Falkirk is a large town in the Central Lowlands of Scotland within the county of Stirlingshire. It lies in the Forth Valley, 23.3 miles north-west of Edinburgh and 20.5 miles north-east of Glasgow. Falkirk had a resident population of 32,422 at the 2001 UK Census; the population of the town had risen to 34,570 according to a 2008 estimate, making it the 20th most populous settlement in Scotland. Falkirk is the main town and administrative centre of the Falkirk council area, which has an overall population of 156,800 and inholds the nearby towns of Grangemouth, Bo'ness, Denny and Stenhousemuir; the town is at the junction of the Forth and Clyde and Union Canals, a location which proved key to its growth as a centre of heavy industry during the Industrial Revolution. In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, Falkirk was at the centre of the iron and steel industry, underpinned by the Carron Company in nearby Carron; the company was responsible for making carronades for the Royal Navy and manufactured pillar boxes.
Within the last fifty years, heavy industry has waned, the economy relies on retail and tourism. Despite this, Falkirk remains the home of many international companies like Alexander Dennis. Falkirk has a long association with the publishing industry; the company now known as Johnston Press was established in the town in 1846. The company, now based in Edinburgh, produces the Falkirk Herald, the largest selling weekly newspaper in Scotland. Attractions in and around Falkirk include the Falkirk Wheel, The Helix, The Kelpies, Callendar House and Park and remnants of the Antonine Wall. In a 2011 poll conducted by STV, it was voted as Scotland's most beautiful town, ahead of Perth and Stirling in second and third place respectively. An Eaglais Bhreac is a derivative formed from the Scottish Gaelic cognate of the first recorded name Ecclesbrith from the Brittonic for "speckled church" referring to a church building built of many-coloured stones; the Scottish Gaelic name was translated into Scots as Fawkirk later amended to the modern English name of Falkirk.
The Latin name Varia Capella has the same meaning. Falkirk Old Parish Church stands on the site of the medieval church, which may have been founded as early as the 7th century; the Antonine Wall, which stretches across the centre of Scotland, passed through the town and remnants of it can be seen at Callendar Park. Similar to Hadrian's Wall but built of turf rather than stone so less of it has survived, it marked the northern frontier of the Roman Empire between the Firth of Forth and Firth of Clyde during the AD 140s. Much of the best evidence of Roman occupation in Scotland has been found in Falkirk, including a large hoard of Roman coins and a cloth of tartan, thought to be the oldest recorded. A Roman fort was confirmed to be found by Geoff Bailey in the Pleasance area of Falkirk in 1991. A Roman themed park at Callendar House was awarded lottery funding to help raise awareness of the wall. In the 18th century the area was the cradle of Scotlands's Industrial Revolution, becoming the earliest major centre of the iron-casting industry.
James Watt cast some of the beams for his early steam engine designs at the Carron Iron Works in 1765. The area was at the forefront of canal construction when the Forth and Clyde Canal opened in 1790; the Union Canal provided a link to Edinburgh and early railway development followed in the 1830s and 1840s. The canals led to the town's growth. Through time, trunk roads and motorways followed the same canal corridors through the Falkirk area, linking the town with the rest of Scotland. Many companies set up work in Falkirk due to its expansion. A large brickworks was set up at this time, owned by the Howie family. During the 19th century, Falkirk became the first town in Great Britain to have a automated system of street lighting and implemented by a local firm, Thomas Laurie & Co Ltd. Two important battles have taken place at Falkirk: The Battle of Falkirk fought on 22 July 1298, saw the defeat of William Wallace by King Edward I of England; the Battle of Falkirk Muir took place on 17 January 1746, the Jacobites under Charles Edward Stuart defeated a government army commanded by Lieutenant General Henry Hawley.
In terms of local government the town sits at the heart of Falkirk Council area, one of the 32 unitary authorities of Scotland formed by the Local Government etc Act 1994. The headquarters of the council are located in the Municipal Buildings, adjacent to Falkirk Town Hall, on West Bridge Street in the centre of town; the Council has been led by an SNP minority since 2017. The current Leader of the Council is Cllr Cecil Meiklejohn. Falkirk is located within the Scottish parliamentary constituency of Falkirk West which elects one Member of the Scottish Parliament under the first past the post system; the current MSP is Michael Matheson, who won the seat at the 2007 Scottish Parliament General Election. The previous MSP, Dennis Canavan, who sat as an Independent, was elected with the largest majority in the Scottish parliament representing Falkirk's electorate's displeasure with New Labour, but stepped down in 2007 for family reasons. Canavan, who announced in an open letter to his constituents in January 2007, that he was stepping down from representative politics at the Scottish Parliament election, 2007 had been an MSP or MP for the area for over 30 years.
