A cartoonist is a visual artist who specializes in drawing cartoons or comics. Cartoonists include the artists who handle all aspects of the work and those who contribute only part of the production. Cartoonists may work in many formats, such as booklets, comic strips, comic books, editorial cartoons, graphic novels, gag cartoons, storyboards, shirts, advertisements, greeting cards, magazines and video game packaging; the English satirist and editorial cartoonist William Hogarth, who emerged In the 18th century, has been credited with pioneering Western sequential art. His work ranged from realistic portraiture to comic strip-like series of pictures called "modern moral subjects". Much of his work poked fun at contemporary customs. Following the work of Hogarth, political cartoons began to develop in England in the latter part of the 18th century under the direction of its great exponents, James Gillray and Thomas Rowlandson, both from London. Gillray explored the use of the medium for lampooning and caricature, calling the king, prime ministers and generals to account, has been referred to as the father of the political cartoon.
While never a professional cartoonist, Benjamin Franklin is credited with having the first cartoon published in an American newspaper. In the 19th century, professional cartoonists such as Thomas Nast introduced other familiar American political symbols, such as the Republican elephant. During the 20th century, numerous magazines carried single-panel gag cartoons by such freelance cartoonists as Charles Addams, Irwin Caplan, Chon Day, Clyde Lamb, John Norment; these were always published in black and white, although Collier's carried cartoons in color. The debut of Playboy introduced full-page color cartoons by Jack Cole, Eldon Dedini, Roy Raymonde and others. Single-panel cartoonists syndicated to newspapers included Dave Breger, Hank Ketcham, George Lichty, Fred Neher, Irving Phillips, J. R. Williams. Comic strips received widespread distribution to mainstream newspapers by syndicates such as the Universal Press Syndicate, United Media, or King Features. Sunday strips go to a coloring company such as American Color.
Some comic strip creators publish on the Internet. Both vintage and current strips receive. Calum MacKenzie, in his preface to the exhibition catalog, The Scottish Cartoonists defined the selection criteria: The difference between a cartoonist and an illustrator was the same as the difference between a comedian and a comedy actor—the former both deliver their own lines and take full responsibility for them, the latter could always hide behind the fact that it was not his entire creation. Within the comic strip format, it is typical for one creator to produce the whole strip. However, it is not uncommon for the writing of the strip and the drawing of the art to be carried out by two different people, a writer and an artist. In some cases, one artist might draw key figures. Many strips were the work of two people. Shortly after Frank Willard began Moon Mullins in 1923, he hired Ferd Johnson as his assistant. For decades, Johnson received no credit. Willard and Johnson traveled about Florida, Los Angeles, Mexico, drawing the strip while living in hotels and farmhouses.
At its peak of popularity during the 1940s and 1950s, the strip ran in 350 newspapers. According to Johnson, he had been doing the strip solo for at least a decade before Willard's death in 1958: "They put my name on it then. I had been doing it about 10 years before that because Willard had heart attacks and strokes and all that stuff; the minute my name went on that his name went off, 25 papers dropped the strip. That shows you that, although I had been doing it ten years, the name means a lot." There are many books of cartoons in both paperback and hardcover, such as the collections of cartoons from The New Yorker. Prior to the 1960s, cartoons were ignored by museums and art galleries. In 1968, the cartoonist and comedian Roger Price opened the first New York City gallery devoted to cartoons work by the leading magazine gag cartoonists. Today, there are several museums devoted to cartoons, notably the Billy Ireland Cartoon Library & Museum, run by curator Jenny E. Robb at Ohio State University.
With regards to the comic book format, the work can be split in many different ways. The writing and the creation of the art can be split between two people, an example being From Hell, written by Alan Moore and drawn by Eddie Campbell; the writing of a comic book story can sometimes be shared between two people, with one person writing the plot and another the script. The artistic work is subdivided on work produced for the larger comic book publishers, with four people working on the art: a penciller, an inker, a colorist, a letterer. Sometimes this combination of four artists is augmented by a breakdown artist. However, this occurs only when an artist fails to meet a deadline or when a writer, sometimes referred to as a scripter, produces breakdown art. Breakdown art is where the story has been laid out roughly in pencils to indicate panel layouts and character positions within panels but with no details; such roughs are sometimes referred to as "layouts." The norm of four artists is sometimes reduced to three if the pe
Saxonburg is a borough in Butler County, Pennsylvania in the United States. It is part of the Pittsburgh metropolitan area in the western part of the state, it was founded in 1832 by F. Carl Roebling and his younger brother John A. Roebling as a German farming colony; the population of Saxonburg was 1,525 as of the 2010 census. The city was first named "Germania" and "Sachsenburg" before its name was anglicized to the present one. After Roebling returned to his engineering career, he developed his innovation of wire rope in a workshop here, he became known for his design of suspension bridges, including the most famous one, the Brooklyn Bridge in New York. Founded in 1832 by Friedrich Carl Roebling and his younger brother John A. Roebling, the frontier farming community was called "Germania"; this was changed to "Sachsenburg" and anglicized to Saxonburg. Roebling had emigrated with his brother Carl and a group of pioneers from Prussia in 1831 to flee political unrest and oppression; the two men, along with a handful of a larger group who accompanied them on the trans-Atlantic journey, bought 1,582 acres of land on October 28, 1831, from Mrs. Sarah Collins.
