In economics, cash is money in the physical form of currency, such as banknotes and coins. In bookkeeping and finance, cash is current assets comprising currency or currency equivalents that can be accessed or near-immediately. Cash is seen either as a reserve for payments, in case of a structural or incidental negative cash flow or as a way to avoid a downturn on financial markets; the English word "cash" meant "money box", came to have a secondary meaning "money". This secondary usage became the sole meaning in the 18th century; the word "cash" derives from the Middle French caisse, which derives from the Old Italian cassa, from the Latin capsa."To cash", the verbalization of the noun, means "to convert to cash", as in the expression "to cash a cheque". In Western Europe, after the fall of the Western Roman Empire, silver jewelry and hacksilver were for centuries the only form of money, until Venetian merchants started using silver bars for large transactions in the early Middle Ages. In a separate development, Venetian merchants started using paper bills, instructing their banker to make payments.
Similar marked silver bars were in use in lands where the Venetian merchants had established representative offices. The Byzantine Empire and several states in the Balkan area and Kievan Rus used marked silver bars for large payments; as the world economy developed and silver supplies increased, in particular after the colonization of South America, coins became larger and a standard coin for international payment developed from the 15th century: the Spanish and Spanish colonial coin of 8 reales. Its counterpart in gold was the Venetian ducat. Coin types would compete for markets. By conquering foreign markets, the issuing rulers would enjoy extra income from seigniorage. Successful coin types of high nobility would be copied by lower nobility for seigniorage. Imitations were of a lower weight, undermining the popularity of the original; as feudal states coalesced into kingdoms, imitation of silver types abated, but gold coins, in particular, the gold ducat and the gold florin were still issued as trade coins: coins without a fixed value, going by weight.
Colonial powers sought to take away market share from Spain by issuing trade coin equivalents of silver Spanish coins, without much success. In the early part of the 17th century, English East India Company coins were minted in England and shipped to the East. In England over time the word cash was adopted from Sanskrit कर्ष karsa, a weight of gold or silver but akin to the Old Persian karsha, unit of weight. East India Company coinage had both Urdu and English writing on it, to facilitate its use within the trade. In 1671 the directors of the East India Company ordered a mint to be established at Bombay, known as Bombain. In 1677 this was sanctioned by the Crown, the coins, having received royal sanction, were struck as silver rupees. At about this time coins were being produced for the East India Company at the Madras mint; the currency at the company’s Bombay and Bengal administrative regions was the rupee. At Madras, the company's accounts were reckoned in pagodas, fanams and cash; this system was maintained until 1818 when the rupee was adopted as the unit of currency for the company's operations, the relation between the two systems being 1 pagoda = 3-91 rupees and 1 rupee = 12 fanams.
Paper money was first used in China in the Tang Dynasty 500 years prior to it catching on in Europe. During his visit to China in the 13th century, Marco Polo was amazed to find that people traded paper money for goods rather than valuable coins made of silver or gold, he wrote extensively about how the Great Kaan used a part of the Mulberry Tree to create the paper money as well as the process with which a seal was used to impress on the paper to authenticate it. Marco Polo talks about the chance of forgery and states that someone caught forging money would be punished with death. In the 17th century European countries started to use paper money in part due to a shortage of precious metals, leading to less coins being produced and put into circulation. At first, it was most popular in the colonies of European powers. In the 18th century, important paper issues were made in colonies such as Ceylon and the bordering colonies of Essequibo and Berbice. John Law did pioneering work on banknotes with the Banque Royale.
The relation between money supply and inflation was still imperfectly understood and the bank went under rendering its notes worthless, because they had been over-issued. The lessons learned were applied to the Bank of England, which played a crucial role in financing Wellington's Peninsular war against French troops, hamstrung by a metallic Franc de Germinal; the ability to create paper money made nation-states responsible for the management of inflation, through control of the money supply. It made a direct relation between the metal of the coin and its denomination superfluous. From 1816, coins became token money, though some large silver and gold coins remained standard coins until 1927; the World War I saw standard coins disappear to a large extent. Afterward, standard gold coins British sovereigns, would still be used in colonies and less developed economies and silver Maria Theresa thalers dated 1780 would be struck as trade coins for countries in East Asia until 1946 and later locally.
Cash has now become a small part of the money supply. Its remainin
Kamado-jinja is a Shinto shrine located in Dazaifu, Fukuoka prefecture, Japan. Located at the top of Mount Hōman, venerated from ancient times as a sacred mountain, the shrine is dedicated to Tamayori-bime, Emperor Ōjin, Empress Jingū; the peripheral zone of Mount Hōman, including the shrine, is a National historic site. It was an imperial shrine of the first rank in the Modern system of ranked Shinto Shrines; the shrine was said to have been founded by Emperor Tenji when he built a castle surrounded by water and moved the authority in Dazaifu to the present-day Tofurō Ruins for defensive purposes in 664, due to his defeat in the Battle of Baekgang in August of the previous year. He dedicated the shrine to thousands of gods at Mount Hōman, it has one at the foot of the mountain and one at its peak. There used to be a third sanctuary midway up the hillside; the upper sanctuary was founded in honor of Tamayori-bime appearing while the monk Shinren was performing his ascetic training in 683. The shrine is known for being a great place for cherry blossom viewing in the spring, many people visit in the autumn to see the fall foliage.