The constituency of Falkirk West sits in the Central Scotland Scottish Parliament electoral region which returns seven MSPs under the additional member system used to elect Members of the Scottish Parliament. In
The River Clyde is a river that flows into the Firth of Clyde in Scotland. It is the eighth-longest river in the United Kingdom, the second-longest in Scotland. Traveling through the major city of Glasgow, it was an important river for shipbuilding and trade in the British Empire. To the Romans, it was Clota, in the early medieval Cumbric language, it was known as Clud or Clut, was central to the Kingdom of Strathclyde; the Clyde is formed by the confluence of the Daer Water and the Potrail Water. The Southern Upland Way crosses both streams before they meet at Watermeetings to form the River Clyde proper. At this point, the Clyde is only 10 km from Tweed's Well, the source of the River Tweed, is near Annanhead Hill, the source of the River Annan. From there, it meanders northeastward before turning to the west, its flood plain used for many major roads in the area, until it reaches the town of Lanark. On the banks of the Clyde, the industrialists David Dale and Robert Owen built their mills and the model settlement of New Lanark.
The mills harness the power of the Falls of Clyde, the most spectacular of, Cora Linn. A hydroelectric power station still generates electricity here, although the mills are now a museum and World Heritage Site. Between the towns of Motherwell and Hamilton, the course of the river has been altered to create an artificial loch within Strathclyde Park. Part of the original course can still be seen, lies between the island and the east shore of the loch; the river flows through Blantyre and Bothwell, where the ruined Bothwell Castle stands on a defensible promontory. Past Uddingston and into the southeast of Glasgow, the river begins to widen, meandering a course through Cambuslang and Dalmarnock. Flowing past Glasgow Green, the river is artificially straightened and widened through the centre, although the new Clyde Arc now hinders access to the traditional Broomielaw dockland area, seagoing ships can still come upriver as far as Finnieston, where the PS Waverley docks. From there, it flows past the shipbuilding heartlands, through Govan, Whiteinch and Clydebank, all of which housed major shipyards, of which only two remain.
The river flows out west of Glasgow, past Renfrew, under the Erskine Bridge past Dumbarton on the north shore to the sandbank at Ardmore Point between Cardross and Helensburgh. Opposite, on the south shore, the river continues past the last Lower Clyde shipyard at Port Glasgow to Greenock, where it reaches the Tail of the Bank as the river merges into the Firth of Clyde. A significant issue of oxygen depletion in the water column has occurred at the mouth of the River Clyde; the valley of the Clyde was the focus for the G-BASE project from the British Geological Survey in the summer of 2010. The success of the Clyde at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution was driven by the location of Glasgow, being a port facing the Americas. Tobacco and cotton trade began the drive in the early 18th century. However, the shallow Clyde was not navigable for the largest ocean-going ships, so cargo had to be transferred at Greenock or Port Glasgow to smaller ships to sail upstream into Glasgow itself. In 1768, John Golborne advised the narrowing of the river and the increasing of the scour by the construction of rubble jetties and the dredging of sandbanks and shoals.
A particular problem was the division of the river into two shallow channels by the Dumbuck shoal near Dumbarton. After James Watt's report on this in 1769, a jetty was constructed at Longhaugh Point to block off the southern channel; this being insufficient, a training wall called the Lang Dyke was built in 1773 on the Dumbuck shoal to stop water flowing over into the southern channel. In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, hundreds of jetties were built out from the banks between Dumbuck and the Broomielaw quay in Glasgow itself. In some cases, this resulted in an immediate deepening as the constrained water flow washed away the river bottom. In the mid-19th century, engineers took on a much greater dredging of the Clyde, removing millions of cubic feet of silt to deepen and widen the channel; the major stumbling block in the project was a massive geological intrusion known as Elderslie Rock. As a result, the work was not completed until the 1880s. At this time, the Clyde became an important source of inspiration for artists, such as John Atkinson Grimshaw and James Kay, willing to depict the new industrial era and the modern world.
