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Carus

Carus was Roman Emperor from 282 to 283, was 60 at ascension. During his short reign, Carus fought the Germanic tribes and Sarmatians along the Danube frontier with success, he died while campaigning against the Sassanid Empire of unnatural causes, as he was struck by lightning. He was succeeded by his sons Carinus and Numerian, creating a dynasty which, though short-lived, provided further stability to the resurgent empire. Carus, whose name before the accession may have been Marcus Numerius Carus, was born, according to differing accounts, either in Gaul, Illyricum or Africa. Modern scholarship inclines to the former view, placing his birth at Narbo in Gaul though he was educated in Rome. Little can be said with certainty of his rule. Due to the decline of literature, the arts, the want of any good historians of that age, what is known is invariably involved in contradiction and doubt, he was a senator and filled various posts, both civil and military, before being appointed prefect of the Praetorian Guard by the emperor Probus in 282.

Two traditions surround his accession to the throne in August or September of 282. According to some Latin sources, he was proclaimed emperor by the soldiers after the murder of Probus by a mutiny at Sirmium. Greek sources however claim that he rose against Probus in Raetia in a usurpation and had him killed; the unreliable Historia Augusta is aware of both traditions, although it prefers the former. He does not seem to have returned to Rome after his accession, contenting himself with an announcement to the Senate; this was a marked departure from the constitutionalism of his immediate predecessors and Probus, who at least outwardly respected the authority of the senate, was the precursor to the more despotic military autocracy of Diocletian. Bestowing the title of Caesar upon his sons Carinus and Numerian, he left Carinus in charge of the western portion of the empire to look after some disturbances in Gaul and took Numerian with him on an expedition against the Persians, contemplated by Probus.

Having inflicted a severe defeat on the Quadi and Sarmatians on the Danube, for which he was given the title Germanicus Maximus, Carus proceeded through Thrace and Asia Minor, annexed Mesopotamia, pressed on to Seleucia and Ctesiphon, marched his soldiers beyond the Tigris. The Sassanid King Bahram II, limited by internal opposition and his troops occupied with a campaign in modern-day Afghanistan, could not defend his territory; the Sasanians, faced with severe internal problems, could not mount an effective coordinated defense at the time. The victories of Carus avenged all the previous defeats suffered by the Romans against the Sassanids, he received the title of Persicus Maximus. Rome's hopes of further conquest, were cut short by his death. Like the splendid conquests of Trajan, 160 years before, Carus' gains were relinquished by his successor, his son Numerian of an unwarlike disposition, was forced by the army to retreat back over the Tigris. The report of the lightning strike was evidently accepted in the camp, the superstitious awe of the troops inclined them to ascribe Carus' death to the wrath of the Gods.

Rumors had been spread of dark oracles, affixing the limits of the Empire on the Tigris, threatening destruction against the Roman who should presume beyond the river in arms. Persia was abandoned to her rightful possessors, not till Diocletian, a decade was the Persian contest decided in Rome's favor, by that emperor's decisive victory. In the sphere of civil affairs, Carus is remembered principally for the final suppression of the authority of the senate, restored under Tacitus and Probus, he declined to accept their ratification of his election, informing them of the fact by a haughty and distant dispatch. He was the last emperor to have united a civil with a military education, in that age when the two were detached. Though Carus was known throughout his life for his austere and virtuous manners, the suspicion of his complicity in Probus' death, along with his haughty conduct towards the senate, tarnished his reputation before his death, Julian, as Gibbon observes, conspicuously places him among the tyrants of Rome, in his catalogue of The Caesars.