Never Call Retreat: Lee and Grant: The Final Victory is the conclusion of an alternate history trilogy by former Speaker of the U. S. House of Representatives Newt Gingrich, William R. Forstchen, Albert S. Hanser, it was published in 2005 by Thomas Dunne Books. The other two books are Gettysburg: A Novel of the Civil War; the novel is illustrated with actual photographs of the Civil War, taken somewhat out of context. The book picks up where the second volume, Grant Comes East left off, after the Confederate victory over the Army of the Potomac. Lee's army meets Grant's army in the bloody "Battle of Frederick"; this book has Lee's army, fresh after defeating the Army of the Potomac at Gunpowder River, dealing with Grant's army of the Susquehanna as it marches through the Cumberland Valley and towards Virginia. Lee's army consists of two of Veteran Troops under James Longstreet and John Bell Hood. Longstreet's corps numbers around 15,000, with divisions under Allegheny Johnson, 4,000, Lafayette McLaws, 6,000, Robert Rodes old division, 5,000.
His largest division under George Pickett is now much reduced since Gunpowder River, it's now the garrison of Baltimore. Longstreet's corps bore the brunt of the fighting there, so it's kept in reserve at Fredrick. Hood commands the II corps, he's been promoted, his performance always remains as dependable and brilliant. Commanding the largest corps, it numbered 21,000 men, with veteran divisions under Jubal Early 7,000 men, Jerome B. Robertson, 6,000, R. H. Anderson's small command, 3,000 and Alfred Scales's survivors from Fort Stevens, 5,000. Lastly there was Beauregard's new third corps who were troops who used to garrison the Carolinas and Virginia. Divided into three divisions, the officers names are not mentioned. Most though, they would've been Robert Ransom, Samuel French and Roswell Ripley, the department commanders underneath Beauregard at the time, his corps numbered close to 20,000 men, but were green troops. Beauregard was at odds with Lee through this campaign, jealous; this would take its toll during the battle.
On the Union side, Grant commanded all Union forces, was directly in command of his troops sent from the west, The Army of The Susquehanna. This army consisted under Edward Ord; this was Grant's second largest corps, somewhere around 16,000 men full of veteran troops from Shiloh and before, these were the original core sector of Grant's army and its commander was legendary. His next Corps was only temporarily attached under Ambrose Burnside, the IX Corps taken from east Tennessee, it numbered around 16,000 men as well, including one division, made up of colored troops who had never fired a shot. His third corps was his best unit of hardened veterans, his second in command, James McPherson, was in charge of those troops. This Corps had Division commanders such as Blair or Logan. At 13,000 men though, it was the smallest corps in the army, his final Formation was the XIX corps, under Nathaniel P Banks. Made up of crack troops, this formation was the heaviest, numbering over 20,000. Grant had available to him four other commands, his cavalry, under Ben Grierson and George Custer numbered close to 6,000 sabers.
Darius Couch commanded 20,000 90-day volunteers and militia. George Sykes commanded the fragment of the once proud Army of the Potomac which numbered close to 15,000-20,000. Lastly, Winfield Scott Hancock commanded the garrison of Washington, close to 43,000 green troops and colored from Washington; the Campaign begins after Lee has smashed the Army of the Potomac at Gunpowder River and Grant has completed transporting his army from the west and refitting it in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. Grant makes the first move, begins to march his newly minted Army of the Susquehanna southward down the Cumberland Valley toward Virginia, he sends a large force of Pennsylvania militia whose enlistments are about to expire under General Darius Couch with a strong cavalry screen directly toward Baltimore as a feint. Lee, in Baltimore with the Army of Northern Virginia, intuits that Grant may be moving his main body south toward Virginia, but he cannot be certain and, cannot commit his army until his own cavalry can break through the Union cavalry screen and obtain more information about their order of battle.
However, purely as a precautionary measure, Lee does agree to send a pontoon train, captured from the Union army during the Gettysburg Campaign westward to the vicinity of Frederick, where it would be in better position to assist in any rapid Confederate movements in that direction. General George Armstrong Custer in command of a Union cavalry brigade screening Couch's force learns of Lee's movement of the pontoon train from a loyal Union railroad man, decides it is an important enough prize that he must abandon his current mission, leaving Couch without proper screening forces; as a result, Lee learns that, as suspected, Couch's force is a feint and of no military concern, that Custer is moving on Frederick. While the pontoons are not of critical importance, Lee realizes that the town of Frederick itself is critical. Not only does it have critical railroad facilities and equipment that would expedite rapid movement of Confederate forces by rail, but it sits at the base of the Catoctin Mountains and the passes through which he could launch a rapid attack on Grant's flank as his army marches down the Cumberland Valley.
He orders Stuart's three brigades of cavalry to Frederick to support the slim Confederate forces holding the town, while his infantry follows close behind by rail and on foot (except for Pickett's