Cast-iron cookware

Cast-iron cookware is valued for its heat retention properties and can be produced and formed with a low level of technology. Seasoning is used to create a non-stick surface. Types of bare cast-iron cookware include panini presses, waffle irons, crepe makers, dutch ovens, frying pans, deep fryers, woks, karahi, flattop grills and griddles. In Asia China, India and Japan, there is a long history of cooking with cast iron vessels. However, the first mention of a cast-iron kettle in English appeared in 679 or 680, though this wasn't the first use of metal vessels for cooking; the term pot came into use in 1180. Both terms referred to a vessel capable of withstanding the direct heat of a fire. Cast-iron cauldrons and cooking pots were valued as kitchen items for their durability and their ability to retain heat evenly, thus improving the quality of cooked meals. In Europe and the United States, before the introduction of the kitchen stove in the middle of the 19th century, meals were cooked in the hearth or fireplace, cooking pots and pans were either designed for use in the hearth, or to be suspended in a fireplace.

Cast-iron pots were made with handles to allow them to be hung over a fire, or with legs so that they could stand in the coals. In addition to Dutch ovens with three or four feet, which Abraham Darby I secured a patent in 1708 to produce, a used cast-iron cooking pan called a spider had a handle and three legs allowing it to stand upright over campfires as well as in the coals and ashes of a fireplace. Cooking pots and pans with legless, flat bottoms came into use. Cast-iron cookware was popular among homemakers during the first half of the 20th century, it was a cheap, yet durable cookware. Most American households had at least one cast-iron cooking pan, brands such as Griswold, which began manufacturing in 1865, Wagner Ware, which began manufacturing in 1881, Lodge Manufacturing, which entered the marketplace in 1896 as Blacklock Foundry, all competed for market share; the 20th century saw the introduction and popularization of enamel-coated cast-iron cookware. Cast iron fell out of favor in the 1960s and 1970s, as teflon-coated aluminum non-stick cookware was introduced and became the item of choice in many kitchens.

The decline in daily use of cast-iron cookware contributed to the closure of nearly all the iron cookware manufacturers in the United States. Many went out of business in the 1920s. Others were absorbed by other cookware manufacturers. Today, of the large selection of cookware that can be purchased from kitchen suppliers, cast iron comprises only a small fraction. However, the durability and reliability of cast iron as a cooking tool has ensured its survival. Cast-iron pots and pans from the 19th and 20th century continue to see daily use to the present day, they are highly sought after by antique collectors and dealers. However, cast iron has seen a resurgence of its popularity in specialty markets. Through cooking shows, celebrity chefs have brought renewed attention to traditional cooking methods the use of cast iron. In the 2010s, small startup companies began producing cast-iron cookware designs for specialty cooking markets. Cast iron's ability to withstand and maintain high cooking temperatures makes it a common choice for searing or frying, its excellent heat retention makes it a good option for long-cooking strong-flavored stews or braised dishes.

Because cast-iron skillets can develop a "non-stick" surface when cared for properly, they are excellent for frying potatoes or preparing stir-fries. Some cooks consider cast iron a good choice for egg dishes, while others feel the iron adds an off-flavor to eggs. Other uses of cast-iron pans include baking, for instance for making cornbread and cakes. Most bare cast-iron pots and pans are cast as a single piece including the handle; this allows them to be used in the oven. Many recipes call for the use of a cast-iron skillet or pot so that the dish can be seared or fried on the stovetop transferred into the oven and all, to finish baking. Cast-iron skillets can double as baking dishes; this differs from many other cooking pots, which have varying components that may be damaged by the excessive temperatures of 400 °F or more. Cast iron is a poor heat conductor compared to copper and aluminum, this can result in uneven heating if a cast iron pan is heated too or on an undersized burner. Cast iron has a higher heat capacity than copper but a lower heat capacity than stainless steel or aluminum.

