. Murphy is a member of the New South Wales Bar Association and is admitted as a lawyer in NSW, he specialises in Industrial Law, Workplace Health & Safety, Administrative Law and Intellectual Property Law. He is best known for his role as the President of the NSW Council for Civil Liberties from 1999-2013 and was endorsed as the ALP candidate in the seat of East Hills for the March 2015 NSW state election, which he narrowly lost, he is the endorsed ALP candidate for East Hills again at the 2019 NSW state election. Murphy is High Court Justice, Lionel Murphy and Ingrid Gee. Murphy has a half sister Lorel and a brother Blake. Murphy was educated at Macquarie University where he graduated with a Bachelor of Arts and a Bachelor of Laws, he has two children, a son Finbar and a daughter Ariadne. Murphy was an intern under the Australian Council of Trade Unions'Organising Works' program in its inaugural year, 1994, where he trained in recruitment and organising of workers.
He was placed as an Organiser with the Forestry Division of the Construction, Forestry and Energy Union and upon graduation he continued to work there from 1994-1997 becoming an Industrial Officer in 1996-1997. President, NSW Council for Civil Liberties, 1999-2013. Statutory Board Member, Anti-Discrimination Board of NSW, 2003-2009. Member, Consumer and Tenancy Tribunal of New South Wales, 2003-2008. Trustee, Lionel Murphy Foundation, 2004–present. Operations Manager, International Underwriting Services Pty Ltd, 2008-2011. Director of Employee Benefits, Coverforce Pty Ltd, 2011-2014. Member, Australian Labor Party National Policy Forum, 2012–Present. Board Member, Light on the Hill Society, 2015–Present. Barrister at Denman Chambers 2016–Present. Murphy practices in Employment/Industrial and Human Rights Law. In 2012, Murphy stood as a candidate in the NSW Labor Party's trial community preselection for the Lord Mayor of the City of Sydney, he was unsuccessful, with Linda Scott winning the community preselection.
In 2012, he stood as a candidate in the rank and file ballot for the ALP National Policy Forum on a human rights platform and he was elected as one of only six rank and file representatives from NSW. In 2016, he was re-elected for a second three-year term with the second-highest vote tally of the five NSW candidates elected. In 2014, Murphy was preselected as the Labor candidate for the state electorate of East Hills, defeating Nicole Campbell in a rank and file preselection by 103 votes to 61, he was narrowly defeated by the sitting Liberal Party member at the 2015 New South Wales state election In February 2017, he was preselected once again, unopposed, as the Labor candidate for East Hills at the 2019 New South Wales state election. 30 March 1973 – 8 June 2014: Mr. Cameron Murphy 9 June 2014 – present: Mr. Cameron Murphy AM In 2013, Murphy was a finalist for the Australian Human Rights Commission Human Rights Awards 2013 in the "Community Award - Tony Fitzgerald Memorial Award" category.
In 2013, Murphy was made an Honorary Life Member of the NSW Council for Civil Liberties. In 2014, he was made a Member of the Order of Australia for his significant service to the community through a range of human rights and civil liberty organisations. Cameron Murphy's Personal Website NSW Council For Civil Liberties Website The Lionel Murphy Foundation Padstow resident Cameron Murphy AM confirmed for East Hills candidate for NSW ALP Canterbury-Bankstown residents meet NSW Labor leader John Robertson to discuss government budget Six Canterbury-Bankstown residents make Queen’s Birthday honours list