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Cartesian coordinate system

A Cartesian coordinate system is a coordinate system that specifies each point uniquely in a plane by a set of numerical coordinates, which are the signed distances to the point from two fixed perpendicular oriented lines, measured in the same unit of length. Each reference line is called a coordinate axis or just axis of the system, the point where they meet is its origin, at ordered pair; the coordinates can be defined as the positions of the perpendicular projections of the point onto the two axes, expressed as signed distances from the origin. One can use the same principle to specify the position of any point in three-dimensional space by three Cartesian coordinates, its signed distances to three mutually perpendicular planes. In general, n Cartesian coordinates specify the point in an n-dimensional Euclidean space for any dimension n; these coordinates are equal, up to sign, to distances from the point to n mutually perpendicular hyperplanes. The invention of Cartesian coordinates in the 17th century by René Descartes revolutionized mathematics by providing the first systematic link between Euclidean geometry and algebra.

Using the Cartesian coordinate system, geometric shapes can be described by Cartesian equations: algebraic equations involving the coordinates of the points lying on the shape. For example, a circle of radius 2, centered at the origin of the plane, may be described as the set of all points whose coordinates x and y satisfy the equation x2 + y2 = 4. Cartesian coordinates are the foundation of analytic geometry, provide enlightening geometric interpretations for many other branches of mathematics, such as linear algebra, complex analysis, differential geometry, multivariate calculus, group theory and more. A familiar example is the concept of the graph of a function. Cartesian coordinates are essential tools for most applied disciplines that deal with geometry, including astronomy, physics and many more, they are the most common coordinate system used in computer graphics, computer-aided geometric design and other geometry-related data processing. The adjective Cartesian refers to the French mathematician and philosopher René Descartes, who published this idea in 1637.

It was independently discovered by Pierre de Fermat, who worked in three dimensions, although Fermat did not publish the discovery. The French cleric Nicole Oresme used constructions similar to Cartesian coordinates well before the time of Descartes and Fermat. Both Descartes and Fermat used a single axis in their treatments and have a variable length measured in reference to this axis; the concept of using a pair of axes was introduced after Descartes' La Géométrie was translated into Latin in 1649 by Frans van Schooten and his students. These commentators introduced several concepts while trying to clarify the ideas contained in Descartes' work; the development of the Cartesian coordinate system would play a fundamental role in the development of the calculus by Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. The two-coordinate description of the plane was generalized into the concept of vector spaces. Many other coordinate systems have been developed since Descartes, such as the polar coordinates for the plane, the spherical and cylindrical coordinates for three-dimensional space.

Choosing a Cartesian coordinate system for a one-dimensional space—that is, for a straight line—involves choosing a point O of the line, a unit of length, an orientation for the line. An orientation chooses which of the two half-lines determined by O is the positive, and, negative; each point P of the line can be specified by its distance from O, taken with a + or − sign depending on which half-line contains P. A line with a chosen Cartesian system is called a number line; every real number has a unique location on the line. Conversely, every point on the line can be interpreted as a number in an ordered continuum such as the real numbers. A Cartesian coordinate system in two dimensions is defined by an ordered pair of perpendicular lines, a single unit of length for both axes, an orientation for each axis; the point where the axes meet is taken as the origin for both, thus turning each axis into a number line. For any point P, a line is drawn through P perpendicular to each axis, the position where it meets the axis is interpreted as a number.

The two numbers, in that chosen order, are the Cartesian coordinates of P. The reverse construction allows one to determine the point P given its coordinates; the first and second coordinates are called the ordinate of P, respectively. The coordinates are written as two numbers in parentheses, in that order, separated by a comma, as in, thus the origin has coordinates, the points on the positive half-axes, one unit away from the origin, have coordinates and. In mathematics and engineering, the first axis is defined or depicted as horizontal and oriented to the right, the second axis is vertical and oriented upwards; the origin is labeled O, the two coordinates are denoted by the letters X and Y, or x and y. The axes may be referred to as the X-axis and Y-axis; the choices of letters come from the original convention, to use the latter

Lakshmi Chandrashekar

Lakshmi Chandrashekar is an Indian film actress in the Kannada film industry, a theatre artist in Karnataka, India. Some of the notable films of Lakshmi Chandrashekar as an actress include Atithi, Avasthe, S. P. Sangliyana Part 2. Lakshmi Chandrashekar has been part of more than 10 films and 35 drama plays in Kannada and English, with drama'Singarevva mattu Aramane' playing in national and international drama festivals and in universities and conferences on women's issues, she was part of Kannada television series'Mayamruga','Manthana' etc. List of people from Karnataka Cinema of Karnataka List of Indian film actresses Cinema of India Lakshmi Chandrashekar on IMDb