The completion of the dredging was well-timed. Shipbuilding replaced trade as the major activity on the river, shipbuilding companies were establishing themselves on the river. Soon, the Clyde gained a reputation for being the best location for shipbuilding in the British Empire, grew to become the world's pre-eminent shipbuilding centre. Clydebuilt became an industry benchmark of quality, the river's shipyards were given contracts for prestigious ocean-going liners, as well as warships, including the Queen Mary and the Queen Elizabeth 2 in years, all built in the town of Clydebank. From the founding of the Scott family's shipyard at Greenock in 1712 to the present day, over 25,000 ships have been built on the River Clyde and its Firth and on the tributary River Kelvin and River Cart together with boatyards at Maryhill and Kirkintilloch on the Forth & Clyde Canal and Blackhill on the Monkland Canal. In the same time, an estimated over 300 firms have engaged in shipbuilding on Clydeside
Bar Hill Fort
Bar Hill Fort was a Roman fort on the Antonine Wall in Scotland. It was built around the year 142 A. D.. Older maps and documents sometimes spell the name as Barr Hill. A computer generated fly around. Lidar scans have been done along the length of the wall including Bar Hill. Sir George Macdonald wrote about the excavation of the site. Many other artefacts have been found at Shirva, about a mile away on the other side of Twechar. Many Roman forts along the wall held garrisons of around 500 men. Larger forts like Castlecary and Birrens had a nominal cohort of 1000 men but sheltered women and children as well although the troops were not allowed to marry. There is too to have been large communities of civilians around the site. An altar to Silvanus was found in 1895 on Bar Hill. It's thought to have originated from a small shrine outside the fort; the altar is now kept in the Hunterian Museum, Glasgow along with others like the one found at Castlecary. A 43 foot deep well was discovered at the site. Several item were recovered from the well.
It's possible. Shoes from men and children were found leading to suggestions of family life. Other recovered items include an altar, bones and coins. Structural materials like building columns, wooden beams were found as was part of the pulley of the well. Videos of some reconstructed objects like a window, and various columns have been produced as well as one of a bust of Silenus. Bar Hill Fort was one of over a dozen forts built along the Antonine Wall from around 140 AD; these follow a short route across Scotland’s central belt, followed in the 18th century when constructing the Forth and Clyde canal. On the south-facing slope of the hill is the headquarters; the remains of a Roman bathhouse can be observed
Bishopton is a village in Renfrewshire, Scotland. It is located around 2 miles west of Erskine. There was a Roman Fort at Bishopton, discovered from aerial photographs in 1949; the fort is about 1km west of the village. It overlooked the former ford at Dumbuck, on a flat-topped hill around 60 metres above the river, allowing ready surveillance of the River Clyde; the fort at Whitemoss Farm may have been held from 140 to 155 A. D.. Pottery with Antonine era date stamps was found at the site; the pottery and many other finds were catalogued at the Hunterian Museum in Glasgow along with several coeval items like the distance slab of the Twentieth Legion from Old Kilpatrick. There was an earlier Roman fort on Barochan Hill, less than 2 miles to the south-west towards Houston. Bishopton was in the Parish of Erskine; the name of the village is reflected in a nearby house: Bishopton House. A famous family called; the house became a convent known as latterly Cora Foundation. A large explosive manufacturing factory was once sited in Bishopton.
The Royal Ordnance Factory Bishopton was opened during World War II on farm land, acquired by compulsory purchase order. It was situated on the western side of the railway line running through Bishopton. Over 2,000 acres of land from up to seven farms was used to build the factory; the land included Dargavel House. The southern end of the site included the majority of the land used by the World War I National Filling Factory, Georgetown; the ROF was privatised in 1984, being sold to British Aerospace, which has since scaled down and shut most of the site. The factory was in use from 1915 until 2002 producting amunition and propellants. After privatisation the MOD Police moved out and the former MOD Police Social Club at HolmPark, its adjoining sports field, became part of Bishopton; the former MOD Police houses at both HolmPark and Rossland Crescent were sold off to private buyers. Bishopton's Medical Centre was built opposite the shops. In 2005, BAE Systems and Redrow submitted proposals to use a large part of the site for building new housing which would, at least, double the size of Bishopton.
Local residents indicated their concern at the proposals. In December 2008 Renfrewshire Council granted outline planning consent for the development and detailed planning consent for a related motorway junction off the A8/M8. By early 2016 a significant portion of the development had been completed, with a number of the houses inhabited. Bishopton is located around 2 miles from the southern end of the Erskine Bridge, which spans the River Clyde between Renfrewshire and West Dunbartonshire. Before the bridge was built, the Erskine Ferry transported vehicles across the Clyde; the A8 road passes through Bishopton, the M8 motorway passes to the north, running parallel to the A8, with access to Bishopton from junctions 30 and 31. Bus services are provided by McGill's, with buses operating to Clydebank and Erskine. Bishopton is served by Bishopton railway station on the Inverclyde Line; the station opened in 1841. There are five services per hour: four to/from Gourock, one to/from Wemyss Bay with four per hour in the other direction to and from Glasgow Central.
