The Caspian Sea is the world's largest inland body of water, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea. It is an endorheic basin located between Europe and Asia, to the east of the Caucasus Mountains and to the west of the broad steppe of Central Asia; the sea has a surface area of 371,000 km2 and a volume of 78,200 km3. It has a salinity of 1.2%, about a third of the salinity of most seawater. It is bounded by Kazakhstan to the northeast, Russia to the northwest, Azerbaijan to the west, Iran to the south, Turkmenistan to the southeast; the Caspian Sea is home to a wide range of species and may be best known for its caviar and oil industries. Pollution from the oil industry and dams on rivers draining into the Caspian Sea have had negative effects on the organisms living in the sea; the wide and endorheic Caspian Sea has a north–south orientation and its main freshwater inflow, the Volga River, enters at the shallow north end. Two deep basins occupy its southern areas.
These lead to horizontal differences in temperature and ecology. The Caspian Sea spreads out over nearly 1,200 kilometres from north to south, with an average width of 320 km, it covers a region of around 386,400 km2 and its surface is about 27 m below sea level. The sea bed in the southern part reaches as low as 1,023 m below sea level, the second lowest natural depression on Earth after Lake Baikal; the ancient inhabitants of its coast perceived the Caspian Sea as an ocean because of its saltiness and large size. The word Caspian is derived from the name of the Caspi, an ancient people who lived to the southwest of the sea in Transcaucasia. Strabo wrote that "to the country of the Albanians belongs the territory called Caspiane, named after the Caspian tribe, as was the sea. Moreover, the Caspian Gates, the name of a region in Iran's Tehran province indicates that they migrated to the south of the sea; the Iranian city of Qazvin shares the root of its name with that of the sea. In fact, the traditional Arabic name for the sea itself is Baḥr Qazwin.
In classical antiquity among Greeks and Persians it was called the Hyrcanian Ocean. In Persian middle age, as well as in modern Iran, it is known as درياى خزر, Daryā-e Khazar, named after Khazars an ancient nomadic tribe in the region, it is sometimes referred to as Mazandaran Sea in Iran. Some Turkic peoples refer to the lake as Khazar Sea. In Turkmen, the name is Hazar deňizi, in Azeri, it is Xəzər dənizi, in modern Turkish, it is Hazar denizi. In all these cases, the second word means "sea", the first word refers to the historical Khazars who had a large empire based to the north of the Caspian Sea between the 7th and 10th centuries; some other Turkic ethnic groups refer to the lake as Caspian Sea. In Kazakh, where it is called Каспий теңізі, Kaspiy teñizi, in Kyrgyz: Каспий деңизи, in Uzbek: Kaspiy dengizi. Renaissance European maps labelled it as Mar de Bachu, or Mar de Sala. Old Russian sources call it the Khvalis Sea after the name of Khwarezmia. In modern Russian, it is called Каспи́йское мо́ре, Kaspiyskoye more.
The Caspian Sea, like the Black Sea, is a remnant of the ancient Paratethys Sea. Its seafloor is, therefore, a standard oceanic basalt and not a continental granite body, it became landlocked about 5.5 million years ago due to a fall in sea level. During warm and dry climatic periods, the landlocked sea dried up, depositing evaporitic sediments like halite that were covered by wind-blown deposits and were sealed off as an evaporite sink when cool, wet climates refilled the basin. Due to the current inflow of fresh water in the north, the Caspian Sea water is fresh in its northern portions, getting more brackish toward the south, it is most saline on the Iranian shore. The mean salinity of the Caspian is one third that of Earth's oceans; the Garabogazköl embayment, which dried up when water flow from the main body of the Caspian was blocked in the 1980s but has since been restored exceeds oceanic salinity by a factor of 10. The Caspian Sea is the largest inland body of water in the world and accounts for 40 to 44% of the total lacustrine waters of the world.
The coastlines of the Caspian are shared by Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan. The Caspian is divided into three distinct physical regions: the Northern and Southern Caspian; the Northern–Middle boundary is the Mangyshlak Threshold, which runs through Chechen Island and Cape Tiub-Karagan. The Middle–Southern boundary is the Apsheron Threshold, a sill of tectonic origin between the Eurasian continent and an oceanic remnant, that runs through Zhiloi Island and Cape Kuuli; the Garabogazköl Bay is the saline eastern inlet of the Caspian, part of Turkmenistan and at times has been a lake in its own right due to the isthmus that cuts it off from the Caspian. Differences between the three regions are dramatic; the Northern Caspian only includes the Caspian shelf, is shallow. The sea noticeably drops off towards the Middle Caspian; the Southern Caspian is the deepest, with oceanic depths
The 1951–52 Lancashire Cup was the thirty-ninth occasion on which rugby league's Lancashire Cup completion was held. It was won by Wigan. Overall, the number of teams entering this year’s competition remained the same as last year’s total of 14; the same pre-war fixture format was retained. This season saw no bye but one “blank” or “dummy” fixture in the first round. There was one bye but no “blank” fixture” in the second round; as last season, all the first round matches of the competition will be played on the basis of two legged and away, ties – and the remainder of the rounds remaining on straight forward knock-out basis. Involved 7 matches and 14 clubs. Involved 7 matches and 14 clubs; these are the reverse fixture from the first leg. Involved 3 matches and 7 clubs Involved 2 matches and 4 clubs Wigan won the trophy by beating Leigh by the score of 14-6; the match was played at Pendlebury. The attendance was 33,230 and receipts were £5,432; this was the sixth in Wigan’s record breaking run of six consecutive Lancashire Cup victories.
Scoring - Try = three points - Goal = two points - Drop goal = two points All the first round ties were played on a two leg basis. The first club named in each of the first round ties played the first leg at home; the scores shown in the first round are the aggregate score over the two legs. 1 * Station Road was the home ground of Swinton from 1929 to 1932 and at its peak was one of the finest rugby league grounds in the country and it boasted a capacity of 60,000. The actual record attendance was for the Challenge Cup semi-final on 7 April 1951 when 44,621 watched Wigan beat Warrington 3-2 1951–52 Northern Rugby Football League season Rugby league county cups Saints Heritage Society 1896–97 Northern Rugby Football Union season at wigan.rlfans.com Hull&Proud Fixtures & Results 1896/1897 Widnes Vikings - One team, one passion Season In Review - 1896-97 The Northern Union at warringtonwolves.org
Elvis Álvarez was professional boxer in the flyweight division. Álvarez turned professional in 1985 and captured the vacant WBO flyweight title with a decision win over Miguel Mercedes in 1989, vacated his title in March 1990 due to lack of interest in belt. In 1991 he captured the WBA flyweight title with a decision win over Leopard Tamakuma, but lost it in his first defense to Yong-Kang Kim. In 1994, in his only American appearance, he lost a twelve-round decision to Junior Jones for the WBA bantamweight title, it was to be his last fight. Álvarez was shot to death on July 1995 in Medellín, Colombia. Professional boxing record for Elvis Álvarez from BoxRec