Crisis of the Third Century Aurelius Victor, Epitome de Caesaribus Eutropius, Breviarium ab urbe condita Historia Augusta, Life of Carus and Numerian Joannes Zonaras, Compendium of History extract: Zonaras: Alexander Severus to Diocletian: 222–284 Leadbetter, William, "Carus", DIR Jones, A. H. M. Martindale, J. R; the Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire, Vol. I: AD260-395, Cambridge University Press, 1971 Potter, David. Constantine the Emperor. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0199755868. Southern, Pat; the Roman Empire from Severus to Constantine, Routledge, 2001 Gibbon. Edward Decline & Fall of the Roman Empire This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Carus, Marcus Aurelius". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press

Lucerne S-Bahn

The Lucerne S-Bahn is an S-Bahn-style commuter rail network focusing on Lucerne, Switzerland. Opened on 12 December 2004, the network forms part of the Central Switzerland S-Bahn project, which includes the Zug Stadtbahn; as of 2019, the network consisted of the following lines: S1: SurseeLuzernRotkreuz – Zug – Baar S3: Luzern – Arth-Goldau – BrunnenS4: Luzern – Stans - Between Lucerne and Stans operates at half-hourly intervals, with more frequent services from Hergiswil during rush hour. Most trains are operated by a ZB ABe 130 unit, but one HGe 4/4 II-hauled train per hour continues as the InterRegio to Engelberg. S5: Luzern – Alpnachstad - Sachseln – GiswilThis line offers an completely half-hourly service, operated by ZB ABe 130 "Spatz" units. S6: Luzern – WolhusenWillisauHuttwilLangenthal and Luzern – Wolhusen – Langnau im EmmentalPortion workings, operated by BLS GTW 2/8 units. Additional trains have operated between Lucerne and Schachen since December 2010 as S61. S7:Wolhusen – Willisau During rush hour, the S7 runs all the way to Langenthal.

It is operated by the same rolling stock as the S6. S9: Luzern – HochdorfLenzburg This line is operated by RABe 520 units, it runs Monday to Saturday to 20:00 at half-hourly intervals, otherwise hourly. S31: Arth-Goldau – Rothenthurm – BiberbruggS44: Luzern – StansS55: Luzern – Alpnachstad - SachselnS77:Luzern – Wolhusen – WillisauIntroduced on 15 December 2019, replacing the S61. Runs only during rush hour. S99: Luzern – HochdorfRE: Sursee – OltenRE: Wolhusen – Langnau – Bern Trolleybuses in Lucerne Media related to Lucerne S-Bahn at Wikimedia Commons BLS – official site

Ian G. McKay

Ian Gerard McKay is a Canadian executive who has worked extensively in business and politics. On February 27, 2018, McKay was appointed the inaugural CEO of Invest in Canada by Prime Minister of Canada Justin Trudeau. Prior to his appointment he was recognized for assisting in the successful final negotiations for the Trans Pacific Partnership as the Prime Minister’s Special Envoy to Japan. McKay was born in Kamloops, British Columbia, was raised in Penticton, British Columbia, he is the youngest of five boys. In July 1980, he was sent by his hometown to live in the city of Ikeda, on Japan’s island of Hokkaido. At the age of 16, he developed a lifelong appreciation for its language. Upon graduating from Penticton Secondary School in 1981, he returned to Japan as a Rotary Youth Exchange student. Following his studies, McKay lived in Japan over the course of 14 years. McKay studied Political Science and Asian Studies at the University of Victoria and the University of British Columbia. Following his studies at the University of British Columbia in 1987, McKay was recruited as a derivatives broker by EuroBrokers Investment Inc. in New York.

Subsequently, he was seconded to EuroBrokers Tokyo office, becoming Managing Director in 1994. In 1998, McKay went to London and became joint Managing Director of EuroBrokers International in London. From 2006 - 2009, McKay was Director of Business Development for ICAP Capital Markets Inc, working in the energy markets in Vancouver and Calgary. Following 18 years in the financial markets, working in New York City, Tokyo and Vancouver, McKay served as a Senior Policy Advisor to three federal cabinet ministers in Ottawa. From March 2010 to May 2013 he served as the National Director for the Liberal Party of Canada. Following his time in Ottawa, McKay returned to Vancouver where he served five years as the CEO of the Vancouver Economic Commission, the City of Vancouver's economic development agency from 2013 until 2018. McKay entered federal politics as a candidate for the Liberal Party of Canada in the 2000 general election, running as a candidate in the riding of West Vancouver-Sunshine Coast.

He served as the treasurer for the British Columbia Liberal Party. In 2001, McKay moved to Ottawa and served as senior policy advisor to three federal cabinet ministers. In 2010, McKay was appointed as the National Director of the Liberal Party of Canada