In Egyptian hieroglyphs, a cartouche is an oval with a line at one end at right angles to the oval, indicating that the text enclosed is a royal name. The first examples of the cartouche are associated with pharaohs at the end of the 3rd Dynasty, but the feature did not come into common use until the beginning of the Fourth Dynasty under Pharaoh Sneferu. While the cartouche is vertical with a horizontal line, if it makes the name fit better it can be horizontal, with a vertical line at the end; the Ancient Egyptian word for a cartouche was shenu, the cartouche was an expanded shen ring. Demotic script reduced the cartouche to a pair of a vertical line. Of the five royal titularies it was the prenomen, the "Son of Ra" titulary, which were enclosed by a cartouche. At times amulets took the form of a cartouche placed in tombs. Archaeologists find such items important for dating a tomb and its contents. Cartouches were only worn by Pharaohs; the oval surrounding their name was meant to protect them after death.

The cartouche has become a symbol representing good protection from evil. The term cartouche was first applied by French soldiers who fancied that the symbol they saw so repeated on the pharaonic ruins they encountered resembled a muzzle-loading firearm's paper powder cartridge; as a hieroglyph, a cartouche can represent the Egyptian-language word for "name". It is Gardiner sign listed no. V10. Serekh, a predecessor to the cartouche Shen ring Betrò, 1995. Hieroglyphics: The Writings of Ancient Egypt, Betrò, Maria Carmela, c. 1995, 1996-, Abbeville Press Publishers, New York, Paris "Ancient Egyptian Cartouche Lesson". Archived from the original on 2013-11-14. Retrieved 2013-08-22. "Cartouches". Egypt State Information Service. Archived from the original on June 15, 2011. Retrieved 13 July 2010

Alfred Hutton

Alfred Hutton FSA was a Victorian officer of the King's Dragoon Guards, writer and swordsman. He originated the first English revival of historical fencing, together with his colleagues Egerton Castle, Captain Carl Thimm, Colonel Cyril Matthey, Captain Percy Rolt, Captain Ernest George Stenson Cooke, Captain Frank Herbert Whittow, Sir Frederick and Walter Herries Pollock. Alfred Hutton was born on 10 March 1839 at Beverley, Yorkshire the eleventh and youngest child and seventh son of Henry William Hutton and his wife Marianne, only child of John Fleming of Beverley. Henry W Hutton was a captain in the 4th Royal Irish Dragoon Guards, retired 1811. Alfred attended Blackheath Proprietary School, matriculated at University College, Oxford, on 25 November 1857, he was intended for the Church, but the outbreak of the Indian Mutiny in 1857 turned his thoughts toward a military career, he left the university without graduating and joined the Army. His military career began on 31 May 1859. On arrival at the depot of his regiment at Perth he soon proved himself an expert fencer.

The youngest officer was the most skilful swordsman in the Army, though his comrades did not realise the fact. He brought with him a bundle of swords of different kinds, one of the sergeants, anxious to teach the newcomer a lesson, challenged him to a bout; the sergeant, who had a reputation as a man-at-arms, chose the bayonet against the young ensign's sword, but was worsted, the result was the same when the weapons were changed. After this feat the young officer was invited to form a fencing class for the officers and non-commissioned officers, the swordsmanship of the regiment was improved. Upon joining the headquarters of his regiment in India, at the request of his commanding officer, Colonel Hodgson, he organized in the regiment the Cameron Fencing Club, for which he prepared his first work, a 12-page booklet entitled Swordsmanship, printed at Simla Advertiser Press. On 14 January 1862 Hutton was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant. In 1864 after 4 years in the infantry he exchanged into the cavalry: the 7th Hussars.

After being invalided home in 1865 he joined the 1st King's Dragoon Guards in 1866, continued to popularize fencing in his regiments. He was gazetted captain on 30 September 1868, retired from the service in 1873. Throughout his career he was a strong advocate of better swordsmanship in the Army, he was one of the first, too. Hutton started to learn fencing at the age of twelve at the fencing school in St James' Street from Henry Charles Angelo the Younger, appointed Superintendent of Sword Exercise in the Army, author of Infantry Sword Exercise, which remained the standard Army reference book for sword instruction on foot for 50 years; this school was established by Domenico Angelo Malevolti Tremamondo, renowned Italian fencing master from Leghorn, author of the classic treatise on small sword L’École des armes. Alfred's father was a pupil of Henry Angelo the elder, son of the founder of this fencing dynasty, Domenico Angelo. After returning from India in 1865, Hutton had become the pupil and friend of William McTurk, Henry Charles Angelo's successor at the school of arms in St James' Street.

On leaving the army he focused on practicing modern fencing with foil and bayonet, but on the study and revival of older fencing systems and schools. In 1889 Hutton published his most influential work, Cold Steel: A Practical Treatise on the Sabre, which presented an original method of military sabre use on foot, combining the 18th century English backsword with modern Italian duelling sabre; the treatise offered self-defense techniques based on constable's truncheon and short sword-bayonet, as well as exercise material from 16th century texts, including Marozzo. He advocated the use by cavalry of a straight pointed sword for thrusting rather than an edged sword for cutting. In 1890 he published Fixed Bayonets, in which he insisted that a competently wielded bayonet should beat a good swordsman, but his views of bayonet fighting were regarded in the army as too theoretical for modern practical instruction, he retorted by deploring military reliance on Italian theories of swordsmanship to the exclusion of effective French practice.

Hutton's pioneering advocacy and practice of historical fencing included reconstructions of the fencing systems of several historical masters including George Silver and Achille Marozzo. He delivered numerous lectures on, practical demonstrations of these systems during the 1890s, both in order to benefit various military charities and to encourage patronage of the contemporary methods of competitive fencing, which had hitherto fallen out of popular fashion in England, he used these lectures and demonstrations to advocate his own theories about military sabre fencing. Hutton introduced realistic accurate swordplay into the contemporary theatrical repertoire. In Old Sword Play he wrote: There are those who affect to ridicule the study of obsolete weapons, alleging that it is of no practical use; the Combinations will be found useful as forms of "set play" for combats on the dramatic stage. Circa 1899–1902, Hutton taught stage fencing classes for actors via the Bartit

Wilhelm von Diez

Albrecht Christoph Wilhelm von Diez was a German painter and illustrator of the Munich School. He attended a trade school in Munich, followed by the Polytechnic School from 1853 to 1855 and, from 1855, the Academy of Fine Arts Munich, where he was a student of Karl von Piloty, he didn't stay at the Academy long, preferring to teach himself draftsmanship and painting. He first became known through the illustrations he drew for the Fliegende Blätter, a weekly satirical magazine. In 1871, he illustrated Schiller's History of the Thirty-Years War, he turned to animal and genre painting. Earlier that same year, with the support of Wilhelm von Kaulbach, Diez became a teacher at the Academy and was soon elevated to Professor. In this position, he not only had a major influence on his pupils, but upon the development of the entire Munich School, leading it to a more coloristic approach. All in the National Gallery Waldfest, Totes Reh, Sankt Georg der Drachentöter, Stefanie Kamm: Wilhelm von Diez. 1839–1907.

Ein Künstler zwischen Historismus und Jugendstil.. München 1991, ISBN 3-88073-390-2 Wilhelm von Diez in HeidICON - Illustrations from the "Fliegenden Blättern"