Evenings and Sundays there are two trains per hour to Glasgow Central and hourly services to both Wemyss Bay and Gourock. A short branch to the former ROF factory is now disused. Bishopton is 4 miles north-west of Glasgow Airport. Bishopton is situated in the north east of Renfrewshire, it lies to the south of the River Clyde. The village borders a number of some separated by a rural hinterland, it is about 195 feet above sea level. Bishopton has no "Streets" It has Crescents, Drives, but not any "streets". Bishopton Primary school is the only school within the village although with new houses being built another has been proposed, it is a non-denominational state school. For secondary education the village falls within the catchment area of Park Mains High School in Erskine. Blantyre Monument Bishopton railway station Formakin Estate ROF Bishopton Map sources for Bishopton, RenfrewshireBishopton's Community Web Site: InBishopton.org.uk Bishopton Broncos Basketball Club: Bishoptonbroncos.com The Gazette: The-gazette.co.uk
Summerston is a residential area of Glasgow, Scotland. With most of the housing constructed in the 1970s, it is situated in the far north of the city and is sometimes considered to be part of the larger Maryhill district, but has a different postcode. With open farmland to the north-east, Summerston is separated from the southern parts of the town of Bearsden to the north-west by the River Kelvin and a golf course. Summerston has a riding school run by UK charity Riding for the Disabled; the area is home to St Blane's Primary and John Paul Academy. The 4th Glasgow Scout Beaver Colony and Cub Scout Pack are based in Caldercuilt Primary School at 101 Invershiel Road, it is home to Summerston Childcare, the most popular Family Learning and Out of School centre in Summerston having had a waiting list for their classes since their opening in 1995. Maryhill Harriers running club meet at John Paul Academy as well as various other clubs together with a range of fitness class in the evening at the school.
Summerston has several large shops, including an ASDA, a B&M Bargains and a Poundstretchers store, a flooring shop and chemist. There is an entrance to Maryhill Park from Summerston which contains tennis courts, a children’s play area and walking paths; the current Summerston railway station is about a mile and a half south of the original one, on the Kelvin Valley Railway. The original station was north and west of the River Kelvin, close to the Summerston Farm and Cottages and the site of a fortlet on the Antonine Wall; the fortlet was discovered from aerial observation in 1980. A temporary marching camp, south of the Kelvin, was found in 1978 from the air. A sandstone distance slab was found at Summerston Farm before 1694. A video of scans taken from the stone has been produced; the slab, reminiscent of The Bridgeness Slab, was made by the Second Legion and depicts a helmeted horseman and naked captives. It is now in the Hunterian Museum in Glasgow; the slab was originally painted with bright pigments.
The colours were found using laser technology. The gorey slabs showed natives with bright red blood on their faces and legs; the neighbouring forts to this forlet were at Bearsden at Balmuildy to the east. Another Summerston slab can be compared with one found near Castlehill. Both these similar slabs, like two others from Duntocher have two decorative pelta shields, one on either side of the slab; the horns of each shield are embellished with three rosettes on the Castlehill slab whereas the Summerton slab has these end in two griffins' heads. The first, badly weathered, slab has four rosettes between the inscription, it was found in 1803 on Low Millochan farm. The farm called East Millichen, is near Summerston, it records the building of 3666.5 paces of wall by the Sixth Legion. MacDonald relates that some of the abbreviations are unusual, he suggests. On the similar Castlehill slab he suggests the stone-cutter has blundered and made a letter P where he should have a letter F on the fourth line.
The Castlehill slab records 3666.5 paces although the units used are a matter of ongoing research. There is some evidence of a Roman bridge over the Kelvin between Balmuildy. Summerston was part of the parish of Strathblane. Ironstone and coal were mined in the area. Neighbourhood Profile and statistics at Understanding Glasgow Black and White Town, music video by Doves filmed at Summerston and featuring local children
Scotland is a country, part of the United Kingdom. Sharing a border with England to the southeast, Scotland is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, by the North Sea to the northeast and by the Irish Sea to the south. In addition to the mainland, situated on the northern third of the island of Great Britain, Scotland has over 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides; the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, thus forming a personal union of the three kingdoms. Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain; the union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. In 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland enacted a political union to create a United Kingdom.