Chin Woo Athletic Association

Chin Woo Athletic Association is an international martial arts organisation founded in Shanghai, China, on July 7, 1910, but some sources cite dates in 1909. Its name is spelled in many other ways throughout the world - Ching Mo, Chin Woo, Ching Mou, Ching Wu, Jing Mo, Jing Wo, Jing Wu - but all of them are based on the same two Chinese characters - jing wu, it has at least 59 branches based in 22 or more countries worldwide, where it is known as an "athletic association" or "federation". Jing Wu was founded as the Jing Wu Athletic Association in Shanghai, China in the early 20th century. Many sources, including the official websites of its branches in various countries, claim that Jing Wu was founded by the martial artist Huo Yuanjia, who died not long after its establishment. Jing Wu was founded by a committee of persons, including members of the Tongmenghui, such as Chen Qimei, Nong Zhu, Chen Tiesheng. Due to Huo's popularity and recent death, the committee had decided that he should be the "face" of Jing Wu, resulting in his strong association with it.

After Jing Wu was founded, a number of prominent martial artists in China at that time were invited to teach there. They include: Chen Zizheng, Eagle Claw master; as one of the first public martial arts institutes in China, Jing Wu was intended to create a structured environment for teaching and learning martial arts as opposed to the secretive training, common in the past. The founders of Jing Wu felt that the association would keep alive traditions that secrecy and social change would otherwise doom; the basic curriculum drew from several styles of martial arts, giving practitioners a well-rounded martial background in addition to whatever they wished to specialise in. Jing Wu inspired the ecumenism seen in the Chinese martial arts community during the Republican era, giving rise to such efforts as the National Martial Arts Institutes. Sun Yat-sen, founder of the Republic of China, attended the third annual event held by Jing Wu in 1915, giving a speech of encouragement to the attendees; when Sun Yat-sen attended again at the 10th annual event in 1920, he wrote for a special Jing Wu newsletter and made a plaque with the engraving "martial spirit".

During the period of the Japanese sphere of influence, the Twenty-One Demands sent to the government of the Republic of China resulted in two treaties with Japan on 25 May 1915. This prevented the ruling class from exercising full control over the commoners. With their new freedom, Huo's students purchased a new building to serve as the organisation's headquarters and named it "Jing Wu Athletic Association"; the association accepted new styles of martial arts other than those taught by Huo. In 1918, Jing Wu Athletic Association opened a branch at Nathan Road in Hong Kong. In July 1919, Jing Wu Athletic Association sent five representatives to Southeast Asia to expand their activities overseas; the five were Li Huisheng, Luo Xiaoao, Chen Shizhao and Ye Shutian. They made their first stop in Saigon, where they opened the first Chin Woo school outside of China, they opened schools in Malaysia and Singapore as well. By 1923, these five masters had opened schools all over Southeast Asia and visited nine different countries.

In 1966, Shanghai's Jing Wu school was forced to discontinue its activities by the Chinese Communist Party due to the Cultural Revolution, whose goals were to destroy old ideas and customs for the purpose of modernizing China. Those restrictions were lifted in 1976, after which Shanghai's Chin Woo school resumed its activities. Chin Woo is one of the largest wushu organisations in the world with branches in various countries, including Japan, Hong Kong, Vietnam, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Canada, the United Kingdom, the United States and Switzerland; the United States headquarters of Chin Woo is located at 719 Gate City Blvd, Greensboro North Carolina 27403. During the early days of Jing Wu in Shanghai, the chief instructor, Zhao Lianhe, developed a curriculum that became the standard Jing Wu sets. Shi Er Lu Tan Tui Gong Li Quan Jie Quan Da Zhan Quan Qun Yang Gun Ba Gua Dao Wu Hu Qiang Jie Tan Tui Tao Quan Dan Dao Chuan Qiang Other styles were taught to students as well, but they varied from school to school and depended on the background of the master teaching that style.

The standard curriculum, was taught in all Jing Wu schools. Fearless the movie. Morris, Adam. Marrow of the Nation: A History of Sport and Physical Culture in Republican China; the University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-24084-7. Kennedy, Brian. Chinese Martial Arts Training Manuals: A Historical Survey. Berkeley, California: North AtlanticBooks. ISBN 1-55643-557-6. Yandle, Robert'Jingwu Athletic Association - 100 Years'. Beckett Media. Dallas, Texas Main branches: Shanghai Chin Woo Athletic Federation World Jing Wu Federation Locations of Jing Wu Sports Federations all over the world with contact details Malaysia Jing Wu Athletic Association Selangor and Kuala Lumpur Western Australia Chin Woo Athletic Association Chin Woo