However, cast iron is denser than aluminum and stores more heat per unit volume. Additionally, cast iron pans are thicker than similar sized pans of other materials; the combination of these factors results in cast iron pans being capable of storing more heat longer than copper, aluminum, or stainless steel pans. If heated on an appropriate sized burner or in an oven, cast iron can be heated evenly to a high temperature and hold that temperature for a long time; this includes. Enameled cast iron is cast iron; the fusion of the glaze with the cast iron prevents rusting, eliminates the need to season the metal, allows more thorough cleaning. Enameled cast iron is excellent for slow drawing flavor from foods. Furthermore, pigments used in the enameling process can produce vibrant colors. While enamel-coated cast iron doesn't h


Dörflingen is a village and a municipality in the canton of Schaffhausen in Switzerland. It borders a short strip of the north shore of the Rhine. Dörflingen is first mentioned in 1264 as Dorfelingen. Dörflingen has an area, as of 2006, of 5.8 km2. Of this area, 64.3 % is used for agricultural purposes. Of the rest of the land, 7.5% is settled and the remainder is non-productive. Dörflingen is located in the Reiat district, about 6 km east of Schaffhausen and has two separate international borders with Germany, one of which being with the German exclave of Büsingen am Hochrhein. Dörflingen has an unemployment rate of 1.02%. As of 2005, there were 60 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 26 businesses involved in this sector. 68 people are employed in the secondary sector and there are 9 businesses in this sector. 56 people are employed with 14 businesses in this sector. As of 2008 the mid year average unemployment rate was 1.3%. There were 22 non-agrarian businesses in the municipality and 64.2% of the population was involved in the secondary sector of the economy while 35.8% were involved in the third.

At the same time, 72.4% of the working population was employed full-time, 27.6% was employed part-time. There were 123 residents of the municipality who were employed in some capacity, of which females made up 26% of the workforce; as of 2000 there were 81 residents who worked in the municipality, while 319 residents worked outside Dörflingen and 41 people commuted into the municipality for work. As of 2008, there is 1 restaurant and the hospitality industry in Dörflingen employs 7 people. Dörflingen has a population of 1,028. In 2008 a total of 11.6% of the population were foreign nationals. Of the foreign population, 53.2% are from Germany, 13.8% are from Italy, 1.1% are from Croatia, 1.1% are from Serbia, 30.9% are from another country. Over the last 10 years the population has grown at a rate of 3.9%. Most of the population speaks German, with Italian being second most common and Serbo-Croatian being third; the age distribution of the population is children and teenagers make up 22.7% of the population, while adults make up 62.9% and seniors make up 14.4%.

In the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the SVP. The next two most popular parties were the SP, the FDP; the entire Swiss population is well educated. In Dörflingen about 86.2% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education. In Dörflingen, as of 2007, 1.4% of the population attend kindergarten or another pre-school, 7.11% attend a Primary School, 4.82% attend a lower level Secondary School, 3.17% attend a higher level Secondary School. As of 2000, 18.9% of the population belonged to the Roman Catholic Church and 61.7% belonged to the Swiss Reformed Church. The historical population is given in the following table: The village of Dörflingen is designated as part of the Inventory of Swiss Heritage Sites. Dörflingen in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland

Nayakas of Keladi

Nayakas of Keladi known as Nayakas of Bednore and Kings of Ikkeri, were an Indian dynasty based from Keladi in Shimoga district, India. They were an important ruling dynasty in post-medieval Karnataka, they ruled as a vassal of the famous Vijayanagar Empire. After the fall of the empire in 1565, they gained independence and ruled significant parts of Malnad region of the Western Ghats in present-day Karnataka, most areas in the coastal regions of Karnataka, parts of northern Kerala and the central plains along the Tungabhadra river. In 1763 AD, with their defeat to Hyder Ali, they were absorbed into the Kingdom of Mysore, they played an important part in the history of Karnataka, during a time of confusion and fragmentation that prevailed in South India after the fall of the Vijayanagar Empire. The Keladi rulers were Nayakas but they were tolerant towards followers of other faiths; the Haleri Kings of Kodagu who ruled over Coorg between 1600 A. D and 1834 A. D. were an offshoot of Keladi Nayaka dynasty.