The majority of Ireland subsequently seceded from the UK in 1922. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to the pre-union Kingdom of Scotland; the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland. The continued existence of legal, educational and other institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707 union with England; the Scottish Parliament, a unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, was established in 1999 and has authority over those areas of domestic policy which have been devolved by the United Kingdom Parliament. The head of the Scottish Government, the executive of the devolved legislature, is the First Minister of Scotland. Scotland is represented in the UK House of Commons by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs.
Scotland is a member of the British–Irish Council, sends five members of the Scottish Parliament to the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland is divided into councils. Glasgow City is the largest subdivision in Scotland in terms of population, with Highland being the largest in terms of area. "Scotland" comes from the Latin name for the Gaels. From the ninth century, the meaning of Scotia shifted to designate Gaelic Scotland and by the eleventh century the name was being used to refer to the core territory of the Kingdom of Alba in what is now east-central Scotland; the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass most of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages, as the Kingdom of Alba expanded and came to encompass various peoples of diverse origins. Repeated glaciations, which covered the entire land mass of modern Scotland, destroyed any traces of human habitation that may have existed before the Mesolithic period, it is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, as the ice sheet retreated after the last glaciation.
At the time, Scotland was covered in forests, had more bog-land, the main form of transport was by water. These settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, the first villages around 6,000 years ago; the well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period. Neolithic habitation and ritual sites are common and well preserved in the Northern Isles and Western Isles, where a lack of trees led to most structures being built of local stone. Evidence of sophisticated pre-Christian belief systems is demonstrated by sites such as the Callanish Stones on Lewis and the Maes Howe on Orkney, which were built in the third millennium BCE; the first written reference to Scotland was in 320 BC by Greek sailor Pytheas, who called the northern tip of Britain "Orcas", the source of the name of the Orkney islands. During the first millennium BCE, the society changed to a chiefdom model, as consolidation of settlement led to the concentration of wealth and underground stores of surplus food.
The first Roman incursion into Scotland occurred in 79 AD. After the Roman victory, Roman forts were set along the Gask Ridge close to the Highland line, but by three years after the battle, the Roman armies had withdrawn to the Southern Uplands; the Romans erected Hadrian's Wall in northern England and the Limes Britannicus became the northern border of the Roman Empire. The Roman influence on the southern part of the country was considerable, they introduced Christianity to Scotland. Beginning in the sixth century, the area, now Scotland was divided into three areas: Pictland, a patchwork of small lordships in central Scotland; these societies were based on the family unit and had sharp divisions in wealth, although the vast majority were poor and worked full-time in subsistence agriculture. The Picts kept slaves through the ninth century. Gaelic influence over Pictland and Northumbria was facilitated by the large number of Gaelic-speaking clerics working as missionaries. Operating in the sixth ce
Cadder is a district of the town of Bishopbriggs, East Dunbartonshire, Scotland. It is located 7 km north of Glasgow city centre, 0.5 km south of the River Kelvin, 1.5 km north-east of Bishopbriggs town centre, sited on the route of the Forth and Clyde Canal. There is a Glasgow council housing scheme of a similar name pronounced Cawder, in the district of Lambhill some 3 miles to the south-west along the Canal, built in the early 1950s. Within Cadder, there is Cawder Golf Club, which uses that original pronunciation. In antiquity, Cadder was the site of a Roman fort on the route of the Antonine Wall, its neighbouring forts are Balmuildy to the west and Kirkintilloch to the east although there are intermediate fortlets at Wilderness Plantation to the west and Glasgow Bridge to the east. The Second Legion may have been responsible for building the fort. John Clarke of the Glasgow Archaeological Society excavated the remains in the 1930s. Sir George Macdonald wrote about the excavation of the site.
The site was destroyed by sand quarrying in the 1940s. A sketch of the medieval motte made by Skinner still survives. One find at Cadder was an oil lamp, associated with the bath house of the fort. Before the Reformation the lands of Cadder and the kirk belonged to the Bishops of Glasgow. In the 18th century James Dunlop of Garnkirk being a wealthy landowner opposed Thomas Muir and the congregation at Cadder over who appointed their minister. Cadder Parish Church was described in the 19th century as a neat modern Gothic church. Cadder House was a property held by the Stirling family for generations. Cadder has a large cemetery, is the site of Strathkelvin Retail Park and Low Moss