After a few years, Roebling left farming to return to his career as an engineer. He developed a way to produce wire rope or cable, used it in several of his projects, beginning with an aqueduct, he produced the wire rope at a workshop on his property in Saxonburg. He designed several suspension bridges, including one in Philadelphia, his most famous is his Brooklyn Bridge in New York. The Roebling Museum in the borough maintains several artifacts of his notable career. In November 1920, KDKA radio, regarded as the world's first commercial radio station, began broadcasting from East Pittsburgh, it located its transmitter in neighboring Clinton Township of Butler County. In 1946, Fred Seitz, head of the physics department at Carnegie Tech, recruited Ed Creutz, Jack Fox, Roger Sutton and Bert Corben to the university to develop an important nuclear physics research program. By June 6, 1946, they had built a leading-edge, 450 MeV proton synchrocyclotron at the Nuclear Research Center near Saxonburg, just south of the city limits.
The research program flourished up to the mid-1970s. By the accelerator had become obsolete and was dismantled; the site was converted to industrial purposes, is now occupied by II-VI Corporation. As of 1997, only one or two of the original Nuclear Research Center buildings remained intact, including the original laboratory building. On the afternoon of December 4, 1980, career criminal Donald Eugene Webb was the chief suspect in the murder of the borough police chief Gregory Adams in Saxonburg; this was the second homicide in the borough's nearly 150-year history and received national attention as Webb was never apprehended. Webb was never captured. After the FBI found new evidence in her house in 2016, in July 2017, his wife Lillian Webb confessed to hiding her husband for 17 years, led the FBI and police to his remains buried in the yard of her Massachusetts house, he died in 1999 after a series of strokes, at the approximate age of 68. The first murder occurred in 1942. Christina Foertsch, sister of Albert and Wilbert Foertsch, killed Adele, Wilbert’s two-year-old daughter before killing herself.
In November 2009, Jody Pflueger was elected as mayor as a write-in candidate, defeating the 12-year incumbent. She is both the city's first first female mayor. While in office, Mayor Pflueger had the position of Police Chief reinstated in the small city. Pflueger was succeeded by Pamela Bauman in 2013. William Gillespie was elected in a special election to complete Bauman's term until 2017. Saxonburg is located in southeastern Butler County at 40°45′15″N 79°48′56″W. Butler, the county seat, is 9 miles to the northwest, Freeport, on the Allegheny River, is 10 miles to the southeast. According to the United States Census Bureau, Saxonburg has a total area of 0.89 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,629 people, 655 households, 391 families residing in the borough; the population density was 1,852.8 people per square mile. There were 713 housing units at an average density of 811.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 99.32% White, 0.25% African American, 0.31% from other races, 0.12% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.53% of the population. There were 655 households, out of which 22.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.8% were married couples living together, 10.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 40.2% were non-families. 35.3% of all households were made up of individuals, 17.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.13 and the average family size was 2.75. In the borough the population was spread out, with 16.8% under the age of 18, 5.9% from 18 to 24, 21.9% from 25 to 44, 21.0% from 45 to 64, 34.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 50 years. For every 100 females, there were 72.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 69.0 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $32,159, the median income for a family was $41,875. Males had a median income of $37,500 versus $24,135 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $21,931. About 7.8% of families and 9.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.6% of those under age 18 and 8.1% of those age 65 or over.
Giammarco Frezza is an Italian footballer. Although never played for Internazionale, Frezza was called up to take the squad photo with Nerazzurri in August 1996, he was loaned to various clubs before transferred to A. S. Roma in exchange with Alessandro Frau in July 2001. Which sent him to sister club Palermo which owned by Franco Sensi. In summer 2002, he was exchanged with Luigi Panarelli of Torino, he made his Serie A debut on 29 September 2002 against Modena F. C.. In June 2009 he was signed by Potenza. In September 2009, he left for Barletta as free agent. Http://www.tuttocalciatori.net/Frezza_Giammarco http://aic.football.it/scheda/2279/frezza-giammarco.htm