Chaudappa Nayaka Chauda Gowda, was from a village called Pallibailu near Keladi. He was the son of couple Basavamambe, who were into farming, he was the earliest chieftain to rule the area surrounding Shimoga, rose through self capability and acumen and was a feudatory of Vijayanagara Empire. Sadashiva Nayaka was an important chieftain in the Vijayanagar Empire and earned the title Kotekolahala from emperor Aliya Rama Raya for his heroics in the battle of Kalyani; the coastal provinces of Karnataka came under his direct rule. He moved the capital to Ikkeri some 20 km. from Keladi. Sankanna Nayaka, succeeded Sadashiva Nayaka. Chikka Sankanna Nayaka was an opportunistic ruler who took advantage of the confusion in the Vijayanagar Empire following its defeat at Tallikota and grabbed a few provinces in Uttara Kannada district. Rama Raja Nayaka Hiriya Venkatappa Nayaka is considered by scholars as ablest monarch of the clan, he freed himself from the overlordship of the relocated Vijayanagar rulers of Penugonda.

Italian traveller Pietro Della Valle, who visited his kingdom in 1623, called him an able soldier and administrator. In his reign the kingdom expanded so that it covered coastal regions, Malnad regions, some regions to the east of the western Ghats of present-day Karnataka, he is known to have defeated the Adilshahis of Bijapur in Hanagal. Though a Virashaiva by faith, he built many temples for Vaishnavas and Jains and a mosque for Muslims, he defeated the Portuguese in 1618 and 1619. Virabhadra Nayaka faced many troubles from the start, including competition from rival Jain chieftains of Malenad for the throne of Ikkeri and invasion by the Sultanate armies of Bijapur. Ikkeri was plundered by the Bijapur army during his time. Shivappa Nayaka is considered as the ablest and greatest of the Keladi rulers, he was the uncle of Virabhadra Nayaka. Shivappa deposed his nephew to gain the throne of Keladi, he was not only an able administrator. His successful campaigns against the Bijapur sultans, the Mysore kings, the Portuguese, other Nayakas of the neighbouring territories east of the western ghats helped expand the kingdom to its greatest extent, covering large areas of present-day Karnataka.

He gave importance to agriculture and developed new schemes for collection of taxes and revenues which earned him much praise from British officials. A statue of him and the palace built by him containing many artifacts of his times are reminders of the respect he has earned from the present generation of people of the region, he destroyed the Portuguese political power in the Kanara region by capturing all the Portuguese forts of the coastal region. Chikka Venkatappa Nayaka, ruled for a short span of time after Shivappa Nayaka. Bhadrappa Nayaka, succeeded Chikka Venkatappa Nayaka. Somashekara Nayaka I The King, once a good administrator, gave up his interest in administration after his association with a dancer named Kalavati. Bharame Mavuta, a relative of Kalavati slow poisoned the king which led to his death. Keladi Chennamma She was an able ruler who some scholars claim was allied with the Maratha Shivaji and his son Sambhaji to defeat all rival claimants to the throne, she gave shelter to Chhatrapathi Rajaram.

Chennamma of Keladi is well remembered by local people through tales of her bravery. Basavappa Nayaka He was a brave ruler and was adopted by Rani Chennammaji from their relative Markappa Shetty of BedanurSomashekara Nayaka II Kiriya Basavappa Nayaka Chenna Basappa Nayaka Queen Virammaji was defeated by Hyder Ali who merged the Keladi kingdom with the Kingdom of Mysore; the queen was captured by Hyder Ali and was kept in confinement along with her son in the fort of Madugiri. They were however rescued in 1767 when Madhavrao I of the Maratha Empire defeated Hyder Ali in the battle of Madugiri, they were sent to Pune the capital of the Maratha Empire for protection. For more than two hundred years the kingdom controlled the coastal and malnad regions of present-day Karnataka and fostered a rich tradition of trade with the English, the Portuguese, the Dutch. However, in the period of gloom brought about by the fall of the last great Hindu empire, the Vijayanagar empire, constant wars—campaigns against local chieftains and the Mysore Kingdom and the harassment of the Marathas drained the treasury and resulted in the end of the kingdom.

Keladinripavijayam by Linganna Shivagita by Tirumalabhatta Shivatattvaratnakara by King Basavappa Tattva K